Tomás de la Cerda, 3rd Marquis of la Laguna
Tomás de la Cerda
Marqués de la Laguna
|Viceroy of New Spain|
30 November 1680 – 16 November 1686
|Preceded by||Bishop Payo Enríquez de Rivera|
|Succeeded by||The Count of Monclova|
|Born||24 December 1638
|Died||22 April 1692
|Spouse(s)||María Luisa Manrique de Lara, 11th Countess of Paredes|
Tomás de la Cerda, 3rd Marquis of la Laguna, Grandee of Spain, (in full, Spanish: Don Tomás Antonio Manuel Lorenzo de la Cerda y Aragón, tercer marqués de la Laguna de Camero Viejo, Grande de España, caballero de la orden de Alcántara, comendador de la Moraleja, maestre de campo del Tercio Provincial de las Milicias de Sevilla, ministro del Consejo y Cámara de Indias, capitán general de mar Océano, del Ejército y Costas de Andalucía, Virrey de Galicia, Virrey gobernador y capitán general de Nueva España y presidente de su Real Audiencia, Mayordomo mayor de la reina Mariana de Baviera), (24 December 1638 - 22 April 1692), was a Spanish nobleman, viceroy of Galicia and of New Spain from 1680 to 1686. He is better known as the Count of Paredes, though he held this title only as consort.
Tomás de la Cerda was born in Cogolludo, Spain, to an illustrious Spanish family with longstanding military and political connections. He was the 4th child of Antonio de la Cerda, 7th Duke of Medinaceli, and of Ana Portocarrero, 5th Duchess of Alcalá. In 1675, he married María Luisa Manrique de Lara, 11th Countess of Paredes, with whom he had three children. In 1679, he was appointed viceroy of Galicia but never assumed the position, as he was almost immediately re-appointed to the more important of viceroy of New Spain.
As viceroy of New Spain
During his term of office, 25,000 previously subjugated Indians in 24 pueblos of New Mexico rose against the Spanish. They killed all the Europeans they encountered, among them colonists, soldiers and missionaries. Twenty-one Franciscan missionaries were killed on 10 August 1680. The Indians mounted a surprise attack on Santa Fe, capital of the province. When this failed, they besieged the town for ten days. The Spanish who were able to escape made their way to Paso del Norte (now Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua), where they took refuge.
The viceroy repopulated the town of Santa Fe with 300 Spanish and Mestizo families, giving it the title of city. In 1681 he sent a force of cavalry to Nueva Vizcaya, New Spain to pursue the rebel Indians, but they refused to give battle. He also enlarged the garrisons of the region.
In 1681 Tomás de la Cerda Manrique de Lara sent another expedition to California, this one under the command of Captain Isidro Otondo. The expedition was charged with conquering the Indians and colonizing the territory. They explored the coast of Baja California as far as La Paz, and then returned to port in Navidad, Jalisco. In this expedition were three Jesuit missionaries, among them Father Eusebio Kino, later famous as a missionary, explorer and colonizer of Baja California, Sonora and Arizona. Kino had just arrived in New Spain, on 3 May 1681. The Jesuits were looking for a place to establish a mission to the Indians. Like the previous expeditions, this one was unsuccessful. It lasted three years and cost 225,000 pesos.
Capture of Veracruz
In 1683 the pirate Lorencillo with 800 men attacked Veracruz. Insufficiently garrisoned, the port fell. The inhabitants were shut up in the churches while the pirates sacked the city. They held it from 17 May to 23 May 1683. When Spanish forces arrived at Veracruz to do battle, the pirates quickly took to the sea. They left with enormous quantities of merchandise and 1,500 hostages. The booty was subsequently estimated at 7 million pesos. After leaving Veracruz, the pirates went on to attack Campeche and Yucatán.
On 22 May 1683, Antonio Benavides, marques de San Vicente disembarked at Veracruz. Better known subsequently as the impostor El Tapado, he claimed to be visitador general and governor of New Spain appointed by Queen Regent Mariana of Austria. He was arrested at Cuetlaxcoapa (Puebla), accused of being one of Lorencillo's pirates. From there he was taken to Mexico City in chains. On 12 July 1684 he was conducted to the scaffold, but when he appeared there was an eclipse of the sun. Although the people viewed this as Heaven's displeasure at the execution of an innocent, he was hung anyway.
Viceroy's de la Cerda's term was extended three years by king Charles II. On 16 November 1686 he turned over authority to his successor, Melchor Portocarrero, 3rd Count of Monclova. The viceroy and his wife, María Luisa Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga, had a friendly relationship with the great Mexican poet Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.
- Cerda Manrique de Lara, Tomás Antonio de la. Enciclopedia de México (in Spanish) 3. Mexico City. 1996. ISBN 1-56409-016-7.
- García Purón, Manuel (1984). México y sus gobernantes (in Spanish) 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua.
- Orozco Linares, Fernando (1985). Gobernantes de México (in Spanish). Mexico City: Panorama Editorial. ISBN 968-38-0260-5.
- Orozco Linares, Fernando (1988). Fechas Históricas de México (in Spanish). Mexico City: Panorama Editorial. ISBN 968-38-0046-7.
- Hobbs, Nicolas (2007). "Grandes de España" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 October 2008.
Enríquez de Rivera
|Viceroy of New Spain
The Count of Monclova
Antonio de la Cerda
Laguna de Camero Viejo
José María de la Cerda