|Elevation||816 m (2,677 ft)|
Tokmok (Kyrgyz: Токмок, Tokmok ('hammer'); Russian: Токмак, Tokmak) is a city of about 53,231 (2009 Census) (according, to other data, "over 58,000") in northern Kyrgyzstan, east of the country's capital of Bishkek. Its geographical location is ; its altitude is 816 m above sea level. From 2004 until 19 April 2006 it served as the administrative seat of Chui Province. Just to the north is the Chu River and the border with Kazakhstan.
Tokmok was established as a northern military outpost of the Khanate of Kokand ca. 1830. Thirty years later, it fell to the Russians who demolished the fort. The modern town was founded on 13 May 1864 by Colonel Mikhail Chernyayev.
Currently, the city of Tokmok is a district-level administrative unit of Chui Province. Although the city is surrounded by the province's Chuy District (whose administrative center is the village of Chuy, adjacent to Tokmok), it is not a part of it.
Despite its relatively modern origin, Tokmak stands in the middle of the Chuy Valley, which was a prize sought by many medieval conquerors. The ruins of Ak-Beshim, the capital of the Western Turkic Khaganate, are situated 8 km southwest from Tokmok. Yusuf Has Hajib Balasaguni, author of the Kutadgu Bilig was said to have born in this area.
About 15 km south of Tokmok is the 11th-century Burana Tower, located on the grounds of an ancient citadel of which today only a large earthen mound remains. This is believed to be the site of the ancient city of Balasagun, founded by the Sogdians and later for some time the capital of the Kara-Khanid empire. A large collection of ancient gravestones and bal-bals is nearby. Excavated Scythian artifacts have been moved to museums in St. Petersburg and Bishkek.
According to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, the population of Tokmok was 53,087.
|Historical populations in Tokmok|
|Note: enumerated de facto population; Source:|
The glass manufacturer Interglass LLC is based in Tokmok. The Tokmok plant produces about 2,800 tons of liquid glass per day and 600 tons of glass is produced of the mass per day. Annual production is 200 000 tons. At present, raw materials for glass production are mainly provided by Russia and Kazakhstan.
- Alexander Kosenkow, Olympic German sprinter
- Maiya Maneza, Olympic Kazakh weightlifter
- Jengishbek Nazaraliev, drug rehabilitation professional and politician
- Athanasius Schneider, Kazakh Roman Catholic bishop
- Elihan Tore, president of the First Eastern Turkistan Islamic Republic
- Mátyás Rákosi, Hungary's exiled Stalinist dictator
- Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, suspects in the Boston Marathon bombings
- Population and Housing Census 2009. Book 3 (in tables). Provinces of Kyrgyzstan: Chuy Province (Перепись населения и жилищного фонда Кыргызской Республики 2009. Книга 3 (в таблицах). Регионы Кыргызстана: Чуйская область, Bishkek: National Committee on Statistics, 2010
- Город Токмок (City of Tokmok) (Russian)
- "Association of Cities of KR - Tokmok"
- "Kyrgyzstan to Start a 2nd Flat Glass Production Line in Tokmok". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 13 November 2012.
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