Tomato juice

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Tomato Juice in a glass, decorated with tomato slice and sprig

Tomato juice is a juice made from tomatoes. It is usually used as a beverage, either plain or in cocktails such as a Bloody Mary or Michelada.

History[edit]

Tomato juice was first served as a beverage in 1917 by Louis Perrin at the French Lick Springs Hotel in southern Indiana, when he ran out of orange juice and needed a quick substitute. His combination of squeezed tomatoes, sugar and his special sauce became an instant success as Chicago businessmen spread the word about the tomato juice cocktail.[1][2]

Production[edit]

Many commercial manufacturers of tomato juice also add salt. Other ingredients are also often added, such as onion powder, garlic powder, and other spices. In the United States, mass-produced tomato juice began to be marketed in the mid 1920s, and became a popular breakfast drink a few years thereafter.[3] In Canada, by law, tomato juice must be made from whole tomatoes; in the United States, most tomato juice is made from tomato paste.[4]

Health benefits[edit]

Tomato juice, canned, salt added
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 73 kJ (17 kcal)
4.24 g
Sugars 3.56 g
Dietary fiber 0.4 g
0.05 g
0.76 g
Vitamins
Vitamin C
(22%)
18.3 mg
Other constituents
Water 93.90 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

A small scale study in 2000 indicated that tomato juice contains a factor (codenamed P3) that inhibits platelets in blood from clumping together and forming blood clots.[5][6][7][8][9] The authors suggest this might be beneficial to diabetes sufferers. The actual effect of increased intake of tomato juice by diabetics has never been studied.

Tomato juice contains the antioxidant lycopene.[10] Scientific studies have suggested that lycopene consumption may protect against prostate cancer, breast cancer, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease.[11] Epidemiological research has also shown that lycopene may protect against breast cancer[12] and myocardial infarction (heart attack).[13]

Nutritional information[edit]

1 cup of canned tomato juice (243ml) contains, according to the USDA:[14]

  • Calories : 41
  • Fat: 0.12
  • Carbohydrates: 10.30
  • Fibers: 1
  • Protein: 1.85
  • Cholesterol: 0

Uses[edit]

Tomato juice with other ingredients found in Bloody Mary mix

In Canada and Mexico, tomato juice is popular mixed with beer, the concoction is known in Canada as Calgary Red-Eye and in Mexico as Cerveza preparada. Tomato juice is the base for the cocktails Bloody Mary and Bloody Caesar, and the cocktail mixer Clamato.

Tomato juice is frequently used as a packing liquid for canned tomatoes, though it is sometimes replaced by tomato purée for international commerce due to tariff issues on vegetables vs. sauces. According to Cook's Illustrated magazine, tomatoes packed in juice as opposed to purée tend to win taste tests, being perceived as fresher tasting.[citation needed]

Tomato juice is used in the preparation of tomato juice agar, used to culture various species of Lactobacillus.

Among airplane passengers, tomato juice has an increased popularity, e.g. Lufthansa sold more than 1.7 million litres of tomato juice in 2008 - more than beer (at 1.65 million litre). Research has shown this to be due to the different pressure conditions in flights.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anne Hattes. "Tomato Juice". Relish, Aug. 2009.
  2. ^ http://www.frenchlick.com/aboutus/history/flsh
  3. ^ Nineteen Twenties - Kathleen Morgan Drowne, Patrick Huber - Google Books
  4. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/heinz-deal-to-save-hundreds-of-jobs-at-leamington-plant-1.2552388
  5. ^ Duttaroy, AK; Crosbie L; Gordon MJ (Jun 2001). "Effects of tomato extract on human platelet aggregation in vitro". Platelets 12 (4): 218–227. 
  6. ^ O'Kennedy, N; Crosbie L; van Lieshout M; Broom JI; Webb DJ; Duttaroy AK (2006). "Effects of tomato extract on platelet function: a double-blinded crossover study in healthy humans". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (3): 561–569. 
  7. ^ O'Kennedy, N; Crosbie L; van Lieshout M; Broom JI; Webb DJ; Duttaroy AK (2006). "Effects of antiplatelet components of tomato extract on platelet function in vitro and ex vivo: a time-course cannulation study in healthy humans". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (3): 570–579. 
  8. ^ JAMA - Tomato Juice and Platelet Aggregation in Type 2 Diabetes, August 18, 2004, Lazarus et al. 292 (7): 805
  9. ^ Tomatoes cut risk of heart disease and stroke, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland, 2000
  10. ^ "Health Benefits of raw tomato juice". Health Care. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  11. ^ A.V. Rao and S. Agarwal, Role of antioxidant lycopene in cancer and heart disease, J Am Coll Nutr 19 (2000), pp. 563–569.
  12. ^ A.V. Rao and L.G. Rao, Carotenoids and human health, Pharmacol Res 55 (2007), pp. 207–216.
  13. ^ Kohlmeier L, Kark JD, Gomez-Gracia E, Martin BC, Steck SE, Kardinaal AF, Ringstad J, Thamm M, Masaev V, Riemersma R, Martin-Moreno JM, Huttunen JK, Kok FJ. Lycopene and myocardial infarction risk in the EURAMIC Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Oct 15;146(8):618-26.
  14. ^ http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/
  15. ^ A question of taste: Popularity of in-flight tomato juice explained Research in Germany, copy hosted on Internet archive