Toksovo

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Toksovo (English)
Токсово (Russian)
-  Urban-type settlement[1]  -
Toksovo station - kassa 0.jpg
Toksovo railway station
Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Leningrad Oblast in Russia
Toksovo is located in Leningrad Oblast
Toksovo
Toksovo
Location of Toksovo in Leningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 60°09′20″N 30°31′30″E / 60.15556°N 30.52500°E / 60.15556; 30.52500Coordinates: 60°09′20″N 30°31′30″E / 60.15556°N 30.52500°E / 60.15556; 30.52500
Coat of Arms of Toksovo (Leningrad oblast) (2006).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Leningrad Oblast
Administrative district Vsevolozhsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of February 2010)
Municipal district Vsevolozhsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Toksovskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Toksovskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 6,127 inhabitants[3]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[4]
Urban-type settlement status since 1963[5]
Official website
Toksovo on WikiCommons

Toksovo (Russian: То́ксово; Finnish: Toksova) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located 20 kilometers (12 mi) to the north of St. Petersburg on the Karelian Isthmus. It is served by two neighboring stations of the Saint Petersburg-Khiytola railroad: Toksovo (constructed in 1917) and Kavgolovo (1929) (which serves a popular ski resort). Population: 6,127 (2010 Census);[3] 5,893 (2002 Census);[6] 5,699 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

Toksovo was first mentioned in chronicles in 1500. At the time, it belonged to Vodskaya Pyatina, one of the five pyatinas Novgorod Lands were subdivided into. In 1583, after the Livonian War, it became Swedish. In 1708, in the Great Northern War, it was conquered by Russia.[8] In the same year, it was included into Saint Petersburg Governorate, and later on became a part of Shlisselburgsky Uyezd. In 1914, the governorate was renamed Leningradsky.

In the 19th century, the region became a ski resort and a dacha place, known as the "Finnish Switzerland" or "Saint Petersburg Switzerland."

After the October Revolution, North Ingria, including Toksovo, seceded from Bolshevist Russia, but was reincorporated with the Treaty of Tartu at the end of 1920. On February 14, 1923 Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was merged into Petrogradsky Uyezd. In January, 1924 the uyezd and the governorate were renamed Leningradsky.[9]

On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Kuyvozovsky District, with the administrative center in the village of Kuyvozy, was established. The district was inhabited by Ingrian Finns, with Finnish being the official language (since 1931). On October 30, 1930, the district center was transferred to Toksovo, which at the time being had a status of suburban settlement. On March 20, 1936 Kuyvozovsky District was renamed Toksovsky. On February 22, 1939 Toksovsky District was abolished and merged into Pargolovsky District.[10] On April 3, 1954 Pargolovsky District was abolished, and Toksovo was transferred to Vsevolozhsky District. On May 13, 1963 Toksovo was granted urban-type settlement status.[5]

In 1937, a large ski ramp was built in Toksovo. In 1937–1939, during the Great Purge, the Rzhevsky artillery range, a large area to the southeast of Toksovo, was the main NKVD place of execution near Leningrad. In 1942, during the Siege of Leningrad all Finns and Izhorians were deported from the townlet and the region. During the Siege of Leningrad an important radar station was operated near the townlet. In 1953, after Joseph Stalin's death, Finns and Izhorians were allowed to return. In 1974, a European bison farm was started here. In 2000, Toksovan Sanomat, a Finnish Language newspaper, began publication.[8] In 2002, at Koirangakangas near Toksovo the Memorial society found a secret grave with remains of 30,000 people executed by the NKVD, among whom are most probably the philosopher Pavel Florensky and other prominent people. In 2003, a stage of the FIS Cross-country skiing World Cup was held in the townlet. Currently it is a ski and tourist resort and a dacha place, famous for its forests and lakes.

Economy[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Toksovo is located on the railroad connecting Saint Petersburg with Sortavala via Priozersk. The two railway stations in the settlement, Toksovo railway station and Kavgolovo railway platform, are connected by suburban service with the Finland Station.

Toksovo is essentially a suburb of Saint Petersburg, and is included in the dense suburban road network.

Tourism[edit]

Toksovo (in particular, Kavgolovo) is a center of a recreational area, which includes sports facilities like ski jumps and ski slopes, and attracts holiday visitors from Saint Petersburg.[11] National and international competitions are held on a regular basis.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Toksovo contains seven objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.[12] Six of them commemorate events of the World War II, in particular, the Siege of Leningrad, and the seventh one is the summer house where in 1927 Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, a Russian author, stayed.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 41 212 575 002», в ред. изменения №234/2013 от 1 января 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 41 212 575 002, as amended by the Amendment #234/2013 of January 1, 2014. ).
  2. ^ a b c Law #17-oz
  3. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b "Всеволожский район (август 1936 г .)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "Хронологическая таблица (основные события)" (in Russian). Virtual Toksovo. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  9. ^ "Петроградский уезд (1917 - янв. 1924), Ленинградский уезд( янв.1924 г.- авг. 1927 г.)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved December 14, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Куйвозовский район (август 1927 г . - март 1936 г .), Токсовский район (март 1936 г. - февраль 1939 г.)." (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Отдых в Токсово" (in Russian). Virtual Toksovo. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №17-оз от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований Всеволожский район и Выборгский район и муниципальных образований в их составе», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №27, 11 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #17-oz of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formations of Vsevolozhsky District and Vyborgsky District and to the Municipal Formations Comprising It, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).