Map shows the location of the majority of the Tohono O'odham Nation in Pima County, highlighting the large Tohono O'odham Reservation as well as the smaller San Xavier Reservation in red. The non-contiguous segments in Maricopa and Pinal counties are not shown.
The main reservation, formerly known as the Papago Indian Reservation, lies in central Pima, southwestern Pinal, and southeastern Maricopa counties, and has a land area of 11,243.098 square kilometres (4,340.984 sq mi) and a 2000 census population of 8,376 persons. The land area is 97.48 percent of the reservation’s total, and the population is 77.65 percent of the reservation’s total.
The San Lucy District comprises seven small non-contiguous parcels of land in, and northwest of, the town of Gila Bend in southwestern Maricopa County. Their total land area is 1.915 square kilometres (473 acres), with a total population of 304 persons.
The Florence Village District is located just southwest of the town of Florence in central Pinal County. It is a single parcel of land with an area of 0.1045 square kilometres (25.8 acres) and a population of 54 persons.
The Tohono O’odham Nation is the location of the Quinlan and Baboquivari Mountains, which include Kitt Peak and the Kitt Peak National Observatory, and telescopes, as well as Baboquivari Peak. The observatory sites are under lease from the Tohono O’odham Nation. The lease was approved by the council in the 1950s, for a one-time payment of US$25,000 plus $10 per acre per year.