Toledo, Ohio

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Toledo, Ohio
City
City of Toledo
Images, from top left to right: Downtown Toledo, University Hall, Toledo Museum of Art, Lucas County Courthouse, Tony Packo's Cafe, Anthony Wayne Bridge, Fifth Third Field
Images, from top left to right: Downtown Toledo, University Hall, Toledo Museum of Art, Lucas County Courthouse, Tony Packo's Cafe, Anthony Wayne Bridge, Fifth Third Field
Flag of Toledo, Ohio
Flag
Official seal of Toledo, Ohio
Seal
Nickname(s): The Glass City; Frogtown; T-Town
Motto: "Laborare est Orare"
Location of Toledo within Lucas County, Ohio.
Location of Toledo within Lucas County, Ohio.
Toledo is located in Ohio
Toledo
Toledo
Location in the state of Ohio
Coordinates: 41°39′56″N 83°34′31″W / 41.66556°N 83.57528°W / 41.66556; -83.57528Coordinates: 41°39′56″N 83°34′31″W / 41.66556°N 83.57528°W / 41.66556; -83.57528
Country United States
State Ohio
County Lucas
Founded 1833
Government
 • Mayor D. Michael Collins (I)
Area[1]
 • City 84.12 sq mi (217.87 km2)
 • Land 80.69 sq mi (208.99 km2)
 • Water 3.43 sq mi (8.88 km2)
Elevation 614 ft (187 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 287,208 (US: 67th)
 • Estimate (2012[3]) 284,012
 • Density 3,559/sq mi (1,374.3/km2)
 • Metro 651,429 (US: 82nd)
 • Demonym Toledoan
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Area code(s) 419, 567
FIPS code 39-77000
GNIS feature ID 1067015[4]
Website www.toledo.oh.gov

Toledo (/təˈld/) is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio after Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Columbus and is the county seat of Lucas County.[5] Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan. The city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, originally incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory, then re-founded in 1837, after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio.

Toledo grew quickly as a result of the Miami and Erie Canal and its position on the railway line between New York and Chicago. It has since become a city well known for its art community, auto assembly, education, healthcare, and local sports teams. The city has also became known for its glass industry which has earned the nickname, "The Glass City".

The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 67th largest city in the United States. The Toledo metropolitan area had a population of 651,429, making it the sixth largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, and Akron.[6]

History[edit]

The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, in 1615.[7] French trading posts operated in the area as far back as 1680. The area was first settled by Americans in 1795, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, with the founding of Fort Industry. However, many settlers fled the area during the War of 1812. Resettlement began around 1818 when a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre (3.9 km2) tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence, creating the modern downtown area. Immediately to the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end.[7] These two towns physically bordered each other with Cherry Street dividing them. This is why present day streets on the northeast side of Cherry Street run at a slightly different angle from those to the southwest of it.

19th century[edit]

In 1824 the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of Miami and Erie Canal and later its Wabash and Erie Canal extension in 1833. The canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie because at that time no highways existed in the state and it was thus very difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal’s planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River heavily competed to be the ending terminus of the canal knowing it would give them a profitable status.[8] The towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the towns of Waterville, Maumee, and Manhattan.

The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends. One recounts that Washington Irving, who was traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident; this explanation ignores the fact that Irving returned to the United States in 1832. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major who quaintly numbered his sons and named his daughters after States. The most popular version attributes the naming to Willard J. Daniels, a merchant, who reportedly suggested Toledo because it 'is easy to pronounce, is pleasant in sound, and there is no other city of that name on the American continent.'"[7] Despite Toledo’s efforts, the final terminus was decided to be built in Manhattan a half mile to the north of Toledo because it was closer to the lake. As a compromise, the state placed two sidecuts before the terminus, one in Toledo at Swan Creek and another in Maumee.

An almost bloodless conflict between Ohio and the Michigan Territory, called the Toledo War (1835–1836), was "fought" over a narrow strip of land from the Indiana border to Lake Erie, now containing the city and the suburbs of Sylvania and Oregon. The strip—which varied between five and eight miles (13 km) in width—was claimed by the state of Ohio and the Michigan Territory due to conflicting legislation concerning the location of the Ohio-Michigan state line. Militias from both states were sent but never engaged. The only casualty of the conflict was a Michigan deputy sheriff—stabbed in the leg with a pen knife by Two Stickney during the arrest of his elder brother, One Stickney—and the loss of two horses, two pigs and a few chickens stolen from an Ohio farm by lost members of the Michigan militia. In the end, the state of Ohio was awarded the land after the state of Michigan was given a larger portion of the Upper Peninsula in exchange. Stickney Avenue in Toledo is named for One and Two Stickney.[9]

Toledo was very slow to expand in its first two decades of existence. Its very first lot was sold in the Port Lawrence section of the city in 1833. It held 1,205 persons in 1835, and five years later it held just seven more men. Settlers came and went quickly through Toledo and between 1833 and 1836, ownership of land had changed so many times that none of the original parties still existed. The canal and its Toledo sidecut entrance were completed in 1843; soon after the canal was functional, the canal boats became too large to use the shallow waters at the terminus in Manhattan. More boats began using the Swan Creek sidecut than its official ending, quickly putting the Manhattan warehouses out of business and triggering a rush to move business to Toledo.

A 1955 Interstate planning map of Toledo

Most of Manhattan's residents moved out by 1844. The 1850 census gives Toledo 3,829 residences and Manhattan 541. The 1860 census shows Toledo with a population of 13,768 and Manhattan with 788. While the towns were only a mile apart, Toledo grew by 359% in ten years while Manhattan only grew by 148% because of the change in the canal outlet. By the 1880s, Toledo expanded over the vacant streets of Manhattan and Tremainsville, a small town to the west.[8][10]

In the last half of the 19th century, railroads slowly began to replace canals as the major form of transportation. Toledo soon became a hub for several railroad companies and a hotspot for industries like furniture producers, carriage makers, breweries, glass manufacturers, and others. Large immigrant populations came to the area, attracted by the many factory jobs available and the city's easy accessibility. By 1880, Toledo was one of the largest cities in Ohio.

20th century to present[edit]

Toledo continued to expand in population and industry into the early 20th century, but because of a dependency on manufacturing, the city was hit hard by the Great Depression. Many large scale WPA projects were constructed to reemploy citizens in the 1930s. Some of these include the amphitheater and aquarium at the Toledo Zoo and a major expansion to the Toledo Museum of Art.

In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Toledo's population as 94.8% white and 5.2% black.[11] The city rebounded, but the slump of American manufacturing in the second half of the 20th century, along with the nationwide epidemic of white flight from cities to suburbs, led to a depressed city by the time of the 1980s national recession. The destruction of many buildings downtown, along with several failed business ventures in housing in the core, led to a reverse city-suburb wealth problem common in small cities with land to spare.

In recent years, Downtown Toledo has undergone significant redevelopment to draw residents back to the city. Fifth Third Field opened in 2002, and the Huntington Center opened in 2009. The riverfront area adjacent to International Park has been upgraded with walking trails and landscaping. A renovation of Promenade Park is expected to be finished by fall 2013, doubling its size.[12] Despite these attempts at redevelopment, crumbling infrastructure has been causing sinkhole[13] and sewer collapse[14] difficulties in the city.

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

Toledo is located at 41°39′56″N 83°34′31″W / 41.66556°N 83.57528°W / 41.66556; -83.57528 (41.665682, −83.575337).[15] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 84.12 square miles (217.87 km2), of which, 80.69 square miles (208.99 km2) is land and 3.43 square miles (8.88 km2) is water.[1] The city straddles the Maumee River at the southern end of Maumee Bay, the westernmost inlet of Lake Erie. Toledo sits north of what had been the Great Black Swamp, giving rise to another nickname, Frog Town. An important ecological site, Toledo sits within the borders of a sandy oak savanna called the Oak Openings Region that once took up over 300 square miles (780 km2).[16] Toledo is located within approximately four hours or less of eight major US cities: Detroit, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, and Chicago.

Cityscape[edit]

Downtown Toledo's skyline from across the Maumee River

List of tallest buildings in Toledo

Neighborhoods and suburbs[edit]

Toledo Metropolitan Area

According to the US Census Bureau, the Toledo Metropolitan Area covers 4 Ohio counties and combines with other micropolitan areas and counties for a combined statistical area. Some of the suburbs in Ohio include:Bowling Green, Holland, Lake Township, Maumee, Millbury, Monclova Township, Northwood, Oregon, Ottawa Hills, Perrysburg, Rossford, Springfield Township, Sylvania, Walbridge, Waterville, Whitehouse, and Washington Township. The Old West End is a historic neighborhood of Victorian, Arts & Crafts, and other Edwardian style houses recognized by the National Register of Historic Places.

Climate[edit]

Toledo, as with much of the Great Lakes region, experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), characterized by four distinct seasons. Both temperature and precipitation vary widely seasonally. Lake Erie moderates the climate somewhat, especially in late spring and fall, when air and water temperature differences are maximal. However, this effect is lessened in the winter by the fact that Lake Erie freezes over in most winters (unlike the other Great Lakes), coupled with prevailing winds that are often westerly. Southerly and westerly prevailing winds combined with warm surface waters of Lake Erie in summer also negate the lake's cooling ability on the city; furthermore, the lake's presence increases humidity.

Summers are very warm and humid, with July averaging 73.5 °F (23.1 °C) and temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or more seen on 16.5 days.[17] Winters are cold and somewhat snowy, with a January mean temperature of 25.5 °F (−3.6 °C), and lows at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) on 6.2 nights.[17] The spring and summer months tend to be wetter than autumn and winter. About 37 inches (94 cm) of snow falls per year, much less than the Snow Belt cities because of the prevailing wind direction. Temperature extremes have ranged from −20 °F (−29 °C) on January 21, 1984 to 105 °F (41 °C) on July 14, 1936.


Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1840 1,222
1850 3,829 213.3%
1860 13,768 259.6%
1870 31,584 129.4%
1880 50,137 58.7%
1890 81,434 62.4%
1900 131,822 61.9%
1910 168,497 27.8%
1920 243,164 44.3%
1930 290,718 19.6%
1940 282,349 −2.9%
1950 303,616 7.5%
1960 318,003 4.7%
1970 383,818 20.7%
1980 354,635 −7.6%
1990 332,943 −6.1%
2000 313,619 −5.8%
2010 287,208 −8.4%
Est. 2012 284,012 −1.1%
U.S. Decennial Census
2012 estimate
Racial composition 2010[21] 1990[11] 1970[11] 1940[11]
White 64.8% 77.0% 85.7% 94.8%
—Non-Hispanic 61.4% 75.1% 84.0%[22] n/a
Black or African American 27.2% 19.7% 13.8% 5.2%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 7.4% 4.0% 1.9%[22] n/a
Asian 1.1% 1.0% 0.2%


As of the 2010 census, the city proper had a population of 287,128. It is the principal city in the Toledo Metropolitan Statistical Area which had a population of 651,429, while the larger Toledo-Fremont Combined Statistical Area had a population of 712,373. According to the Toledo Metropolitan Council of Governments, the Toledo/Northwest Ohio region of 10 counties has over 1 million residents.

The U.S. Census Bureau estimated Toledo's population as 297,806 in 2006 and 295,029 in 2007. In response to an appeal by the City of Toledo, the Census Bureau's July 2007 estimate was revised to 316,851, slightly more than in 2000,[23] which would have been the city's first population gain in 40 years. However, the 2010 census figures released in March 2011 showed the population as of April 1, 2010 at 287,208, indicating a 25% loss of population since its zenith in 1970.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 287,208 people, 119,730 households, and 68,364 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,559.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,374.3 /km2). There were 138,039 housing units at an average density of 1,710.7 per square mile (660.5 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 64.8% White, 27.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 2.6% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.4% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 61.4% of the population in 2010,[24] down from 84% in 1970.[11]

There were 119,730 households of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.6% were married couples living together, 19.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.9% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.01. There was a total of 139,871 housing units in the city, of which 10,946 (9.8%) were vacant.

The median age in the city was 34.2 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18; 12.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.3% were from 25 to 44; 24.8% were from 45 to 64; and 12.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census of 2000, there were 313,619 people, and 77,355 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,890.2 people per square mile (1,502.0/km²). There were 139,871 housing units at an average density of 1,734.9 per square mile (669.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.2% White, 23.5% African American, 0.3% Native American,1.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.5% of the population in 2000. The five most common ancestries cited were German (23.4%), Irish (10.8%), Polish (10.1%), English (6.0%), and French (4.6%).[25]

In 2000 there were 128,925 households in Toledo, out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.0% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,546, and the median income for a family was $41,175. Males had a median income of $35,407 versus $25,023 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,388. About 14.2% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.

Crime[edit]

In 2013, the city was ranked 89 of the Top 100 Most Dangerous Cities in America.[26] But on a scale of 1 to 100, the city's overall crime index is a #3, which is considered "safe" as opposed to the crime in much larger cities such as Detroit, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Chicago.

In recent years, the city has seen a gradual peak in violent crime. In 2010, there has been a combined total of 3,272 burglaries, 511 robberies, 753 aggravated assaults, 25 homicides, as well as 574 motor vehicle thefts out of what was then a decreasing population of 287,208.[27] In 2011, there were 1,562 aggravated assaults, 30 murders, 1,152 robberies, 8,366 burglaries, and 1,465 cases of motor vehicle theft. In 2012, there were a combined total of 39 murders, 2,015 aggravated assaults, 6,739 burglaries, and 1,334 cases of motor vehicle theft.[28]

Economy[edit]

One SeaGate, the tallest building in Toledo, is the location of Fifth-Third Bank's Northwest Ohio headquarters.
PNC Bank Building, formerly the Ohio Bank Building. Built in 1932, it is the 3rd tallest in Toledo.

Before the industrial revolution, Toledo was a port city on the Great Lakes. But with the advent of the automobile, the city became best known for industrial manufacturing, although these industries have declined considerably in recent decades. Both General Motors and Chrysler had factories in metropolitan Toledo, and automobile manufacturing has been important at least since Kirk,[29] which began operations early in the 20th century. Though the largest employer in Toledo was Jeep for much of the 20th century, this honor has recently gone to the University of Toledo. Manufacturing as a whole now employs fewer Toledoans than does the healthcare industry, now the city's biggest employer. HCR Manor Care is an up-and-coming Fortune 1000 company headquartered in Toledo. The metro area is home to four Fortune 500 companies: Dana Corporation, Owens Corning, The Andersons, and Owens Illinois. Formerly located at One SeaGate, O-I has recently relocated to suburban Perrysburg. One SeaGate is currently the location of Fifth-Third Bank's Northwest Ohio headquarters.

Glass industry[edit]

Toledo is known as the Glass City because of its long history of innovation in all aspects of the glass industry: windows, bottles, windshields, construction materials, and glass art, of which the Toledo Museum of Art has a large collection. Several large glass companies have their origins here. Owens-Illinois, Owens Corning, Libbey Glass, Pilkington North America (formerly Libbey Owens Ford), and Therma-Tru have long been a staple of Toledo's economy. Other off-shoots and spinoffs of these companies also continue to play important roles in Toledo's economy. Fiberglass giant Johns Manville's two plants in the metro area were originally built by a subsidiary of Libbey Owens Ford.

Automotive industry[edit]

Several large, Fortune 500 automotive related companies had their headquarters in Toledo. Electric AutoLite, Sheller-Globe Corporation, Champion Spark Plug, Questor, and Dana Corporation are examples of large auto parts companies that began in Toledo. Faurecia Exhaust Systems, which is a $2 billion subsidiary to France's Faurecia SA, is located in Toledo. Only Dana Corporation is still in existence as an independent entity. Toledo is home of Jeep headquarters and has 2 production facilities, one in the city and one in suburban Perrysburg. The manufacturing dependency continued into World War II when Toledo became involved in wartime production of several products, particularly the Willys Jeep.[30] Willys-Overland was a major automaker headquartered in Toledo until 1953. In 2001, a taxpayer lawsuit was filed against Toledo that challenged the constitutionality of tax incentives it extended to DaimlerChrysler for the expansion of its Jeep plant. In 2006 the case was won by the city unanimously after it reached the U.S. Supreme Court in DaimlerChrysler Corp. v. Cuno.

Green industry[edit]

While Toledo has a "rust belt" reputation due to its manufacturing history, in the 2000s, the city received significant interest and growth in "green jobs" due to economic development around solar energy. For example, the University of Toledo and Bowling Green State University received Ohio grants for solar energy research.[31] Also, companies like Xunlight and First Solar opened plants in Toledo and the surrounding area.[32]

Arts and culture[edit]

Fine art[edit]

Greek revival façade of the Monroe Street entrance, Toledo Museum of Art

The Peristyle is the concert hall in Greek Revival style in the East Wing of the Toledo Museum of Art; it is the home of the Toledo Symphony Orchestra, and hosts many international orchestras as well. The Stranahan Theater is a major concert hall located on the city's south side. The Toledo Opera has been presenting grand opera in the city since 1959. Its current home is the historic Valentine Theatre Downtown. The Toledo Repertoire Theatre was created in 1933 and performs both Broadway hits and lesser-known original works. The Collingwood Arts Center is housed in a 1905 building designed by architect E. O. Fallis in the "Flemish Gothic" style. The parlor is used to showcase art exhibitions while the second and third floor rooms are rented to local artists. The Toledo Museum of Art is an internationally acclaimed museum located in a Greek Revival building. Its Center for Visual Arts addition by Frank Gehry was added recently and the Museum's new Glass Pavilion across Monroe Street opened in August 2006. Toledo was the first city in Ohio to adopt a One Percent for Art program and, as such, boasts many examples of public, outdoor art.[33] The works, which include large sculptures, environmental structures, and murals by more than 40 artists, such as Alice Adams, Pierre Clerk, Dale Eldred, Penelope Jencks, Hans Van De Bovenkamp, Jerry Peart, and Athena Tacha, are organized into a number of walking tours.[34] The Ballet Theatre of Toledo provides an opportunity for area students to study ballet and perform their art.[35]

References in popular culture[edit]

John Denver sang a disparaging song about visiting Toledo titled "Saturday Night In Toledo, Ohio" which was composed by Randy Sparks. It was written in 1967 when Sparks and his group arrived in Toledo at 10 p.m. on a Saturday night, and found everything closed.[36] Following a performance of the song on The Tonight Show, there was a large public outcry from Toledo residents. In response, the City Fathers recorded a song entitled "We're Strong For Toledo". Ultimately the controversy was such that John Denver cancelled a concert shortly thereafter, but when Denver returned for a 1980 concert, he set a one-show attendance record at the venue, Centennial Hall, and sang the song as well to the approval of the crowd.[37]

Toledo is the hometown of Corporal Maxwell Klinger in the long-running 1970s television series M*A*S*H, an association that sprang from actor Jamie Farr being from there. Klinger makes frequent mention of Toledo during episodes of the series.

Toledo is also the hometown of the main protagonist, Captain Benjamin L. Willard, played by Martin Sheen in the Vietnam War film Apocalypse Now. In one scene with the film's other main character, Colonel Walter E. Kurtz, played by Marlon Brando, he discusses his home town.

The Kenny Rogers 1977 hit song "Lucille" was written by Hal Bynum and inspired by his trip to Toledo in 1975.[38]

Toledo is mentioned in the song "Our Song" by Yes from their 1983 album 90125. According to Yes drummer Alan White, Toledo was especially memorable for a sweltering-hot 1977 show the group did at Toledo Sports Arena.[39]

Toledo is the setting for the 2010 television comedy Melissa & Joey, with the first-named character being a city councilwoman but few specific references to Toledo are planned.[40]

Sports[edit]

Looking onto Fifth Third Field
Huntington Center
  • Roller Derby - The Glass City Rollers is a full member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. The league was formed in 2007 and now consists of 30 women and men, acting as skaters, referees, and non-skating officials. Their bouts are held at the International Boxing Club in Oregon.

Parks and recreation[edit]

Toledo Zoo pedestrian bridge

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

These higher education institutions operate campuses in Metro Toledo:

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Toledo Public Schools operates public schools within much of the city limits, along with the Washington Local School District in northern Toledo. Toledo is also home to several public charter schools including two Imagine Schools. Additionally, several private and parochial primary and secondary schools are present within the Toledo area. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Toledo operates Roman Catholic primary and secondary schools. Private high schools in Toledo include Maumee Valley Country Day School, Central Catholic High School, St. Francis de Sales High School, St. John's Jesuit High School and Academy, Notre Dame Academy, St. Ursula Academy (Ottawa Hills), Cardinal Stritch Catholic High School (Oregon), the Toledo Islamic Academy, Freedom Christian Academy, Toledo Christian Schools, Emmanuel Christian, the David S. Stone Hebrew Academy (Sylvania), Monclova Christian Academy, and Apostolic Christian Academy.

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Toledo, Ohio

The eleven county Northwest Ohio/Toledo/Fremont media market includes over 1 million residents.[citation needed] The Blade, a daily newspaper founded in 1835, is the primary newspaper in Toledo. The front page asserts that it is "One of America's Great Newspapers." The city's arts and entertainment weekly is the Toledo City Paper. In March 2005, the weekly newspaper Toledo Free Press began publication, and it has a focus on news and sports. Other weeklies include the West Toledo Herald, El Tiempo, La Prensa, Sojourner's Truth, and Toledo Journal. Toledo Tales provides satire and parody of life in the Glass City. The Toledo Journal is an African-American owned newspaper. It is published weekly, and normally focuses on African-American issues.

There are nine television stations in Toledo. They are: 5 (Cable Only) WT05CW, 11 WTOLCBS, 13 WTVGABC, 24 WNWO-TVNBC, 30 WGTE-TVPBS, 36 WUPWFox, 38 W38DH – HSN, 40 WLMBFN, and 48 (Over-the-air Only) and 58 (Cable Only, per the "My 58" moniker) WMNT-CAMy Network TV. 27 WBGU - PBS in Bowling Green is also viewable. Toledoans can also watch the adjacent Detroit and Ann Arbor market stations, both over-the air and on cable. There are also fourteen radio stations licensed in Toledo.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Major Highways[edit]

The Veterans' Glass City Skyway
The Anthony Wayne Bridge

There are three major highway interstates that run through Toledo. Interstate 75 (I-75) travels north-south and provides a direct route to Detroit and Cincinnati. The Ohio Turnpike carries east-west traffic on Interstate 80 and Interstate 90. The Turnpike is connected to Toledo via exits 52, 59, 64, 71, and 81. The Turnpike connects Toledo to South Bend and Chicago to the West and Cleveland to the East. In addition, there are two minor highway interstates in the area. Interstate 475 is a loop that both begins and ends on I-75 in Perrysburg and West Toledo, respectively. Interstate 280 is a spur that travels mostly through east Toledo. This highway travels over the newly constructed Veterans' Glass City Skyway which was the most expensive ODOT project ever at its completion. This 400-foot (120 m) tall bridge includes a glass covered pylon, which lights up at night, adding a distinctive feature to Toledo's skyline.[45] The Anthony Wayne Bridge, a 3,215-foot (980 m) suspension bridge crossing the Maumee River, has been a staple of Toledo's skyline for more than 70 years. It is locally known as the "High-Level Bridge."

Mass Transit[edit]

Local bus service is provided by the Toledo Area Regional Transit Authority; commonly shortened to TARTA. Toledo area Paratransit Services; TARPS are used for the disabled. Intercity bus service is provided by Greyhound Lines whose station is located at 811 Jefferson Ave. in Downtown Toledo. Megabus also provides daily trips to Ann Arbor, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Pittsburgh. Toledo has various cab companies within its city limits and other ones that surround the metro. Amtrak also has a station just South of Downtown Toledo, which intertwines with taxi services and Tarta easily.

Airports[edit]

Toledo Express Airport, located in the suburbs of Monclova and Swanton Townships, is the primary airport that serves the city. Additionally, Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport is 45 miles north. Toledo Executive Airport (formerly Metcalf Field) is a general aviation airport southeast of Toledo near the I-280 and Ohio SR 795 interchange. Toledo Suburban Airport is another general aviation airport located in Lambertville, MI just north of the state border.

Rail transportation[edit]

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Toledo under the Capitol Limited and the Lake Shore Limited. Both lines stop at Martin Luther King, Jr. Plaza which was built as Central Union Terminal by the New York Central Railroad—along its Water Level Route—in 1950. Toledo previously had a streetcar system and interurban railways[46] linking it to other nearby towns. Freight rail service in Toledo is operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway, CSX Transportation, Canadian National Railway, Ann Arbor Railroad, and Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway. All except Wheeling have local terminals; Wheeling operates into Toledo from the east through trackage rights on Norfolk Southern to connect with the Ann Arbor and CN railroads. Of the seven Ohio stations served by Amtrak, Toledo was the busiest in fiscal year 2011, boarding or detraining 66,413 passengers.[47]

Utilities[edit]

Water[edit]

The Division of Water Treatment filters an average of 80 million gallons of water per day for 500,000 people in the greater Toledo Metropolitan area.[48] The Division of Water Distribution serves 136,000 metered accounts and 10,000 fire hydrants and maintains more than 1,100 miles (1,800 km) of water mains.[49]

In August 2014, two samples from a water treatment plant toxin test showed signs of microcystis. Roughly 400,000, including residents of Toledo and several surrounding communities in Ohio and Michigan were affected by the water contamination. Residents were told not to use, drink, cook with, or boil any tap water on the evening of August 1, 2014.[50] The Ohio National Guard delivered water and food to residents living in contaminated areas. As of 3 August 2014, nobody had reported being sick and the governor had declared a state of emergency in three counties.[51][52] The ban was lifted on August 4.[53]

Notable residents[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Toledo linked with Toledo, Spain as sister cities in 1931, creating the first Sister Cities relationship in North America. In total Toledo has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI):[54]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Official records for Toledo were kept at downtown from January 1871 to January 1943, Toledo Municipal Airport from February 1943 to December 1945, Metcalf Field from January 1946 to 11 January 1955, and at Toledo Express Airport since 12 January 1955. For more information, see ThreadEx.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 17, 2013. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Toledo, OH Metro Area". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved February 6, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c Federal Writers' Project (1940). The Ohio Guide. US History Publishers. ISBN 9781603540346. 
  8. ^ a b Gieck, Jack (1988). A Photo Album of Ohio’s Canal Era, 1825–1913. Kent: Kent State University Press. ISBN 9780873383530. 
  9. ^ Mitchell, Gordon (June 2004). "History Corner: Ohio-Michigan Boundary War, Part 2". Professional Surveyor Magazine. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  10. ^ Simonis, Louis A. (1979). Maumee River, 1835. Defiance: Defiance County Historical Society. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "Ohio - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 30, 2012. 
  12. ^ Boyd-Barrett, Claudia (July 28, 2012). "Renovations start at downtown's Promenade Park". The Blade (Toledo). Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Sinkhole swallows car at Bancroft St & Detroit Ave". WTVG (Toledo). July 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  14. ^ Long, Christine (July 16, 2013). "Basements flood in West Toledo neighborhood after sewer caves in". WTVG (Toledo). Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  15. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  16. ^ "History of the Oak Openings Region". Green Ribbon Initiative. Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Station Name: OH TOLEDO EXPRESS AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 31, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Thread Stations Extremes". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 27, 2011. 
  20. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for TOLEDO/EXPRESS, OH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  21. ^ "State & County QuickFacts: Toledo (city), Ohio". U.S. Census Bureau. July 8, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  22. ^ a b From 15% sample
  23. ^ "Thousands added to Toledo census count". The Blade (Toledo). January 14, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2009. 
  24. ^ "State & County QuickFacts: Toledo (city), Ohio". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 30, 2012. 
  25. ^ "QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000 - Toledo city, Ohio". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
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  29. ^ Clymer, Floyd (1950). Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925. New York: Bonanza Books. p. 158. 
  30. ^ "Toledo, Ohio". Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  31. ^ Ramsey, Duane (July 30, 2009). "State awards solar research grant to UT, BGSU". Toledo Free Press (Toledo). Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  32. ^ Swicord, Jeff (July 28, 2009). "Old US Industrial Town Looking Forward to a Green Future". Voice of America (Washington, D.C.). Archived from the original on August 25, 2009. 
  33. ^ Lane, Tahree; Smith, Ryan E. (January 20, 2008). "Public art effort expands as Toledo program takes on change in 30th year". The Blade (Toledo). Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Toledo Sculpture Tours". Arts Commission of Greater Toledo. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Ballet Theatre of Toledo". Destination Toledo. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  36. ^ Barhite, Brandi (December 26, 2008). "'Saturday Night In Toledo' author changes his tune". Toledo Free Press (Toledo). Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  37. ^ "Saturday Night in Toledo, Ohio". Toledo History Box. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  38. ^ Reindl, J. C. (March 22, 2010). "Music fades, curtain closes on once-hot Toledo night spot". The Blade. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  39. ^ Kisiel, Ralph (March 1, 1984). "Sweltering Night Keeps City Fresh in the Memory of Yes". The Blade. p. 2. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  40. ^ Baird, Kirk (August 26, 2010). "TV series 'Melissa & Joey' is set in Toledo, but city lacks starring role". The Blade (Toledo). Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  41. ^ Kent, Julie (December 17, 2013). "Cleveland Losing its Lingerie Sporting Football Team the Crush to Toledo". The Cleveland Leader. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  42. ^ "History of Tony Packo's: The Real Story". Tony Packo's. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  43. ^ Curry Lance, Keith; Lyons, Ray (November 15, 2009). "America's Star Libraries: Who's In, Who's Out". Library Journal. New York. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  44. ^ "University/Parks Trail". Metroparks of the Toledo Area. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  45. ^ "Ohio DOT endorses design for Maumee River crossing". Civil Engineering 70 (9): 12. September 2000. Retrieved August 4, 2014 – via Transportation Research Board. 
  46. ^ Patch, David (May 27, 2007). "Toledo was hub of interurban 100 years ago". The Blade. Toledo. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  47. ^ "Amtrak Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2011: State of Ohio". Amtrak. December 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  48. ^ "Division of Water Treatment". City of Toledo. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  49. ^ "Division of Water Distribution". City of Toledo. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  50. ^ Henry, Tom (August 3, 2014). "Water crisis grips hundreds of thousands in Toledo area, state of emergency declared". The Blade (Toledo). Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  51. ^ Capelouto, Susanna; Morgenstein, Mark (August 3, 2014). "400,000 in Toledo, Ohio, water scare await test results". CNN. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  52. ^ Queally, James (August 2, 2014). "Toxic Ohio tap water tested as 500,000 residents wait". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  53. ^ Karimi, Faith; Morgenstein, Mark (August 4, 2014). "'Our water is safe,' Toledo mayor says in lifting ban". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  54. ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved March 11, 2014. 
  55. ^ "Poznań - Miasta partnerskie". 1998–2013 Urząd Miasta Poznania (in Polish). City of Poznań. Archived from the original on September 23, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bloom, Matthew (Spring 2010). "Symbiotic Growth in the Swamp: Toledo and Northwest Ohio, 1860–1900". Northwest Ohio History 77 (2): 85–104. 

External links[edit]