Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||George P. Cosmatos|
|Produced by||James Jacks
|Written by||Kevin Jarre|
|Narrated by||Robert Mitchum|
|Music by||Bruce Broughton|
|Cinematography||William A. Fraker|
|Editing by||Frank J. Urioste
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Pictures|
|Running time||130 minutes|
Tombstone is a 1993 American Western directed by George P. Cosmatos, written by Kevin Jarre (who was also the original director, but was replaced early in production) and starring Kurt Russell and Val Kilmer, with Sam Elliott, Bill Paxton, Powers Boothe, Michael Biehn, and Dana Delany, in supporting roles.
The film is based on events in Tombstone, Arizona, including the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral and the Earp Vendetta Ride, during the 1880s. It depicts a number of western outlaws and lawmen, such as Wyatt Earp, William Brocius, Johnny Ringo, and Doc Holliday.
Tombstone premiered in theaters in wide release in the United States on December 24, 1993, grossing $56,505,065 in domestic ticket sales. The film was a financial success, and for the Western genre it ranks number 14 in the list of highest grossing films since 1979. Critical reception was generally positive, but the film failed to garner award nominations for production merits or acting from any mainstream motion picture organizations.
Wyatt Earp (Russell), a retired peace officer, reunites with his brothers Virgil (Elliott) and Morgan (Paxton) in Tucson, Arizona. They venture on to Tombstone, a small but growing mining town, to settle down. There they encounter Wyatt's friend Doc Holliday (Kilmer), a Southern gambler and expert gunslinger, who seeks relief from his tuberculosis in Arizona's drier climate. Also newly arrived in Tombstone with a traveling theatre troupe are Josephine Marcus (Delany) and Mr. Fabian (Zane). The married Wyatt attempts to resist a strong attraction to Josephine.
Wyatt's wife, Mattie Blaylock (Wheeler-Nicholson), is becoming dependent on laudanum. Just as Wyatt and his brothers begin to benefit from a stake in a gambling emporium and saloon, they have their first encounter with a band of outlaws called the Cowboys. Led by "Curly Bill" Brocius (Boothe), the Cowboys are identifiable by the red sashes worn around their waist. Conflict is narrowly avoided upon Wyatt's insistence that he is retired and no longer interested in a career enforcing the law. This is also the first face-to-face meeting for Holliday and Johnny Ringo (Biehn), who take an immediate dislike to one another.
As tensions rise, Wyatt is pressured to help rid the town of the Cowboys. Shooting aimlessly after a visit to an opium house, Curly Bill is ordered by Marshal White (Carey) to relinquish his firearms. Curly Bill shoots the marshal and is forcibly taken into custody by Wyatt. The arrest infuriates Ike Clanton (Lang) and the other Cowboys, who threaten Wyatt, his brothers, and Doc. Curly Bill stands trial, but is found not guilty due to lack of witnesses.
Virgil, unable to tolerate lawlessness, becomes the new marshal and imposes a weapons ban within the city limits. This leads to the legendary gunfight at the O.K. Corral, in which Billy Clanton (Church), Frank McLaury (Burke), and Tom McLaury are killed, Virgil and Morgan are wounded, and the allegiance of county sheriff Johnny Behan (Tenney) to the Cowboys is made clear. As retribution for the Cowboy deaths, Wyatt's brothers are ambushed: Morgan is killed, while Virgil is maimed.
A despondent Wyatt and his family leave Tombstone and board a train. Followed by Ike Clanton and Frank Stilwell, Wyatt sees that his family leaves safely, and then surprises the assassins who had come to kill them. Stilwell is killed, but Wyatt lets Clanton return to send a message. Wyatt announces that he is a U.S. Marshal and that he intends to kill any man he sees wearing a red sash. Wyatt, Doc, a reformed Cowboy named Sherman McMasters (Rooker), and allies Texas Jack Vermillion and Turkey Creek Jack Johnson, join forces to administer justice.
Wyatt and his posse are ambushed by the Cowboys in a riverside forest. Wyatt wades out into the river and engages in a gunfight which ends with Wyatt killing Brocius. Johnny Ringo then becomes the head of the Cowboys.
Doc's health is worsening and they depend on the accommodations of Henry Hooker (Heston). At Hooker's ranch, they encounter Josephine, learning that Mr. Fabian was shot by Cowboys who tried to steal Josephine's watch. Wyatt finally realizes he wants to be with Josephine, but is unable to commit to her because of his ongoing fight against the Cowboys. Ringo sends a messenger (dragging McMasters' corpse) to the ranch telling Wyatt that he wants a showdown to end the hostilities and Wyatt agrees. Doc knows he is a better match for Ringo, but is in no condition for a gunfight.
Wyatt sets out for the showdown, not knowing that Doc has already beat him to the scene. Doc surprises Ringo, and says they are now finishing their previous challenge "to play for blood". Doc fires the first shot, hitting and killing Ringo. Wyatt runs when he hears the gunshot, but encounters Doc. They hunt down and eliminate the Cowboys, although Ike Clanton escapes their vengeance by renouncing his red sash.
Doc is later sent to a sanatorium in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. After a visit from Wyatt, Doc looks at his bare feet and the condition of the bed in which he is lying: realizing he is about to die with his boots off, he passes away peacefully, muttering "I'll be damned. Oh, this is funny." At Doc's urging, Wyatt pursues Josephine, locating her in Denver. Robert Mitchum narrates an account of their long marriage, ending with Wyatt's death in Los Angeles in 1929.
According to a 2006 True West Magazine interview with Kurt Russell, Kevin Jarre and Kevin Costner were going to make the movie together, but disagreed over its focus. Costner felt that the emphasis should be on Wyatt Earp and decided to make his own movie with Lawrence Kasdan. Russell made an agreement with executive producer Andrew G. Vajna to finance Tombstone with a budget of $25 million.
Jarre and Russell wanted to cast Willem Dafoe as Doc Holliday, but Buena Vista refused to distribute the film if he was cast, due to Dafoe's role in the controversial The Last Temptation of Christ. As Costner was making a competing Wyatt Earp film, he used his then-considerable clout to convince most of the major studios to refuse to distribute Tombstone – Buena Vista was the only studio willing to do so. Jarre and Russell then went with their next choice, Val Kilmer.
Filming was plagued with several problems. Russell and Kilmer both have said that the screenplay was too long (Russell estimated by 30 pages). Kilmer told True West Magazine, "virtually every main character, every cowboy, for example, had a subplot and a story told, and none of them are left in the film." He said that over 100 people, cast and crew, either quit or were fired over the course of the production. Russell even went so far as to cut his own scenes in order to let other actors have more screen time.
Early in the production, screenwriter Jarre was fired as director due to his refusal to cut his screenplay and going over schedule. Disney panicked because the film was two weeks behind and contacted George P. Cosmatos, who had worked with executive producer Vajna earlier on Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985). After Cosmatos' death in 2005, Russell claimed in the True West Magazine interview that Cosmatos had in fact ghost-directed the movie on Russell's behalf. Russell claimed he gave Cosmatos a shot list every night for the next day, and developed a "secret sign language" on set to exert influence.
Robert Mitchum was originally set to play Newman Haynes Clanton, but suffered a horse riding accident which left him unable to work. Mitchum ultimately narrated the film, and the part was written out of the script. Much of Old Man Clanton's dialogue was spoken by other characters, particularly Curly Bill, who was effectively made the gang leader in lieu of Clanton. Glenn Ford was also cast as Marshall White, and Harry Carey, Jr. was to play a wagonmaster, but Ford dropped out of the project and Carey was cast as White.
The original motion picture soundtrack for Tombstone, was originally released by the Intrada Records label on December 25, 1993. On March 16, 2006, an expanded two-disc version of the film score was also released by Intrada Records. The expanded soundtrack features additional musical compositions by the Sinfonia of London session orchestra. The score for the film was composed and produced by Bruce Broughton. David Snell conducted the score, while Patricia Carlin edited the film's music.
The score contains strong echoes of Max Steiner's music for John Ford's 'The Searchers' (1956) with variations on the 'Indian Traders' theme used midway through the Ford movie.
|Tombstone: Complete Original Motion Picture Soundtrack|
|Film score by Bruce Broughton|
|2.||"Prologue; Main Title; And Hell Followed"||3:50|
|4.||"Arrival in Tombstone"||2:14|
|5.||"The Town Marshall; A Quarter Interest"||0:48|
|7.||"Gotta go to work"||1:10|
|9.||"Fortuitous Encounter; Wyatt And Josephine"||5:16|
|10.||"Thinking Out Loud"||0:28|
|11.||"Opium Den; Law Dogs; You Got A Fight Comin'"||7:08|
|13.||"The Antichrist; Gathering For A Fight; Walking To The Corral; OK Corral Gunfight"||7:36|
|15.||"The Dead Don't Dance; Dehan Warns Josephine; Upping The Ante; Morgan's Murder"||5:15|
|18.||"Hell's Comin'; Wyatt's Revenge"||3:53|
|19.||"No More Curly Bill"||0:36|
|20.||"The Former Fabian"||1:34|
|21.||"Brief Encounters; Ringo's Challenge; Doc And Wyatt"||5:38|
|22.||"You're No Daisy; Finishing It"||3:55|
|24.||"Looking At Heaven; End Credits"||8:45|
|1.||"Arrival in Tombstone [w/alternate intro]"||2:14|
|2.||"Josephine [short version]"||1:00|
|3.||"Fortuitous Encounter [w/alternate mid-section]"||2:26|
|4.||"Morgan's Death [short version]"||1:47|
|5.||"Tombstone [Main Theme Only]"||2:23|
|6.||"Pit Orchestra Warm-Up"||0:39|
|7.||"Thespian Overture [long]"||0:45|
A paperback novel published by Berkley Publishers titled Tombstone, was released on January 1, 1994. The book dramatizes the real-life events of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral and Earp Vendetta, as depicted in the film. It expands on western genre ideas written by Kevin Jarre's screenplay, which took place during the 1880s.
Tombstone premiered in movie theaters six months before Costner and Kasdan's version, Wyatt Earp, on December 24, 1993 in wide release throughout the United States. During its opening weekend, the film opened in 3rd place grossing $6,454,752 in business showing at 1,504 locations. The film's revenue increased by 35% in its second week of release, earning $8,720,255. For that particular weekend, the film jumped to 3rd place screening in 1,955 theaters. The film went on to earn $56,505,065 in total ticket sales in the North American market. For 1993 as a whole, the film would cumulatively rank at a box office performance position of 20.
Among mainstream critics in the U.S., the film received good reviews. Rotten Tomatoes reported that 73% of 44 sampled critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 6.3 out of 10. Following its cinematic release in 1993, Tombstone was named "One of the 5 greatest Westerns ever made" by True West Magazine. The film was also called "One of the year's 10 best!" by KCOP-TV in Los Angeles, California.
|"Grafted onto this traditional framework, the film's meditative aspects are generally too self-conscious to fit comfortably. Especially when the movie tries to imagine a more enlightened role for women in the Old West, the screenplay begins to strain."|
|—Stephen Holden, writing in The New York Times|
In a mixed review, Chris Hicks writing in the Deseret News said, "aside from Russell and Val Kilmer's scene-stealing, sickly, alcoholic Doc Holliday, there are so many characters coming and going, with none of them receiving adequate screen time, that it becomes difficult to keep track of them all." But he did comment that there were "some very entertaining moments here, with Russell spouting memorable tough-guy lines". Overall, he felt "Taken on its own terms, with some lowered expectations, Western fans will have fun." Emanuel Levy of the Variety staff believed the film was a "tough-talking but soft-hearted tale" which was "entertaining in a sprawling, old-fashioned manner." Regarding screenwriter Jarre's dialogue, he noted that "Despite the lack of emotional center and narrative focus, his script contains enough subplots and colorful characters to enliven the film and ultimately make it a fun, if not totally engaging, experience." The film however, was not without its detractors. James Berardinelli writing for ReelViews offered an almost entirely negative review recalling how he thought that "Not only is the last hour anti-climactic, but it's dull. Too many scenes feature lengthy segments of poorly-scripted dialogue, and, in some cases, character motivation becomes unclear. The gunplay is more repetitious than exciting. The result — a cobbled-together morass of silly lines and shoot- outs — doesn't work well."
Stephen Holden writing in The New York Times saw the film as being a "capacious western with many modern touches, the Arizona boom town and site of the legendary O.K. Corral has a seedy, vaudevillian grandeur that makes it a direct forerunner of Las Vegas." He expressed his satisfaction with the supporting acting saying that the "most modern psychological touch is its depiction of Josephine (Dana Delany), the itinerant actress with whom Wyatt falls in love at first sight, as the most casually and comfortably liberated woman ever to set foot in 1880's Arizona." Critic Louis Black, writing for The Austin Chronicle viewed Tombstone as a "mess" and that there were "two or three pre-climaxes but no climax. Its values are capitalist rather than renegade, which is okay if it's metaphoric rather than literal. Worse, as much as these actors heroically struggle to focus the film, the director more successfully hacks it apart." Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a C– rating calling it "preposterously inflated" at "135 minutes long". He observed the film as being a "three-hour rough cut that's been trimmed down to a slightly shorter rough cut" with "all that holds the film together is Kurt Russell's droll machismo." Author Geoff Andrew of Time Out commented that "Kilmer makes a surprisingly effective and effete Holliday". He negatively acknowledged that there was "a misguided romantic subplot and the ending rather sprawls" but ultimately exclaimed the film was "'rootin', tootin' entertainment with lots of authentic facial hair."
|"From the audience's viewpoint, it's difficult to assign responsibility for the most serious of this film's shortcomings, but one thing is clear: somewhere along the way, the creative process misfired. Large segments of Tombstone belong buried at Boot Hill."|
|—James Berardinelli, writing for ReelViews|
Richard Harrington of The Washington Post highlighted on the film's shortcomings by declaring, "too much of Tombstone rings hollow. In retrospect, not much happens and little that does seems warranted. There are so many unrealized relationships you almost hope for redemption in a longer video version. This one is unsatisfying and unfulfilling." Alternately though, columnist Bob Bloom of the Journal & Courier openly remarked that the film "May not be historically accurate, but offers a lot of punch for the buck." He concluded by saying it was "A tough, guilty-pleasure Western."
Following its cinematic release in theaters, the film was released in VHS video format on November 11, 1994. The Region 1 Code widescreen edition of the film was released on DVD in the United States on December 2, 1997. Special features for the DVD include French and Spanish subtitles, Dolby Digital Surround Sound, original theatrical trailers, and chapter search options. A director's cut of Tombstone was also officially released on DVD on January 15, 2002. The DVD version includes a two-disc set and features The Making Of Tombstone Featurette in three parts; "An Ensemble Cast," "Making An Authentic Western," and "The Gunfight At The O.K. Corral". Other features include audio commentary by Director George P. Cosmatos, an interactive Tombstone timeline, Director's Original Storyboards: O.K. Corral Sequence, The Tombstone "Epitaph" – an actual newspaper account, Faro At The Oriental: Game Of Chance – DVD-ROM Feature, and a collectible Tombstone map.
The widescreen hi-definition Blu-ray Disc edition of the theatrical cut was released on April 27, 2010, featuring the making of Tombstone, director's original storyboards, trailers and TV spots. A supplemental viewing option for the film in the media format of Video on demand is available as well.
- "Tombstone". The Numbers. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
- "Tombstone". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
- Myrna Oliver (2005-04-27). "George P. Cosmatos, 64; Director Was Known for Saving Troubled Projects". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
- Richard Harrington (1993-12-12). "‘Tombstone’ (R)". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
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- Henry Cabot Beck (2006-10-01). "The "Western" Godfather". True West Magazine. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
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- Tippette, Giles (January 1, 1994). Tombstone. Berkley. ISBN 978-0-425-15806-7.
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- Tombstone - DVD Acclaim. Video.com. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
- Holden, Stephen (December 24, 1993). A Fractious Old West in a Modern Moral Universe. The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- Hicks, Chris (December 28, 1993). Tombstone. Deseret News. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- Levy, Emanuel (December 22, 1993). Tombstone. Variety. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- Berardinelli, James (December 25, 1993). Tombstone. ReelViews. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- Black, Louis (December 31, 1993). Tombstone. The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
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- Andrew, Geoff (1993). Tombstone. Time Out. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
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- Bloom, Bob (September 20, 2003). Tombstone. Journal & Courier. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- "Tombstone VHS Format". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
- "Tombstone DVD". Video.com. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
- "Tombstone Vista Series DVD". Video.com. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
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- Further reading
- Marks, Paula (1996). And Die in the West: The Story of the O.K. Corral Gunfight. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2888-7.
- Ross, Thom (2001). Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55591-184-3.
- Waldman, Scott (2003). Gunfight at the O.k. Corral: Wyatt Earp Upholds the Law (Great Moments in American History). Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-4393-7.
- Hughes, Howard (2008). Stagecoach to Tombstone: The Filmgoers' Guide to Great Westerns. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-571-5.
- Pascoe, Jill (2008). Arizona's Haunted History. Irongate Press. ISBN 978-0-9754746-1-7.
- Wheeler, Richard (2004). Trouble in Tombstone. Signet. ISBN 978-0-451-21370-9.
- Tanner, Karen (2001). Doc Holliday: A Family Portrait. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3320-1.
- Lubet, Steven (2004). Murder in Tombstone: The Forgotten Trial of Wyatt Earp (The Lamar Series in Western History). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10426-4.
- Blake, Michael (2006). Hollywood And the O.K. Corral: Portrayals of the Gunfight And Wyatt Earp. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-2632-4.
- Rosa, Joseph (1999). Age of the Gunfighter: Men and Weapons on the Frontier 1840-1900. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2761-3.
- Laurence, Yadon (2008). 200 Texas Outlaws and Lawmen: 1835-1935. Pelican Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58980-514-9.
- Corkin, Stanley (2004). Cowboys As Cold Warriors: The Western and U.S. History (Culture and the Moving Image). Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-59213-254-6.
- Gatto, Steve (2000). The Real Wyatt Earp: A Documentary Biography. High Lonesome Books. ISBN 978-0-944383-51-3.
- Tefertiller, Casey (1999). Wyatt Earp: The Life Behind the Legend. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-28362-1.
- Masterson, W.B. (2009). Famous Gunfighters of the Western Frontier: Wyatt Earp, Doc Holliday, Luke Short and Others. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-47014-6.
- Lake, Stuart (1994). Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal. Pocket. ISBN 978-0-671-88537-3.
- Herda, D.J. (2010). They Call Me Doc: The Story Behind the Legend of John Henry Holliday. Lyons Press. ISBN 978-0-7627-6046-6.
- Boyer, Glenn (1994). I Married Wyatt Earp: The Recollections of Josephine Sarah Marcus Earp. Longmeadow Press. ISBN 978-0-681-10085-5.
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- TOMBSTONE, an original screenplay by Kevin Jarre, Fourth draft, March 15, 1993