Tolbachik

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Tolbachik
Tolbatschik aus Südwesten.jpg
Ostry Tolbachik from Southwest
Elevation 3,682 m (12,080 ft)
Prominence 2,190 m (7,190 ft)[1][2]
Listing Ultra
Location
Tolbachik is located in Russia
Tolbachik
Tolbachik
Location on Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia
Location Kamchatka, Russia
Coordinates 55°49′51″N 160°19′33″E / 55.83083°N 160.32583°E / 55.83083; 160.32583Coordinates: 55°49′51″N 160°19′33″E / 55.83083°N 160.32583°E / 55.83083; 160.32583[1]
Geology
Type Shield volcano and stratovolcano
Last eruption 2012 to 2013
Climbing
Easiest route basic rock/snow climb

Tolbachik is a volcanic complex on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the far east of Russia. It consists of two volcanoes, Plosky (flat) Tolbachik (3,085 m) and Ostry (sharp) Tolbachik (3,682 m), which as the names suggest are respectively a flat-topped shield volcano and a peaked stratovolcano.[3] As Ostry is the mountain's highest point, the entire mountain is often referred to as "Ostry Tolbachik", not to be confused with Ostry a separate volcano to the north also on the Kamchatka Peninsula.

Activity[edit]

Its eruptive history stretches back thousands of years, but the most notable eruption occurred in 1975, commonly known as "The Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption". It was preceded by an earthquake swarm, which led to a successful prediction of the eruption by scientists from the Russian Institute of Volcanology. The eruption created several new cinder cones, and in terms of volume of lava emitted was Kamchatka's largest basaltic eruption in historic times.

On November 27, 2012 an eruption started from 2 fissures of a strombolian type. Basaltic lava flows move relatively fast and already flooded some buildings 4 km away. Eruption continued for more than a month, as lava continued to flow from the fissures.[4][5][6] Lava flowed up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) from a line of fissures on the volcano’s southern flank. This satellite image was collected on December 22, 2012. According to the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), the eruption is ongoing.

Mineralogy[edit]

The fumarole deposits of Tolbachik are rich in exotic minerals and 54 were first described from here including alarsite and tolbachite.[7]

View[edit]

Annotated view includes Ushkovsky, Tolbachik, Bezymianny, Zimina, and Udina. Oblique view taken on November 16, 2013 from ISS.[8]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Russia: Kamchatka and the Russian Pacific Islands Ultra-Prominence Page" Peaklist.org. Listed here as "Mt. Ostry Tolbachik". The prominence value given here (2,190 m) is based on a summit elevation of 3,672 m. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
  2. ^ "Mount Ostry Tolbachik, Russia" Peakbagger.com. The prominence value given here (2,190 m) is based on a summit elevation of 3,672 m. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
  3. ^ "Tolbachik" summitpost.org. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
  4. ^ Edwards Ben, Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Chirkov Sergey, Senyukov Sergey, Gordeev Evgenii, Muraviev Yaroslav, Izbekov Pavel, Demianchuk Yury (2013) Another “Great Tolbachik” Eruption? // Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. V. 94, № 21. P. 189-191. - ISSN Print: 00963941. - doi: 10.1002/2013EO210002.
  5. ^ Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Yakushev Anton, Tolstykh Maria (2013) Petrology and geochemistry of the New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption volcanic rocks and their evolution during the first two weeks of eruption // IAVCEI 2013 Scientific Assembly, July 20–24, Kagoshima, Japan. P. 743.
  6. ^ Volynets A. O., Melnikov D. V., Yakushev A. I. (2013) First data on composition of the volcanic rocks of the IVS 50th anniversary Fissure Tolbachik eruption (Kamchatka) // Doklady Earth Sciences. V. 452, № 1. P. 953-957. doi: 10.1134/S1028334X13090201.
  7. ^ "Tolbachik volcano". Mindat. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  8. ^ NASA - Activity at Kliuchevskoi

Other references[edit]