Tomislav of Croatia
|King Tomislav, painted by Josip Horvat Međimurec (February 1941)|
|King of Croatia|
|Duke of Croatia|
|Reign||c. 910 – 925|
|Royal House||House of Trpimirović|
|Burial||Church of Saint Stephen, Solin ?|
Tomislav (pronounced [tǒmislaʋ], Latin: Tamisclao) was a ruler of Croatia in the Middle Ages. He reigned from around 910 until 928, first as a duke (Latin: dux Croatorum) of the Duchy of Croatia in c. 910–925, and then became the first king (rex Croatorum) of the Croatian Kingdom in 925–928. At the time of his rule Croatia forged an alliance with the Byzantines during their struggle with the Bulgarian Empire, with whom Croatia eventually went to war, which culminated in the decisive Battle of the Bosnian Highlands in 926.
His ancestry is not known, but he probably hailed from the House of Trpimirović. There is a time difference of almost twenty years between the first attestation of Tomislav's name and the last mention of Muncimir, his predecessor as the Duke of Croatia. The historical records of him are scarce, but it is assumed that he was the son of Muncimir, whom he succeeded around 910.
Croatian scholarship credits Tomislav with uniting the Croats of Dalmatia and the Slavs of Pannonia into a single state, founding a kingdom lasting for several centuries. He is said to have ruled over the territory of today's Croatia and Bosnia, rounding off his state from the Adriatic Sea to the Drava river, and from the Raša river in Istria to the Drina river.
Early Duke of Croatia
Tomislav succeeded Muncimir, son of Trpimir I, on the throne of the Duchy of Croatia, either directly in about 910, which is the most widely accepted view, or after the rule of different figures following Muncimir's death. In any case, Tomislav gained the throne of Croatia at some time between 910 and 914. In Historia Salonitana ("History of Salona"), a chronicle from the 13th century written by Thomas the Archdeacon from Split, Tomislav was mentioned as the Duke of Croatia in 914.
Following the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in the late 9th and early 10th century, the Hungarians immediately began raiding and expanding their territory. They particularly threatened the Duchy of Pannonia, that was still nominally under Frankish suzerainty, and killed the last Pannonian Duke Braslav. The Hungarians also fought battles with Croatia, although it wasn't a primary target of their raids.
The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja mentions that Tomislav, whose rule was specified at 13 years, successfully fought many battles with the Hungarians. Since the Venetian chronicler Andrea Dandolo and a notary of King Béla III mention Hungarian victories against Croatia in the same period, both sides had occasional gains. However, since the sparsely populated area between the Sava and Drava rivers was on the outskirts of the Hungarian state, as well as of the Duchy of Croatia that was centered on the coastal areas, neither had the power to strengthen its rule there after the dissolution of the Duchy of Pannonia. Croatia did manage to maintain its northern borders, but also to expand on a part of the collapsed Pannonian Duchy, such as its former capital Sisak. The plains north of Sisak were difficult to defend in front of the Hungarian cavalry, while Sisak was well fortified since the times of Duke Ljudevit.
East of Croatia the power of Bulgaria increased significantly. After a war between the Bulgarian Knyaz Boris I and Croatian Duke Trpimir I, the Croatian-Bulgarian relations were fairly good. Papal legates regularly went through Croatian territory, where they received protection, to Bulgaria. The situation changed in the 10th century during the reign of Simeon I, who decided to subordinate the Byzantine Empire to his rule.
In the early 10th century Croatia was divided into 11 counties: Livno, Cetina, Imotski, Pliva, Pset, Primorje, Bribir, Nona, Knin, Sidraga, and Nin. 3 counties, Lika, Krbava, and Gacka, where under the rule of a ban (viceroy of the king). Presumably within Tomislav's state, after its expansion, there were more than eleven counties. Byzantine emperor and chronicler Constantine VII states in De Administrando Imperio that at its peak Croatia could have raised a vast military force composed out of 100,000 infantrymen, 60,000 horsemen and a sizable fleet of 80 large ships and 100 smaller vessels. However, these figures are viewed as a considerable exaggeration and an overemphasis of the Croatian army.
Coronation and Croatian Kingdom
Tomislav became King of Croatia by the year 925. He was the first Croatian ruler whom the Papal chancellery honoured with the title "king". It is generally said that Tomislav was crowned in 924 or 925, however, this is not certain. It is not known when, where, or by whom he was crowned. The letters in which Tomislav was called a king were preserved in a version of Thomas the Archdeacon's History of Salona. In a note preceding the text of the Council conclusions in Split in 925 it is written that Tomislav is the king "in the province of the Croats and in the Dalmatian regions" (in prouintia Croatorum et Dalmatiarum finibus Tamisclao rege). In the 12th canon of the Council conclusions in 925 the ruler of the Croats is called "king" (rex et proceres Chroatorum), while in a letter sent by the Pope John X Tomislav is named "King of the Croats" (Tamisclao, regi Crouatorum). Although there are no inscriptions of Tomislav to confirm the title, later inscriptions and charters confirm that his 10th century successors called themselves "kings". In older historiography it was assumed that Tomislav was crowned at the field of Duvno (named Tomislavgrad (Tomislav's City) in his honour), although there are no contemporary records of this event.
Church Councils of Split
By the claiming of the coastal cities of Dalmatia, Tomislav raised the question of sovereignty of the Croatian Diocese of Nin. In 925 the Pope summoned a synod in Split to resolve the situation, and in a letter sent to Tomislav, recognised him as king (rex) of Croats.
In 925, Tomislav attended the Synod in Split, in which the Latin Bishops and Abbeys of the Dalmatian coastal towns outvoted Grgur, bishop of Nin, and his supporters, so the supremacy of the Archbishopric of Split was affirmed. Furthermore, the use of the Slavic language in the ecclesiastical service was banned, allowing only the use of Latin. This, however, had very little effect in reality, as the number of clerics who knew Latin was sparse throughout the kingdom. However, to gain support of the Pope, Tomislav probably sided with the Latinist side and the metropolitan archdioceses of Split. At the council, Split was defined as the religious center of Croats, as well as some Zachumli, who were represented by Michael of Zahumlje, who, according to some historians, recognized Tomislav's rule. A second synod in Split was summoned in 927/928 to enforce the conclusions of the first one in 925; the supremacy of the metropolitan Archbishopric of Split was confirmed, and the diocese of Nin was abolished.
War with Bulgaria
During Tomislav's rule the Bulgarian and Byzantine Empires where in a war. In 924 the Bulgarians under Emperor Simeon I destroyed the Principality of Serbia, a Byzantine ally, forcing Serbian Prince Zaharija and a part of the Serbian population to flee to Croatia. Croatia, also an ally of the Byzantines, was now located between Bulgaria and the weakly defended Byzantine Theme of Dalmatia. Tomislav may have been given some form of control over the coastal cities of the Theme of Dalmatia or with a share of collected taxes for his assistance to the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines granted Tomislav the honorary title of proconsul, but there is no evidence that the Byzantines recognized the loss of their rights in the Theme of Dalmatia to Tomislav.
Since Croatia was harboring Bulgarian enemies and was allied to the Byzantine Empire, Simeon decided to attack Croatia and sent an army led by Duke Alogobotur, but Tomislav cut his advance into Croatian realm and entirely destroyed his army at the Croatian–Bulgarian battle of 926 which probably took place in the north-eastern part of Bosnia. The Croatians under Tomislav won a great victory, decimating the entire Bulgarian force. After the death of Emperor Simeon in 927, Pope John X sent his legates with Bishop Madalbert to mediate between Croatia and Bulgaria, thus restoring peace.
It is unknown how Tomislav's life ended, but he disappeared from the political scene after 928. At the time of his death there was discord in the country over whether the liturgical language of the Roman Catholic Church in Croatia would be Latin or Croatian. Decades of famine and pestilence raged through most of the Southern Europe. He was succeeded by Trpimir II, who was either his son or his younger brother.
The geographical extent of Tomislav's kingdom is not fully known. The chronicler John the Deacon, whose chronicle is a primary source for the history of Slavic peoples in Dalmatia during the 9th and 10th century, wrote that in 912 a Venetian ambassador, returning from Bulgaria, passed through Croatian territory before reaching the land of Zahumlje under Duke Michael, which suggests that Tomislav's Croatia bordered Bulgaria, then under the rule of Simeon I. British writer Marcus Tanner suggested that it covered most of modern Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the coastline of Montenegro. However, Roger Lampe argued that the state did not go as far south as Dubrovnik and that Istria was not included. Many Croatian scholars argued that the kingdom covered the whole region south of the Drava river to the Drina and Neretva rivers north of Dubrovnik. Nevertheless, Croatian historian Nada Klaić had disputed the eastward (i.e. Bosnian) extension of Tomislav's kingdom in her 1972 and 1982 books.
Josip Lučić and Franjo Šanjek's 1993 Hrvatski povijesni zemljovid (Croatian historical map) provided an extended depiction of Tomislav's kingdom. Lučić was a known historical geographer from the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb who authored numerous maps in Croatian history books. Ivo Goldstein in turn claimed that Tomislav never ruled Bosnia in his 1995 book Hrvatski rani srednji vijek. Neven Budak published a lengthy critique of the latter book but one that went even further in arguing that vague historical sources should not be broadly interpreted in favor of the national history narrative. Dominant modern university history textbooks in Croatia such as Tomislav Raukar's Hrvatsko srednjovjekovlje (1997) consider that during Tomislav's rule his kingdom covered between 60% to 80% of contemporary Bosnia and Herzegovina. Franjo Šanjek also edited a major work by sixteen authors on the medieval Croatian state, which is also used as a university textbook also includes such a view.
In his 2006 book, John Van Antwerp Fine criticized the relationship between Tomislav's territory and modern nationalist sentiment in Croatia saying that 10th-century sources are unreliable and "roughly a third" of Croatia's perceived eastern land is "entirely speculation". Fine stated, "It is possible that Croatia really did have some of it, but Bulgaria may have had some of it; early Serb entities may have had some of it, not to speak of various župans and other local Slavic lords who in any serious way answered to no one. If the last supposition is true (to any degree), then parts of this territory would not have been held by any 'state.'" While acknowledging the possibility of Croatia having held all the depicted territory and more, Fine stated that whoever controlled the eastern land depicted in Tomislav's kingdom is unknown and should be marked as terra incognita in maps. He criticised Lučić and Šanjek's delineation of Tomislav's eastern border as "nationalist map-making" and distorting the perceptions of children on their nation's history in a way that promotes interpreting later events as territorial loss and fragmentation.
This issue is frequently debated due to modern Croatian national ideologies; it actually bears little importance on medieval Bosnian history, since the pre-Ottoman ethno-cultural landscape of this country was formed mainly in the period from the 13th to the 15th century.
Tomislav is celebrated as the first Croatian King and the founder of the first united Croatian state. In the Croatian capital of Zagreb, there is a square dedicated to Tomislav. A monument in Zagreb by sculptor Robert Frangeš Mihanović was raised in his honor. Near the place where he was crowned lies the town of Tomislavgrad (literally:Tomislavcity) which was the name given in 1925 at the 1,000th anniversary of his coronation by Aleksandar Karađorđević. Celebrations of the anniversary were held across former Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In 1926, the obelisk in his honor was made in Livno. Tomislav's statue in Zagreb is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 1000 kuna banknote, issued in 1994. He also lends his name to a 'dark beer' which is brewed in the region.
Monument in Tomislavgrad
Monument in Livno
Monument in King Tomislav square, Zagreb
In Orebić, one of the numerous memorial plaques for the 1000th anniversary of Tomislav's coronation
Commemorative plaque in Petrovaradin
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omnibusque bonis privatus atque Vulgarico regi, Simeoni nomine, exilii pena transmissus est."
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Tomislav of Croatia
|Duke of Croatia
c. 910 – 925
|New title||King of Croatia
925 – 928