|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009)|
Mijat Tomić Street in Tomislavgrad
Location of Tomislavgrad
|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|County||Canton 10 (Herzeg-Bosnia County)|
|• Municipality president||Ivan Vukadin (HDZ BiH)|
|• Land||966 km2 (373 sq mi)|
|Elevation||900 m (3,000 ft)|
|• Density||34/km2 (90/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|Area code(s)||+387 34|
Tomislavgrad (Croatian pronunciation: [tǒmislaʋgrâːd]), also known by its former name Duvno ([dǔːʋno]), is a town and municipality in southwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina and also seat of the Assembly of Canton 10 (Herzeg-Bosnia County) of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tomislavgrad is in northern Herzegovina.
- 1 Name
- 2 Position
- 3 Demographics
- 4 History
- 5 Villages
- 6 Economy
- 7 Monuments and culture
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The city name means literally "Tomislav town". The name was changed from Duvno in 1925 by King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in tribute to King Tomislav of Croatia, first king of the Croatian Kingdom. The name was restored to Duvno after World War II Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. During the 1990s it was once again changed to Tomislavgrad. Still, among inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the local residents are often referred as Duvnjaci ("Duvniaks") and the town is often called Duvno. Also, the town is sometimes referred to simply as "Tomislav". The Roman Catholic diocese in that area is still called Mostar-Duvno. During the Roman Empire the city was called Delminium and during the Kingdom of Croatia, Županjac. Under the Ottoman Empire, it was called Županj-potok and in Austria-Hungary, Županjac.
Tomislavgrad is 38 kilometres (24 mi) from county seat Livno, 88 kilometres (55 mi) from Mostar, 162 kilometres (101 mi) from Sarajevo, 161 kilometres (100 mi) from Banja Luka, 91 kilometres (57 mi) from Split.
- Croats - 29,272 (88.34%)
- Muslims - 2,760 (8.32%)
- Serbs - 970 (2.92%)
- Yugoslavs - 40 (0.12%)
- Others - 93 (0.30%)
- Croats - 26,712 (87.10%)
- Muslims - 2,895 (9.44%)
- Serbs - 671 (2.18%)
- Yugoslavs - 256 (0.83%)
- Others - 132 (0.45%)
In 1991 there were 30,009 residents in the municipality of Tomislavgrad, including:
- 25,976 Croats (86.56%)
- 3,148 Muslims (10.49%)
- 576 Serbs (1.91%)
- 107 Yugoslavs (0.35%)
- 202 others and unknown (0.69%)
The town itself had 5,993 inhabitants, including:
- 67% Croats
- 27% Muslims
- 4% Serbs
- 1% Yugoslavs
- 1% others
The area has been inhabited by Illyrian tribe of Dalmatae and Delminium was a town established by them in nowadays Tomislavgrad. Daelminium was situated on the location of today's Roman Catholic basilica, named after the first Croatian saint, Nikola Tavelić.
The area of Tomislavgrad has been populated in 4000 BC - 2400 BC, even before Illyrians arrived, and from that time only polished stone axes remained as proof that someone was here. Bronze Age (1800 BC - 800 BC) also left few marks in Tomislavgrad. Archeological collection of monastery in Široki Brijeg had few items founded on area of Tomislavgrad from Bronze Age: 34 bronze sickles, 3 axes and 2 spears. Those items were found in Stipanjići and Lug near Tomislavgrad. Those items were given to Archeological collection "fra Mijo Čuić and fra Stjepan Naletilić". Later, Fr Vojislav Mikulić found a bronze axe in Letka which he gave to those collections. Unfortunately, collection was destroyed in fire at the end of World War II. Only one sickle and axe survived the tragedy. However, this collection says that population of Tomislavgrad at the time worked in primary sector, they were cattlemen, farmers and warriors. Unlike their unnamed predecessors, Illyrians left material proofs from their time. On the slopes of the mountains which circle Tomislavgrad, Illyrians built 36 fortifications. These forts served as watchtower or forts against the enemy. There are also many graves of Illyrians which means that they cared about their dead. Same as forts, graves are dating from Bronze and Iron Age to Roman conquest of Delminium (Tomislavgrad). In the graves of dead Illyrians, jewellery and items which the dead used, were found.
Another inhabitants, except Illyrians, were Celts. They brought higher culture, crafts and most importantly better arms. But soon, Celts have been assimilated as Illirians, since there was only small number of them. As Romans conquered territory of Illyrian tribe Ardiaei, and so, Delmataes and their tribal union were last bastion of Illyrian freedom. Dalmataes attacked Roman wards near Neretva, Greek merchant towns and Roman friendly Illyrian tribe Daors. Illyrians upgraded their settlement into strong fort and surround their capital with wreath of smaller forts. It is assumed that, during that time, 5,000 Dalmataes lived in Delminium.
In 167 BC Illyiran forts were unable to stop Roman legions; after Romans conquered whol Adriatic coast southern from Neretva and after state of Ardieaeis was destroyed, Dalmataes were unable to avoid conflict with Romans. In 156 BC, first conflict between Dalmataes and Romans occurred. It ended next year resulting in Dalmataes defeat. Roman generals, Figulus and Conrelius Scipio Nazica conquered, destroeyed and burned Delminium. Reports of writers during that time say that Delminium was "large city", almost inaccessible and impregnable. Romans trowed lighted arrows at wooden houses, burned the city, conquered it and destroyed it. After various rebellions led by Dalmataes and three war between them and Romans, their land was finally conquered by Romans in 9 AD.
After Roman conquest of Delminium, they started building roads and bridges. Roads that led to mainland of Balkans from Adriatic coast in Salona (Solin) and Narona (Vid near Metković) crossed in Delminium (Tomislavgrad). Remains of those and other Roman roads are still in existence. Romans introduced their culture, language, legislation and religion. For next 400 years Tomislavgrad was in peace. After Romans finally defeated Dalmataes, Tomislavgrad was almost abandoned. There was also, for some period, a military crew of Romans stationed there to keep Illyrians under control. Romans started to rebuild Delminium in 18 and 19 AD in time of emperor Tiberius. During that time, center of city was built, a Roman forum. This forum was built on possession of present-day Nikola Tavelić basilica. In 1896 Fra Anđeo Nuć discovered various sculptures of Roman pagan deities, fragments of pagan sarcophagi, and fragments of columns of medieval Christian church. From all those discoveries, most prominent are two votive monuments and altars dedicated to goddess Diana, one altar dedicated to native Illyrian god Armatus and one votive plate dedicated to goddess Libera. Later, relief of goddess Diana was also found and one relief of Diana and Silvanus together. Also, new pagan altars, fragments of sarcophagi, clay pottery, parts of columns, and various other findings from Roman and early medieval age were found. This led to conclusion that on place of present-day Catholic graveyard "Karaula" (which was previously an Ottoman military border post and guardhouse) was Roman and Illyrian pagan sanctuary and graveyard.
Kingdom of Croatia
Croats settled this area in the 7th century. When the Croats settled the area in the 7th century it was renamed to Županjac. The area around Tomislavgrad was important in Croatian history in Croatian early Middle Ages. According to the Croaniclke of Doclea priest the most important event from this period was the first assembly of Croatia in the year 753. The first Croatian court was made at the mountain Lib when Croats have arrived to Duvno area. In that court duke Budimir has hosted the deputy of Pope Stephen II and Byzantine Emperor Constantine V. There were made the prepairement for the Great assembly of kingdom and Church. At that assembly the country was divided on the three big regions, divided on more autonomous provinces, whose borders were taken from the Roman times. It has been determined the administration, taxes and justice system.
It is commonly accepted theory that coronation assembly of King Tomislav was placed in the 925 at that area.
Kingdom of Bosnia
The Duvno field with the city of Županjac was in the possession of Croatian kings till the 2nd half of the 13th century when it became the possession of noble family Šubić, and in 1325 to Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia. That area remained in the possession of Kotromanić family until the Ottoman conquests.
Hamdija Kreševljaković mentions borough under name Duvno at the end of the 17th century and also states that this borough became a qadaa in the first years of the 18th century. In the middle of the 17th century Evliya Çelebi, a famous Turkish travel writer, stated that Duvno "looks like a paradise garden, it is part of sanjak of Klis and has four hundreds of houses and one imposing mosque, many masjids, one inn, one hamam and ten shops."
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
In 1925, Duvno was renamed Tomislavgrad after King Tomislav.
World War II
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
After Tomislavgrad was conquered by partisans it was renamed into Duvno. Like most of the West Herzegovina cities, Tomislavgrad was labeled as pro-Ustaše and pro-fascist region. Therefore it has been demonized by the officials of SFRY. The investments were very poor in it. That caused huge poverty and lot of people emigrated to Zagreb and Dalmatia, as well as to Germany as gastarbeiter. Even today lots of people have close relatives settled elsewhere who come here on holidays.
Independent Bosnia and Herzegovina
Duvno was renamed back to Tomislavgrad after the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
• Baljci • Blažuj • Bogdašić • Borčani • Bukova Gora • Bukovica • Cebara • Crvenice • Ćavarov Stan • Dobrići • Donji Brišnik • Eminovo Selo • Galečić • Gornja Prisika • Gornji Brišnik • Grabovica • Jošanica • Kazaginac • Kolo • Kongora • Korita • Kovači • Krnjin • Kuk • Letka • Lipa • Liskovača • Lug • Mandino Selo • Mesihovina • Mijakovo Polje • Mokronoge • Mrkodol • Omerovići • Omolje • Oplećani • Pasić • Podgaj • Prisoje • Radoši • Rašćani • Rašeljke • Raško Polje • Renići • Rošnjače • Sarajlije • Seonica • Srđani • Stipanjići • Šuica • Tomislavgrad • Vedašić • Vinica • Vojkovići • Vranjače • Vrilo • Zaljiće • Zaljut • Zidine
Tomislavgrad today is in a very hard economic situation. Many people emigrated from it in the 1960s and 1970s, but mostly during war in the 1990s. Most of them went to Croatia (mostly Zagreb), Western Europe (Germany), and Australia.
Among the companies active in the city there are couple big companies as "Kapis Tomislavgrad", mall "prodex" and some transport and construction companies.
In the city there are plenty of bars and betting offices.
Monuments and culture
- Nizich, Ivan (1992). War crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina 1. Helsinki Watch Report. p. 13. ISBN 1-56432-083-9.
- Tomsialvgrad. Zavičaj.net. (Croatian)
- MIchelin route planner Tomislavgrad-Banja Luka
- The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. 11: The High Empire, AD 70-192 by Peter Rathbone, page 597, "... One such place was Delminium, from which the Illyrian Delmatae took their name, attacked more than once by Roman consuls ..."
- Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, Page 188, "... after whom the Roman province Dalmatia was named, their own name being derived from their principal settlement Delminium near Duvno. Beyond the Dinara, Delmatae occupied the plains of Livno, Glamoc, and Duvno, ..."
- (Croatian) Bagarić, Ivo. Duvno: Povijest župa duvanjskog samostana. Sveta baština. 1989
- (Croatian) Bagarić, Ivo. Duvno - Short Monograph. Župni ured sv. Franje Asiškog, Bukovica. 1980.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tomislavgrad.|