Toller Cranston performs a split jump at the 1974 World Figure Skating Championships
|Full name||Toller Shalitoe Montague Cranston
April 20, 1949 |
|Home town||Kirkland Lake|
|Height||172 cm (5 ft 8 in)|
|Former coach||Ellen Burka
|Skating club||TCS & CC|
|Olympic medal record|
|Men's figure skating|
|Competitor for Canada|
Toller Shalitoe Montague Cranston, CM (born April 20, 1949) is a Canadian figure skater and painter. He is the 1971–1976 Canadian national champion, the 1974 World bronze medallist, and the 1976 Olympic bronze medallist. Despite never winning Worlds due to his poor compulsory figures, he won the small medal for free skating at the 1972 and 1974 World Figure Skating Championships. Cranston is credited by many with bringing a new level of artistry to men's figure skating.
Cranston was born in Hamilton, Ontario in 1949 and grew up in Kirkland Lake. When he was 11, his family moved to suburban Montreal. Growing up, Cranston had an uneasy relationship with his family, especially his mother, who was also a painter and who had a domineering and self-centered personality. He later compared his childhood to "being in jail". In school he had the habit of asking provocative questions that made his teachers think he was being disruptive. Although he enjoyed history, he disliked more structured subjects like mathematics.
After high school, Cranston attended the École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal. By his third year, he became restless with his studies. One of his teachers suggested that there was nothing more he could learn at the school, so Cranston set out at that point to establish himself as a professional artist.
In 1976, he teamed with personal manager Elva Oglanby to write his first book, Toller, a mixture of autobiography, sketches, poems, paintings, humour and tongue-in-cheek observations. It reached number two in the Canadian non-fiction charts. Cranston co-wrote the autobiographical Zero Tollerance (1997) with Martha Lowder Kimball, and a second volume, When Hell Freezes Over: Should I Bring My Skates? (2000), also with Kimball. While he described a sexual tryst between himself and Ondrej Nepela in the second book as well as affairs with women, in his books he presents himself as having lived without forming strong romantic or emotional attachments.
As of 2010, he lives in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, where his main artistic outlet is now his painting, which often incorporates themes related to skating.
After an initial failed experience with ballet lessons, Cranston started skating at the age of 7, when his parents bought him hockey skates. He experimented on his own with trying to dance on the ice, and was only later told that what he was doing was called "figure skating". His mother was reluctant to allow him to pursue the sport seriously, but at the age of 11 he met Eva Vasak, who was impressed by his talent and offered to coach him for free. Vasak coached him for the next eight years.
When Cranston was 13, he developed Osgood-Schlatter disease and was initially told that he would never skate again. After eight weeks in a cast, he resumed training, and won the 1964 Canadian Junior Championship the next month. In the next few years, however, Cranston met with little success at the senior level. As he was dividing his attention with art school at this time, his physical conditioning was poor and he struggled to make it through his programs, which at that time were 5 minutes for senior men.
After failing to make the Canadian team for the 1968 Winter Olympics, Cranston struggled with motivation and lack of training discipline. His career turned a corner in the following season when he began to work with coach Ellen Burka in Toronto. Burka forced him to do complete runthroughs of his entire program and his results began to improve: third at the Canadian championships in 1969, and second in 1970.
Cranston was a clockwise spinner and jumper. He quickly gained a reputation as the most innovative and exciting artistic skater of his time, one of the first to emphasize use of the whole body to express the music, to lie down while sliding down the ice and to wear elaborate costumes. He was particularly known for the quality and inventiveness of his spins, which were widely copied by other skaters. The quality of his precision landings and inventive choreography was topped by his combination jumps that included triple revolution jumps. Soon reports from competitions of this period began to mention younger skaters who had become "Tollerized" by attempting to copy Cranston's style, which was characterized by contrasting very stretched positions with a high free leg with more angular, bent-leg positions, and the incorporation of elements such as running toe steps and high kicks in step sequences. Many of his original spins included many changes of positions that seemed to defy gravity. His Russian split jump was "over split" which brought his skates up to shoulder height instead of waist height.
Even during his competitive career, Cranston had talked about his goal in skating being to create what he called "theatre on ice", or skating as a form of dance expression, rather than winning medals. He explained that the purpose of perfecting the technical aspects of the sport was to allow the body to express the music or emotion.
Cranston won his first national title in 1971 with a performance that included triple salchow and loop jumps, and received a standing ovation from the audience. It was in the 1972 season that he truly established his reputation in the sport. At the 1972 Canadian championships, his marks included four 6.0s for artistic impression and six 5.9s for technical merit. At this time the Artistic Impression mark was supposed to be graded on the quality of the jumps, landings and spins and the choreography to the music. Cranston skated poor compulsory figures at the 1972 Winter Olympics, but turned in a strong program to finish 5th in the free skating. Then, at the 1972 World Figure Skating Championships, he won the free skating with another superb performance, again landing triple loop and salchow jumps and receiving a thunderous standing ovation as well as a perfect 6.0 mark for artistic impression.
|This section requires expansion with: details on 1973-76 seasons. (June 2010)|
After the 1976 competitive season, Cranston began a long career in professional figure skating. Following up on his earlier-stated goal of developing "theatre on ice", Cranston performed in his own tour, "The Ice Show", also featuring Gordon McKellen, Colleen O'Connor and Jim Millns, and several other former elite competitors. He later toured in Europe with Holiday on Ice, and in 1983 appeared in a short-lived production at Radio City Music Hall in New York City with Peggy Fleming and Robin Cousins.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Cranston made a series of skating specials for CBC television. The best of these was "Strawberry Ice" (1982), a fantasy that also featured Peggy Fleming, Sandra and Val Bezic, Allen Schramm, and Sarah Kawahara, with imaginative costumes designed by Frances Dafoe. The production won a variety of awards, including an ACTRA Award and was redistributed in 67 countries. Cranston's other TV specials included "Dream Weaver" (1979) and "Magic Planet" (1983).
His other television credits include an appearance in an ice ballet production of "The Snow Queen", also starring John Curry and Janet Lynn. In 1983 he portrayed the character of Tybalt in "Romeo and Juliet on Ice", a production starring Brian Pockar and Dorothy Hamill as the title characters. He appeared in Joni Mitchell's concert film "Shadows and Light" He made a non-skating acting appearance in the 1983 short film "I am a Hotel", a music video featuring songs by Leonard Cohen. He is also on the back cover of Joni Mitchell's album "Hejira".
Throughout the 1980s, he was a regular competitor at the World Professional Figure Skating Championships and other made-for-TV pro skating events. In 1986, he was one of the cast members of the original IMG-produced American Stars on Ice tour (no relation to the earlier Canadian TV series of the same name), and appeared with the show for the next several years.
Cranston was also a commentator on CBC television for figure skating events. However, in 1991, the CBC fired him, citing concerns from the Canadian Figure Skating Association that his often brutally frank and opinionated commentary was denigrating to Canadian skaters. Cranston filed a lawsuit against the CBC that was eventually resolved in his favor.
In the summer of 1990, Cranston agreed to coach American skater Christopher Bowman, who moved into Cranston's home in Toronto. The influence of the notoriously unstable Bowman on Cranston's life was disastrous; Cranston later wrote, "...drug dealers buzzed the front doorbell morning, noon, and night. Prostitutes invaded my house from the street. Christopher sometimes announced that he was going out for a carton of milk and didn't return for three days." Cranston finally threw Bowman out in the fall of 1991. Meanwhile, he had become so depressed that he was unable to paint, and started taking drugs himself. At this time, he began to make changes in his lifestyle: he sold his Toronto home, which was cluttered with art he had collected over the years, and bought a home in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.
Cranston continued to perform in Canada with Stars on Ice and IMG's smaller-city tour, Skate the Nation, for the next few years. However, in the fall of 1994, he broke his leg while practising for a holiday show in Vail, Colorado. Although he made a few skating appearances afterwards, in 1997 he decided to retire from professional skating before (as he described it) he became a parody of himself.
|North American Championships||6th||2nd|
|Skate Canada International||1st||1st|
|Canadian Championships||3rd J.||1st J.||4th||3rd||2nd||1st||1st||1st||1st||1st||1st|
|J. = Junior level|
Cranston was inducted into the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame in 1976, the Canadian Figure Skating Hall of Fame in 1997, the Order of Canada in 1977 and Canada's Walk of Fame in 2003. He was inducted into the World Figure Skating Hall of Fame in 2004.
After leaving the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Cranston became self-supporting as an artist, making enough money to cover his skating expenses. He held his first exhibition at his coach Ellen Burka's home in the spring of 1969. In November 1971, he had another successful one-man show in Toronto, the result of almost a year's work.
As of 1987 Cranston has been residing in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico. He continues to paint and his latest work can be seen on his new official website. Cranston considers his art career as important as his skating career.
|This section requires expansion with: more information on his later career. (June 2010)|
- "Toller Cranston". sports-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "Toller Cranston interview". Today magazine. 1981.
- Oglanby, Elva, Toller, ISBN 0-7715-9944-7
- Cranston, Toller; Lowder Kimball, Martha (2000). When Hell Freezes Over: Should I Bring My Skates?. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-2337-5.
- Fitz-Gerald, Sean (October 15, 2013). "‘A legend’: Meet the Canadian figure skating coach who survived the Holocaust, revolutionized her sport and still works at 92". National Post.
- 72 Worlds, Skating magazine, May 1972
- Theatre on Ice, Skating magazine, March 1972
- Canadians, Skating magazine, March 1971
- Olympics '72, Skating magazine, April 1972
- Cranston, Toller, Zero Tollerance, ISBN 0-7710-2334-0
- BFI database
- BFI database
- IMDB cast credits for Stars on Ice
- IMDB cast credits for The Big Show
- IMDB information for Romeo and Juliet on Ice
- Video at Joni Mitchell's web site
- IMDB information for I Am a Hotel
- Hamilton, Scott, Landing It, ISBN 1-57566-466-6
- "Skate Canada Results Book - Volume 1 - 1896 - 1973" (PDF). Skate Canada.
- "Skate Canada Results Book - Volume 2 - 1974 - current" (PDF). Skate Canada.
- "Canadian National Championships Medallists" (PDF). Skate Canada.
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