Toddler

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Vincent van Gogh, First Steps, after Millet
Toddlers on a kibbutz

A toddler is a child between the ages of one and three.[1][2] The toddler years are a time of great cognitive, emotional and social development. The word is derived from "to toddle", which means to walk unsteadily, like a child of this age.

Developmental milestones

Learning to walk pushing a wheeled toy
Normal vital parameters of toddlers
Blood Pressure
(mmHg)
Systolic 80-110[3]
Diastolic 50-80[3]
Heart rate (BPM) 90-140[3]
Respiratory rate 20-40[3]

Toddler development can be broken into a number of interrelated areas.[4] There is reasonable consensus about what these include:

Physical: Refers to growth or an increase in size.

Gross motor: Refers to the control of large muscles, which enable walking, running, jumping and climbing.

Fine motor: Refers to the ability to control small muscles, enabling the toddler to feed themselves, draw and manipulate objects.

Vision: Refers to the ability to see near and far and interpret what is seen.

Hearing and speech: Hearing is the ability to hear and receive information and listen (interpret). Speech is the ability to understand and learn language and use it to communicate effectively.

Social: Refers to the ability to interact with the world through playing with others, taking turns and fantasy play.

Although it is useful to chart defined periods of development, it is also necessary to recognise that development exists on a continuum, with considerable individual differences between children. There is a wide range of what may be considered 'normal' development.

One year old

Toddler sitting in a bucket

At one year of age, the typical toddler will be able to display the following skills:[5]

Physical and motor skills

Triple the birth weight
Grow to a height of 50% over birth length
Have a head circumference equal to that of the chest
Have one to eight teeth
Pull to stand
Walk with help or alone
Sit down without help
Bang two blocks together
Turn through the pages of a book by flipping many pages at a time
Have a pincer grasp
Sleep 8 - 10 hours a night and take one to two naps

Sensory and cognitive development

Learning to eat independently
Follows a fast moving object
Can respond to sounds
Responds to his or her name
Understands several words
Can say mamma, papa, and at least one or two other words
Understands simple commands
Tries to imitate animal sounds
Connects names with objects
Understands that objects continue to exist, even when they are not seen (object constancy)
Points to objects with index finger
Waves bye bye
May develop attachment to a toy or object
Experiences separation anxiety and may cling to parents
May make brief journeys away from parents to explore in familiar settings

Two years old

  • Weight: about 11–13 kg
  • Height: about 80–82 cm

Teeth: 12 temporary

Two and half years old

Learning to ride a toy car
  • Teeth: full set of 20 temporary
  • Decreased need for naps

Motor development

Running and falling

14 months

  • Walks well alone with wide based gait
  • Creeps upstairs
  • Builds of two blocks
  • Drinks from a cup, uses spoon
  • Enjoys throwing objects and picking them up

18 months

  • Walks sideways and backwards, runs well, falls easily
  • Climbs stairs or up on furniture
  • Scribbles vigorously, attempting a straight line
  • Drinks well from a cup, still spills with a spoon

2 years

  • Gross motor skills quite well refined, can walk up and down stairs on both feet, one step at a time while holding on to a rail
  • Builds tower of five cubes
  • Control of spoon well-developed
  • Toilet trained during day time

Vocalization and socialization

15 months

  • Can use 10-15 words
  • Says "no" (see holophrasis)
  • Indicates when diaper is wet

18 months

  • Uses phrases composed of adjectives and nouns
  • Begins to have temper tantrums
  • Very ritualistic, has favorite toy or blanket, thumb-sucking may be at peak

2 years

  • Vocabulary of about 350 words
  • Obey simple commands
  • Helps undress self and put on simple clothes
  • Shows sign of increased autonomy and individuality
  • Does not share possessions, everything "mine"

2½ years

  • Begins to see self as separate individual; still sees other children as "objects"

Major learning events

Toilet training

  1. Psychological readiness
  2. Process training
  3. Parental response

Play (parallel play)

  • Child plays alongside other children but not with them
  • Mostly free and spontaneous, no rules or regulations
  • Attention span very short and change of toys occurs at frequent intervals
  • Imitation and make-believe play begins by end of the second year

Games: throwing and retrieving objects

Suggested toys:

  • Play furniture, dishes, cooking utensils, play telephone, puzzles with large pieces, pedal propelled toys, rocking horse, clay crayons, finger paints, pounding toys, blocks, push-pull toys, balls

Squatting

Main article: Squatting position
Young child playing at ease in a squatting position

Young children squat instinctively as a continuous movement from standing up whenever they want to lower themselves to ground level. One and two year olds can commonly be seen playing in a stable squatting position, with feet wide apart and bottom not quite touching the floor, although at first they need to hold onto something to stand up again.[6]

Language

Talking is the next milestone of which parents are typically aware. A toddler's first word most often occurs around 12 months, but again this is only an average. The child will then continue to steadily add to his or her vocabulary until around the age of 18 months when language increases rapidly. He or she may learn as many as 7–9 new words a day. Around this time, toddlers generally know about 50 words. At 21 months is when toddlers begin to incorporate two word phrases into their vocabulary, such as "I go", "mama give", and "baby play". Before going to sleep they often engage in a monologue called crib talk in which they practice conversational skills. At this age, children are becoming very proficient at conveying their wants and needs to their parents in a verbal fashion.

Emotions and self-image

Crying girl

There are several other important milestones that are achieved in this time period that parents tend to not emphasize as much as walking and talking. Gaining the ability to point at whatever it is the child wants you to see shows huge psychological gains in a toddler. This generally happens before a child's first birthday.

This age is sometimes referred to as 'the terrible twos',[7][8] because of the temper tantrums for which they are famous. This stage can begin as early as nine months old depending on the child and environment. Toddlers tend to have temper tantrums because they have such strong emotions but do not know how to express themselves the way that older children and adults do.[citation needed] They also throw tantrums to let others know that they are free and can do what they want.[citation needed] The toddler is discovering that they are a separate being from their parent and are testing their boundaries in learning the way the world around them works. Although the toddler is in their exploratory phase, it is also important to understand that the methods used by the parents for communicating with the toddler can either set off a tantrum or calm the situation.[9] This time between the ages of two and five when they are reaching for independence repeats itself during adolescence.[citation needed]

Self-awareness is another milestone that helps parents understand how a toddler is reacting. Around 18 months of age, a child will begin to recognize himself or herself as a separate physical being with his/her own thoughts and actions. A parent can test if this milestone has been reached by noticing if the toddler recognizes that their reflection in a mirror is in fact themselves. One way to test this is to put lipstick on the child's forehead and show them their own reflection. Upon seeing the out-of-the-ordinary mark, if the child reaches to her own forehead, the child has achieved this important milestone. Along with self recognition comes feelings of embarrassment and pride that the child had not previously experienced.

Overview

The toddler developmental timeline shows what an average toddler can do at what age. Times vary greatly from child to child. It is common for some toddlers to master certain skills (such as walking) well before other skills (like talking). Even close siblings can vary greatly in the time taken to achieve each key milestone.

Age Physical Mental Emotional
12–14 months
  • Walk alone well.
  • Drink from a cup (poorly).
  • Turn pages in a book (a few at a time).
  • Play ball by rolling or tossing it.
  • Uses one or two syllable words such as "ball" or "cookie"
  • Can follow a simple command with an associated gesture, such as: bringing a cup to you when you point at it and say "Please bring me the cup".
  • Use gestures or words to convey objects, such as: Pointing at a book, raising arms to be picked up, or saying "cup".
  • Mimic actions such as covering eyes while playing Peekaboo.
15–18 months
  • Uses 10–20 words.
  • May be able to follow a command without a gesture.
  • Stack two blocks.
19–24 months
  • Feed self with a spoon.
  • Run.
  • Climb into a small chair.
  • Walk up steps.
  • Helps with dressing: Likes to dress and undress self.
  • Speaks 20–50 words; understands many more
  • Stack six blocks
  • Understands non-physical relationships such as turning on lights or pushing buttons.
  • Sorting toys.
  • Searching for hidden objects.
  • Problem solving through experimentation.
25–36 months
  • Advanced mobility and climbing skills.
  • Increased dexterity with small objects, puzzles.
  • Able to dress oneself.
  • Speaking in sentences.
  • Ability to be independent to primary care giver.
  • Easily learns new words, places and people's names.
  • Anticipates routines.
  • Toilet learning continues
  • Plays with toys in imaginative ways.
  • Attempts to sing in-time with songs.
  • Knows boys from girls.
  • Shows preferences, such as clothes and entertainment.
  • Knows how to play different games.

See also

References

  1. ^ Barker, Robin (2001) The Mighty Toddler: The essential guide to the toddler years, Pan Macmillan Australia, Sydney, p1.
  2. ^ Lieberman, Alicia F, (1993) The Emotional Life of the Toddler, The Free Press, New York, p1.
  3. ^ a b c d PEDIATRIC AGE SPECIFIC, page 6. Revised 6/10. By Theresa Kirkpatrick and Kateri Tobias. UCLA Health System
  4. ^ Barker, Robin (2001) The Mighty Toddler: The essential guide to the toddler years, Pan Macmillan Australia, Sydney, p19.
  5. ^ Feigelman S. The first year. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chapter 8 quoted in Developmental milestones record - 12 months MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Slentz K, Krogh S Early Childhood Development and Its Variations (2001)
  7. ^ "The Terrible Twos Explained - Safe Kids (UK)". Safe Kids. Retrieved 2010-12-08. 
  8. ^ "UKfamily and Raisingkids have closed". Ukfamily.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-12-08. 
  9. ^ "Toddlers World". Archived from the original on 2011-02-07. 

External links

  • The dictionary definition of toddle at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Toddlers at Wikimedia Commons
Preceded by
Infancy
Stages of human development
Toddlerhood
Succeeded by
Childhood