Tomás Mac Curtain

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Tomás Mac Curtain
Tomasmacurtain.jpg
Born (1884-03-20)20 March 1884
Mourne Abbey, Ireland
Died 20 March 1920(1920-03-20) (aged 36)
Cork, Ireland
Nationality Irish
Occupation Lord Mayor of Cork
Known for Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork assassinated by members of the Royal Irish Constabulary

Tomás Mac Curtain (20 March 1884 - 20 March 1920) was a Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork, Ireland. He was elected in January 1920.

He was born at Ballyknockane in the Parish of Mourne Abbey in March 1884. He attended Burnfort National School. In 1897 the family moved to Blackpool on the northside of Cork city where he attended The North Monastery School. Mac Curtain became active in numerous cultural and political movements from the turn of the nineteenth century when he joined the Blackpool, Cork branch of Conradh na Gaeilge (the Gaelic League), becoming its secretary in 1902. He had diverse interests in music, poetry, history, archaeology and Irish history. He worked in his early career as a clerk and in his free time taught Irish to those who wished to learn. In 1911 he joined the Fianna Éireann and was a founding member of the Irish Volunteers.

He met Eilish Walsh (Eibhlís Breathnach) at a Gaelic League meeting and they married in 1908.[1] They had six children, five of whom survived into adulthood. The family lived over number 40 Thomas Davis Street where Tomás had a small clothing and rainwear factory.

In April 1916 at the outset of the Easter Rising Mac Curtain commanded a force of up to 1,000 men of the Irish Volunteers who assembled at various locations around County Cork. From the volunteers headquarters at Sheare's Street in the city, Mac Curtain and his officers awaited orders from the volunteer leadership in Dublin but conflicting instructions and confusion prevailed and as a result the Cork volunteers never entered the fray. A tense stand-off developed when British forces surrounded the volunteer hall and continued for a week until a negotiated agreement led to the surrender of the volunteers' arms to the then Lord Mayor of Cork Thomas Butterfield on the understanding that they would be returned at a later date. This did not happen however and Mac Curtain was jailed in the former Frongoch Prisoner of War camp in Wales. After the general amnesty of participants in the Rising 18 months later Mac Curtain returned to active duty as a Commandant of what was now the Irish Republican Army.[2]

He was elected in the January 1920 council elections as the Sinn Féin councillor for NW Ward No. 3 of Cork, and was chosen by his fellow councillors to be the Lord Mayor. He began a process of political reform within the city, making changes to the way in which the council operated and was run.[citation needed]

'Tomás Mac Curtain 1884-1920 Ardmhéara Chorcaí 30 Eanáir- 20 Márta 1920'

Murder[edit]

In January 1919 the Anglo-Irish war started and Mac Curtain became an officer in the IRA. On 20 March 1920, his 36th birthday, Mac Curtain was shot dead in front of his wife and son by a group of men with blackened faces, who were found to be members of the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) by the official inquest into the event.[3] In the wake of the killing which was in revenge for the shooting of a policeman,[4] Mac Curtain's house in the city's Blackpool area, was ransacked.

The killing caused widespread public outrage.[5] The coroner's inquest passed a verdict of wilful murder against British Prime Minister Lloyd George and against certain members of the RIC.[3] Michael Collins later ordered his personal assassination squad to hunt down and kill the police officers involved in the attack. RIC District Inspector Oswald Swanzy, who had ordered the attack, was fatally shot with Mac Curtain's revolver while leaving a Protestant church in Lisburn, County Antrim on 22 August 1920, sparking a "pogrom" against the Catholic residents of the town.[6][7] Mac Curtain is buried in St. Finbarr's Cemetery, Cork.

His successor to the position of Lord Mayor, Terence MacSwiney, died while on hunger strike in Brixton prison, London.[8]

Tomás Óg Mac Curtain[edit]

Mac Curtain's son, Tomás Óg (junior) (1915–1994) later became a leading republican and member of the IRA Executive (whose main purpose was to elect the Chief of Staff of the IRA).[9] In 1940, he was sentenced to death by the De Valera government for mortally wounding a Garda Síochána at the end of St. Patrick Street Cork city centre on 3 January 1940. Detective Garda Roche, from Union Quay Barracks, had shadowed him for weeks and following a confrontation, he was shot. However Tomás was granted clemency because his father had been killed by the British Army. He was released after seven years. He later served on the IRA executive during the Border Campaign.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tomas MacCURTAIN at fermoyireland.50megs.com
  2. ^ http://www.corkcity.ie/ourservices/recreationamenityculture/museum/exhibitionsatcorkpublicmuseum2006/mainbody,3272,en.html
  3. ^ a b Coogan, Tim Pat (1991). Michael Collins. Arrow Books. pp. 123–124. ISBN 0-09-968580-9. 
  4. ^ Peter Hart, The IRA at War 1916-1923, p. 77
  5. ^ O'Sullivan, Donal J (1999). The Irish constabularies, 1822-1922: a century of policing in Ireland. Brandon,. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-86322-257-3. 
  6. ^ Coogan, p. 149.
  7. ^ 'When the killing starts do you defend God or family?' Irish Independent, [1], accessed 15/12/09,
  8. ^ Coogan, p. 155.
  9. ^ Seán Cronin. Frank Ryan, p. 178. Repsol-Skellig, 1980. ISBN 0-86064-018-3
Civic offices
Preceded by
William F. O'Connor
Lord Mayor of Cork
1920
Succeeded by
Terence MacSwiney