Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation

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Map shows the location of the majority of the Tohono O'odham Nation in Pima County, highlighting the large Tohono O'odham Reservation as well as the smaller San Xavier Reservation in red. The non-contiguous segments in Maricopa and Pinal counties are not shown.

The Tohono O’odham Indian Reservation, or Tohono O’odham Nation, is a federally recognized Indian reservation in southern Arizona and the home of the Tohono O’odham, a Native American people who reside primarily in the Sonoran Desert of southeastern Arizona and northwest Mexico. Located at 32°09′01″N 112°02′41″W / 32.15028°N 112.04472°W / 32.15028; -112.04472, the reservation is generally is divided into four geographical parts with a total land area of 11,534.012 square kilometres (4,453.307 sq mi) with a total 2000 census population of 10,787, as of 2000. It encompasses portions of Pima County, Pinal County, and Maricopa County.


The main reservation, formerly known as the Papago Indian Reservation, lies in central Pima, southwestern Pinal, and southeastern Maricopa counties, and has a land area of 11,243.098 square kilometres (4,340.984 sq mi) and a 2000 census population of 8,376 persons. The land area is 97.48 percent of the reservation’s total, and the population is 77.65 percent of the reservation’s total.

Tohono O’odham Nation communities[edit]

Non-contiguous Tohono O’odham communities[edit]

  • The San Xavier Reservation, at 32°03′00″N 111°05′02″W / 32.05000°N 111.08389°W / 32.05000; -111.08389, is located in Pima County, in the southwestern part of the Tucson metropolitan area. It has a land area of 288.895 square kilometres (111.543 sq mi) and a resident population of 2,053 persons.
  • The San Lucy District comprises seven small non-contiguous parcels of land in, and northwest of, the town of Gila Bend in southwestern Maricopa County. Their total land area is 1.915 square kilometres (473 acres), with a total population of 304 persons.
  • The Florence Village District is located just southwest of the town of Florence in central Pinal County. It is a single parcel of land with an area of 0.1045 square kilometres (25.8 acres) and a population of 54 persons.

Physical geography[edit]

The Tohono O’odham Nation is the location of the Quinlan and Baboquivari Mountains, which include Kitt Peak and the Kitt Peak National Observatory, and telescopes, as well as Baboquivari Peak. The observatory sites are under lease from the Tohono O’odham Nation. The lease was approved by the council in the 1950s, for a one-time payment of US$25,000 plus $10 per acre per year.[1]


The telephone area code for the Tohono O’odham Reservation is 520.