Tommy Johnson (musician)
|Birth name||Tom Johnson|
Terry, Mississippi, United States
|Died||November 1, 1956 (aged 59–60)
Crystal Springs, Mississippi, United States
|Associated acts||Papa Charlie McCoy, Ishman Bracey|
Johnson was born near Terry, Mississippi, and moved around 1910 to Crystal Springs where he lived for most of his life. He learned to play the guitar and, by 1914, was supplementing his income by playing at local parties with his brothers Major and LeDell. In 1916 he married and moved to Webb Jennings' Plantation near Drew, Mississippi, close to the Dockery Plantation. There he met other musicians including Charlie Patton and Willie Brown.
By 1920 he had become an alcoholic and itinerant musician, based in Crystal Springs but traveling widely around the South, sometimes accompanied by Papa Charlie McCoy. In 1928 he made his first recordings with McCoy for Victor Records. The recordings included "Canned Heat Blues", in which he sang of drinking methanol from the cooking fuel Sterno. The song features the refrain "canned heat, mama, sure, Lord, killing me." The blues group Canned Heat took their name from this song. Johnson's "Big Road Blues" inspired Canned Heat's song, "On the Road Again". A significantly different version of the song appears as "Canned Heat" on the Big Road Blues album by K. C. Douglas.
He recorded two further sessions, in August 1928, and for Paramount Records in December 1929. He did not record again, mistakenly believing that he had signed away his right to record. Some suggest he had been intentionally given this misimpression by some people at Paramount Records. This resulted in a legal settlement with The Mississippi Sheiks who had used Johnson's "Big Road Blues" melody in their successful "Stop and Listen". Johnson was party to the copyright settlement, but was too drunk at the time to understand what he had signed to.
Johnson's recordings established him as the premier Delta blues vocalist of his day, with a powerful voice that could go from a growl to a falsetto. He was also an accomplished guitarist. His style influenced later blues singers such as Robert Nighthawk and Howlin' Wolf, as well as country singer Hank Williams whose song "I Asked for Water (She Brought Me Gasoline)" was based on Johnson's "Cool Water Blues". He was a talented composer, blending fragments of folk poetry and personalized lyrics into set guitar accompaniments to craft striking blues compositions such as "Maggie Campbell".
To enhance his fame, Johnson cultivated a sinister persona. According to his brother LeDell, he claimed to have sold his soul to the devil in exchange for his mastery of the guitar. This story was later also associated with Robert Johnson, to whom Tommy Johnson was unrelated. Tommy Johnson also played tricks with his guitar, playing it between his legs and behind his head, and throwing it in the air while playing.
Johnson remained a popular performer in the Jackson area through the 1930s and 1940s, sometimes performing with Ishman Bracey. He was highly influential on other performers, partly because he was willing to teach his style and his repertoire. Tommy Johnson's influence on local traditions is discussed by David Evans in Tommy Johnson and ''Big Road Blues. Tradition & Creativity in the Folk Blues.
He died of a heart attack after playing at a party in 1956. He is buried in the Warm Springs Methodist Church Cemetery outside of Crystal Springs, Mississippi. In 2001 a headstone was commissioned through the Mt. Zion Memorial Fund, a Mississippi non-profit corporation, by the family of Tommy Johnson and paid for by musician Bonnie Raitt. The large, granite memorial engraved with Johnson's portrait was not placed on Johnson's grave for several years afterward, however, due to an ongoing dispute between Tommy Johnson's family (led by his niece, Vera Johnson Collins), the owners of farm property encircling the cemetery, and the Copiah County Board of Supervisors in regard to a deteriorated road preventing access to the burial site. This issue was resolved in October 2012, when it was announced that the headstone would reach its final destination on October 26. The headstone had been on public display in the Crystal Springs, Mississippi Public Library since being unveiled on October 20, 2001. On the night of Saturday, February 2, 2013, the headstone was desecrated, apparently smashed by a sledge hammer or some similar device.
In the film O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000), a character named Tommy Johnson is played by Chris Thomas King. This character describes selling his soul to the devil to play guitar. In the film, Tommy Johnson plays a number of songs originally recorded by blues musician Skip James, and also accompanies the Soggy Bottom Boys, a band consisting of the film's three main protagonists plus Johnson, on "Man of Constant Sorrow". The story of Tommy Johnson selling his soul to the devil was first told by Tommy Johnson's brother, LaDell Johnson, and reported by David Evans in his 1971 biography of Johnson. This legend was subsequently transferred to the blues musician Robert Johnson.
Victor Recordings, 1928, Memphis, TN
- "Cool Drink Of Water Blues"
- "Big Road Blues"
- "Bye-Bye Blues"
- "Maggie Campbell Blues"
- "Canned Heat Blues"
- "Lonesome Home Blues (Take 1)"
- "Lonesome Home Blues (Take 2)"
- "Louisiana Blues (Unissued Test)"
- "Big Fat Mama Blues"
Paramount Recordings, 1929, Grafton, WI
- "I Wonder To Myself"
- "Slidin' Delta"
- "Lonesome Home Blues"
- "Untitled Song, take 1 (Morning Prayer Blues)"
- "Untitled Song, take 2 (Boogaloosa Woman)"
- "Black Mare Blues (take 1)"
- "Black Mare Blues (take 2)"
- "Ridin' Horse"
- "Alcohol And Jake Blues"
- "I Want Someone To Love Me"
- "Button Up Shoes (Unissued Test)"
- Russell, Tony (1997). The Blues: From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray. Dubai: Carlton Books Limited. pp. 127–128. ISBN 1-85868-255-X.
- "Biography by Cub Koda". Allmusic.com. Retrieved November 23, 2009.
- [dead link]
- Evans, David. Tommy Johnson. Studio Vista (1971), p. 68. ISBN 978-0289701515
- Barlow, William. "Looking Up At Down": The Emergence of Blues Culture. Temple University Press (1989), p. 42. ISBN 0-87722-583-4.
- Evans, David. Tommy Johnson. Studio Vista (1971), p. 22. ISBN 978-0289701515
- Evans, David. Big Road Blues. Tradition & Creativity in the Folk Blues. Da Capo (1982). ISBN 0-306-80300-3
- "Miss. bluesman getting long overdue grave marker". Associated Press. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- "Tommy Johnson headstone desecrated - Pomeroy Blues & Jazz Society". Pomeroyblues.org. 2013-02-03. Retrieved 2015-03-12.
- "First Annual Tommy Johnson Celebration" (PDF). Programme. Tommy Johnson Blues Foundation. 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Wald, Elijah, 2004, Escaping The Delta: Robert Johnson and the Invention of the Blues, pp. 265–276.
- Tommy Johnson Blues Foundation site
- Illustrated Tommy Johnson discography
- Site for "Crossroads: The Life and Afterlife of Blues Legend Robert Johnson" with links and material related to Tommy Johnson
- Canned Heat Blues Lyrics
- MP3 Audio file of "Canned Heat Blues" on The Internet Archive
- Tommy Johnson on Paramount Records[dead link]
- Tommy Johnson at AllMusic
- Works by or about Tommy Johnson in libraries (WorldCat catalog)