Toilet training, or potty training, is the process of training a young child to use the toilet for urination and defecation, though training may start with a smaller toilet bowl-shaped device (often known as a potty). Cultural factors play a large part in what age is deemed appropriate, with the expectation for being potty trained ranging from 12 months for some tribes in Africa to 36 months in the modern United States. Most children can control their bowel before their bladder, boys typically start and finish later than girls, and it usually takes boys longer to learn to stay dry throughout the night.[vague]
.Most people advise that toilet training is a mutual task, requiring cooperation, agreement and understanding between child and the caregiver, and the best potty training techniques emphasize consistency and positive reinforcement over punishment – making it enjoyable for the child. There are apps that help engage, motivate and illustrate the potty training process to make it fun and easy. There are articles suggesting that it is easier to toilet train a child when he/she is at least 18 months old, and for boys it is better to wait even longer since they usually lack the necessary language and fine motor skills. This time frame is much easier to use because of the child wanting to please his/her parents.
History in the United States
Until the mid-1900s, the vast majority of babies finished toilet training by 2 years, and achieved nighttime dryness by 3 years. Since then, the age for toilet training has increased dramatically. The convenience of disposable diapers, pull-up diapers and more efficient laundry facilities may contribute to this trend.
In 1957, the average age of starting toilet training was still under one year, at 11 months, and 90% of children were dry during the day by 2 years.
In 2002, the average age that parents recognized their child "showing an interest in using the potty" was 24–25 months, and daytime dryness was achieved on average at almost 3 years of age. Nighttime accidents are now considered normal until 5 or 6 years of age.
- Elimination communication
- Pants Pankuro, an education animated series in Japan used to educate on toilet training
- Infant potty training method
- Baby-led potty training
Footnotes and citations
- Devries, MW; Devries, MR (1977). "Cultural relativity of toilet training readiness: A perspective from East Africa". Pediatrics 60 (2): 170–7. PMID 887331.
- Blum NJ, Taubman B, Nemeth N. "Relationship between age at initiation of toilet training and duration of training: A prospective study". Pediatrics 111: 81. PMID 10617723.
- Schum, T. R.; Kolb, T. M.; McAuliffe, T. L.; Simms, M. D.; Underhill, R. L.; Lewis, M. (2002). "Sequential acquisition of toilet training skills: A descriptive study of gender and age differences in normal children". Pediatrics 109 (3): e48. doi:10.1542/peds.109.3.e48. PMID 11875176.
- Potty training App. B
- Toilet Training Your Child. FamilyDoctor.org. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
- Surviving Toilet Training. Childwelfare.gov. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
- Health: Toddlers and toilet training. BBC. Retrieved on 2012-01-23.
- Sears, Robert R., Eleanor Maccoby, and Harry Levin (1957). Patterns of Child Rearing. pp. 102–137. Evanston IL: Row, Peterson, and Co. 
- Toilet Training. aap.org