Shiatsu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Tokujiro Namikoshi)
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Shih Tzu.
Shiatsu practitioners believe that energy flow through Meridian Lines.

Shiatsu (Kanji: 指圧 Hiragana: しあつ) in Japanese means "finger pressure". It is based on the concepts of qi, Meridian Lines and the system of "five phases" (five-element theory) in in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

Within this traditional medicine, a practitioner determines what he or believes is wrong with a person by abdominal palpitation and by pulse diagnosis. Unlike acupuncture and acupressure not only individual points are stimulated on the body, but the whole body is often stimulated, along the connecting meridians, using finger and palm pressure, stretches, and other massage techniques. In addition, shiatsu also includes a variety of mobilization movements.

Shiatsu was derived from anma, which in turn is thought to have been developed from Tui Na, whose techniques arrived in Japan during the Nara period (710–793 CE). Tokujiro Namikoshi (1905-2000) founded his shiatsu college in the 1940s, and is often credited with inventing modern shiatsu.

Scientific reviews have found no evidence that shiatsu is useful to treat any disease or condition.[1][2]

Description[edit]

Shiatsu (Kanji: 指圧 Hiragana: しあつ) in Japanese means "finger pressure".[citation needed] It is based on the concepts of qi, Meridian Lines and the system of "five phases" (five-element theory) in in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Within this traditional medicine, a practitioner determines what he or believes is wrong with a person by abdominal ("hara") palpitation (ampuku),[3] developed by Shinsai Ota in the seventeenth century,[4] and by pulse diagnosis.[citation needed] Unlike acupuncture and acupressure not only individual points are stimulated on the body. The whole body is often stimulated, along the connecting meridians, using finger and palm pressure, stretches, and other massage techniques.[1] In addition, Shiatsu also includes a variety of mobilization movements.[1]

Shiatsu is usually practiced on a mat or a special futon on the floor.[citation needed]

The theoretical basis of this approach is to balance the qi within the body. Contemporary research has not supported the existence of qi or meridians.[5][6]

History[edit]

Shiatsu was derived from anma, which in turn is thought to have been developed from Tui Na. Tui Na techniques arrived in Japan during the Nara period (710–793 CE), along with other techniques of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and were practiced in government-sponsored hospitals.[citation needed] Anma as a unique system was founded in 1320 by Akashi Kan Ichi.[7][8] Anma was popularised in the seventeenth century by acupuncturist Sugiyama Waichi, and around the same time the first books on the subject, including Fujibayashi Ryohaku's Anma Tebiki ("Manual of Anma"), appeared.[9] The Fujibayashi school carried anma into the modern age.[10] Prior to the emergence of shiatsu in Japan, masseurs were often nomadic, earning their keep in mobile massage capacities, and paying commissions to their referrers.[citation needed]

Since Sugiyama's time, massage in Japan had been strongly associated with the blind.[11] Sugiyama, blind himself, established a number of medical schools for the blind which taught this practice. During the Tokugawa period, edicts were passed which made the practice of anma solely the preserve of the blind – sighted people were prohibited from practicing the art.[7] As a result, the "blind anma" has become a popular trope in Japanese culture.[12] This has continued into the modern era, with a large proportion of the Japanese blind community continuing to work in the profession.[13]

During the Occupation of Japan by the Allies after World War II, traditional medicine practices were banned (along with other aspects of traditional Japanese culture) by General MacArthur. The ban prevented a large proportion of Japan's blind community from earning a living.[citation needed] Many Japanese entreated for this ban to be rescinded. Additionally, writer and advocate for blind rights Helen Keller, on being made aware of the prohibition, interceded with the United States government; at her urging, the ban was rescinded.[14]

Tokujiro Namikoshi (1905-2000) founded his shiatsu college in the 1940s, and is often credited with inventing modern shiatsu. His legacy was the state recognition of Shiatsu as an independent method of treatment in Japan. However, the term shiatsu was already in use in 1919, when a book called "Shiatsu Ho" ("finger pressure method") was published, and in 1925 the Shiatsu Therapists Association began, with the purpose of distancing shiatsu from Anma massage.[15]

Namikoshi's school taught shiatsu within a framework of western medical science. A student and teacher of this school, Shizuto Masunaga, brough shiatsu back to traditional eastern medicine and philosophic framework. He founded Zen Shiatsu and the Iokai Shiatsu Center school.[16]

Official Japanese government definition[edit]

Shiatsu in Japan is regulated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, their official definition states "Shiatsu therapy is a form of manipulation administered by the thumbs, fingers and palms, without the use of any instrument, mechanical or otherwise, to apply pressure to the human skin, to correct internal malfunctioning, promote and maintain health and treat specific diseases".[17]

Scientific studies[edit]

In 2011, a systematic review found no evidence that shiatsu is an effective medical treatment.[1]

According to Cancer Research UK, "There is no scientific evidence to prove that shiatsu can cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer. Also, a lack of high quality research so far means there is currently no scientific evidence to support the use of shiatsu for controlling cancer symptoms. This doesn't mean that shiatsu doesn't work in controlling symptoms or side effects, simply that it has not yet been tested properly."[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Robinson, Nicola; Lorenc, Ava; Liao, Xing (2011). "The evidence for Shiatsu: A systematic review of Shiatsu and acupressure". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11: 88. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-88. PMC 3200172. PMID 21982157. "Shiatsu incorporates acupressure, which is similar but applies pressure for longer on specific pressure points on meridians, following Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)" 
  2. ^ a b "Shiatsu". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  3. ^ Carl Dubitsky (1 May 1997). Bodywork Shiatsu: Bringing the Art of Finger Pressure to the Massage Table. Inner Traditions * Bear & Company. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-89281-526-5. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  4. ^ Kiiko Matsumoto; Stephen Birch (1988). Hara Diagnosis: Reflections on the Sea. Paradigm Publications. pp. 315–. ISBN 978-0-912111-13-1. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  5. ^ Bauer, M (2006). "The Final Days of Traditional Beliefs? – Part One". Chinese Medicine Times 1 (4): 31. 
  6. ^ Ahn, Andrew C.; Colbert, Agatha P.; Anderson, Belinda J.; Martinsen, ØRjan G.; Hammerschlag, Richard; Cina, Steve; Wayne, Peter M.; Langevin, Helene M. (2008). "Electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians: A systematic review". Bioelectromagnetics 29 (4): 245–56. doi:10.1002/bem.20403. PMID 18240287. 
  7. ^ a b Jōya, Moku (1985). Mock Jōya's Things Japanese. The Japan Times. p. 55. 
  8. ^ Fu ren da xue (Beijing, China). Ren lei xue bo wu guan; S.V.D. Research Institute; Society of the Divine Word (1962). Folklore studies. p. 235. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Kaneko, Dr. DoAnn T (2006). Shiatsu Anma Therapy. ISBN 9780977212804. 
  10. ^ Louis Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Young, Jacqueline (2007). Complementary Medicine For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 99. ISBN 9780470519684. 
  12. ^ Beresford-Cooke, Carola (2010). Shiatsu Theory and Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780080982472. 
  13. ^ American Foundation for the Blind (1973). "The New outlook for the blind" 67. p. 178. 
  14. ^ Beresford-Cooke, Carola (2003). Shiatsu Theory and Practice: A Comprehensive Text for the Student and Professional. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 2. ISBN 9780443070594. 
  15. ^ Stillerman, Elaine (2009). Modalities for Massage and Bodywork. Mosby. pp. 281–300. ISBN 032305255X. 
  16. ^ Jarmey, Chris and Mojay, Gabriel (1991). Shiatsu: The Complete Guide. Thorsons. p. 6. ISBN 9780722522431. 
  17. ^ Jarmey, Chris and Mojay, Gabriel (1991). Shiatsu: The Complete Guide. Thorsons. p. 8. ISBN 9780722522431. 

External links[edit]