Tomsk

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Tomsk (English)
Томск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Tomsk Lenin square.jpg
Lenina Square in Tomsk
Map of Russia - Tomsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Tomsk Oblast in Russia
Tomsk is located in Tomsk Oblast
Tomsk
Tomsk
Location of Tomsk in Tomsk Oblast
Coordinates: 56°30′N 84°58′E / 56.500°N 84.967°E / 56.500; 84.967Coordinates: 56°30′N 84°58′E / 56.500°N 84.967°E / 56.500; 84.967
Tomsk city coat of arms.png
Tomsk city flag.png
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day June 7[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of April 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Tomsk Oblast
Administratively subordinated to Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Administrative center of Tomsk Oblast,[1] Tomsky District,[1] Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Municipal status (as of January 2005)
Urban okrug Tomsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Tomsk Urban Okrug,[2] Tomsky Municipal District[3]
Leader[citation needed] Sergey Zhvachkin[citation needed]
Representative body Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area (2008) 297.2 km2 (114.7 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 524,669 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 32nd
Density(2008) 1,755.2 /km2 (4,546 /sq mi)[4]
Time zone OMST (UTC+07:00)[6]
Founded 1604[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 634xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 3822[citation needed]
Official website
Tomsk on WikiCommons

Tomsk (Russian: Томск, IPA: [tomsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Tom River. One of the oldest towns in Siberia, Tomsk celebrated its 400th anniversary in 2004. Population: 524,669 (2010 Census);[5] 487,838 (2002 Census);[8] 501,963 (1989 Census).[9]

History[edit]

The "Where Tomsk was Founded" marker at the Tomsk History Museum

Tomsk was established under a decree from Tsar Boris Godunov in 1604 after Toyan, the Tatar duke of Eushta, asked for the Tsar's protection against Kirghiz bandits.[10] The Tsar sent 200 Cossacks under the command of Vasily Tyrkov and Gavriil Pisemsky to construct a fortress on the bank of the Tom River, overlooking what would become the city of Tomsk. Toyan ceded the land for the fortress to the Tsar.[11]

In 1804, the government selected Tomsk to become the seat of the new Tomsk Governorate, which would include the modern cities of Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, and Krasnoyarsk, as well as the territories which are now in Eastern Kazakhstan. The new status brought development and the city grew quickly.[11]

The discovery of gold in 1830 brought further development to Tomsk in the 19th century. However, when the Trans-Siberian Railway bypassed the city in favor of the village of Novonikolayevsk (now Novosibirsk), development began to move south to connect with the railway. In time, Novosibirsk would surpass Tomsk in importance.

In the mid-19th century, one fifth of the city's residents were exiles. However, within a few years, the city would be reinvented as the educational center of Siberia with the establishment of Tomsk State University and Tomsk Polytechnic University. By World War II, every twelfth resident of the city was a student,[11] giving rise to the city's informal name - Siberian Athens.

After the October Revolution of 1917, the city was a notable center of the White movement, led by Anatoly Pepelyayev and Maria Bochkareva, among others. After the victory of the Red Army, Tomsk was incorporated into West Siberian Krai and later into Novosibirsk Oblast.

As in many Siberian cities, Tomsk became the new home for many factories relocated out of the warzone at the beginning of the World War II. The resulting growth of the city led the Soviet government to establish the new Tomsk Oblast, with Tomsk serving as the administrative center.[11]

During the Cold war Tomsk was one of many places to be designated a closed city, to which outsiders and, in particular, foreigners, were denied access. In 1949 matters were taken a stage further when a secret city, known as "Tomsk-7" (or sometimes simply as "Postbox 5") was founded 15 kilometres (9 miles) from Tomsk, and the new settlement became the home of the Tomsk Nuclear Plant (subsequently renamed Sibirskaya Nuclear Power Plant), the country's first industrial scale nuclear power station. Tomsk-7 received municipal status in 1956 and was renamed Seversk in 1992.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Tomsk serves as the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Tomsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with seven rural localities, incorporated separately as Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Tomsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Tomsk Urban Okrug.[2]

City divisions[edit]

Tomsk is divided into four city districts: Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, and Sovetsky.

Climate[edit]

Tomsk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) barely escaping a subarctic classification. The annual average temperature is +0.87 °C (33.57 °F). Winters are severe and lengthy, and the lowest recorded temperature was −55 °C (−67 °F) in January 1931. However, the average temperature in January is between −21 °C (−6 °F) and −13 °C (9 °F). The average temperature in July is +18.7 °C (65.7 °F). The total annual rainfall is 568 millimeters (22.4 in). In 2006, Tomsk experienced what might have been its first recorded winds of hurricane force, which toppled trees and damaged houses.[12]

Climate data for Tomsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
7.1
(44.8)
17.7
(63.9)
26.5
(79.7)
34.4
(93.9)
34.7
(94.5)
35.1
(95.2)
33.8
(92.8)
31.7
(89.1)
25.1
(77.2)
11.6
(52.9)
6.5
(43.7)
35.1
(95.2)
Average high °C (°F) −13
(9)
−9.6
(14.7)
−1.1
(30)
7.0
(44.6)
17.5
(63.5)
22.3
(72.1)
24.8
(76.6)
21.7
(71.1)
14.4
(57.9)
6.0
(42.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
−11.1
(12)
6.2
(43.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −17.1
(1.2)
−14.7
(5.5)
−7
(19)
1.3
(34.3)
10.4
(50.7)
15.8
(60.4)
18.7
(65.7)
15.7
(60.3)
9.0
(48.2)
1.7
(35.1)
−8.3
(17.1)
−15.1
(4.8)
0.87
(33.56)
Average low °C (°F) −20.9
(−5.6)
−18.9
(−2)
−11.9
(10.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
4.7
(40.5)
10.5
(50.9)
13.7
(56.7)
11.1
(52)
5.1
(41.2)
−1.3
(29.7)
−11.4
(11.5)
−18.9
(−2)
−3.5
(25.8)
Record low °C (°F) −55
(−67)
−51.3
(−60.3)
−42.4
(−44.3)
−31.1
(−24)
−17.5
(0.5)
−3.5
(25.7)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
−8.1
(17.4)
−29.1
(−20.4)
−48.3
(−54.9)
−50
(−58)
−55
(−67)
Precipitation mm (inches) 35
(1.38)
24
(0.94)
25
(0.98)
34
(1.34)
41
(1.61)
61
(2.4)
75
(2.95)
67
(2.64)
50
(1.97)
55
(2.17)
52
(2.05)
49
(1.93)
568
(22.36)
Avg. rainy days 0.2 0.4 2 11 15 17 16 17 18 14 5 1 116.6
Avg. snowy days 23 21 17 13 4 0.4 0 0 2 13 22 25 140.4
 % humidity 81 78 72 65 61 70 76 79 79 80 83 82 75.5
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[13]

Politics[edit]

Tomsk City Administration building
Tomsk, view from the fire-observation tower

Tomsk is governed by a mayor and a 33-member Duma. The current mayor, appointed in 2009, is Nikolay Nikolaychuk,[14][15][16] a member of The United Russia party, held the office of Mayor since 2007,[17] replacing Mayor Alexander Makarov, who was suspended from his post pending the outcome of criminal proceedings against him. in russian

Of the 33 members, 16 are elected from the eight double mandate districts while 17 are chosen from party lists.

In the October 2005 local elections, United Russia was expected to cruise to a solid victory; however, the Pensioners Party put up a strong showing. The final count was (proportional representation):

Double mandates
  • 10 seats — No party affiliation
  • 4 seats — United Russia
  • 1 seat — Pensioners Party
  • 1 seat — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia

Economy[edit]

Energy generation[edit]

Tomsk has the oldest electrical grid in Siberia. There are three powerstations in the city:

  1. TEC-1 (launched on January 1, 1896)
  2. GRES-2 (launched on May 28, 1945)
  3. TEC-3 (launched on October 29, 1988)

Tomsk consumes more electric energy than it produces. The bulk of the city's electric and thermal energy is produced by the GRES-2 (281 MWt) and TEC-3 (140 MWt) powerplants, belonging to Tomskenergo Inc. Tomsk supplements its energy needs with electricity generated at Seversk.

Transportation[edit]

Street scene in Tomsk

Road network:

  • northern branch of the M53 federal road;
  • road R 398 to Kolpashevo;
  • road R 400 to Mariinsk;
  • Northern latitude highway PermSurgut—Tomsk (under construction).

There is a commercial and passenger port on the Tom River.

The city is served by the Bogashevo Airport.

Railways[edit]

Tomsk is a small railway center that is situated on the TaygaBely Yar line (Tomsk branch) of the Trans-Siberian Railway

The main line of the Trans-Siberian railway, built in 1896, passes 50 km (31 mi) south of Tomsk and bypasses Tomsk. Access from Tomsk to the Trans-Siberian railway is available via the town of Tayga. A regional rail line links Tomsk with Tayga.

The Tomsk Railway existed as an independent entity until 1961. At the present time, the Tomsk line belongs to the West-Siberian Railway, branch of Russian Railways Corp.. Trains link Tomsk to Anapa, Asino, Barnaul, Bely Yar, Moscow, Novokuznetsk, Novosibirsk, Sochi, and Tayga.

Public transportation[edit]

The main part of inner-city and suburban transportation is provided by marshrutkas (routed taxis), mainly PAZ) minibuses, which serve about forty routes.

Additionally, the city has eleven proper bus routes, eight trolleybus lines (built in 1967), and five tram lines (constructed in 1949). Private taxis are also readily available.

Air transportation[edit]

Tomsk Bogashevo Airport is served by the following airlines:

Airlines Destinations
Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo
NordStar Krasnoyarsk, Sochi, Surgut
Nordwind Antalya
S7 Airlines Moscow-Domodedovo
Tomskavia Nizhnevartovsk, Strezhevoy, Surgut
Transaero Moscow-Domodedovo, Barcelona
UTair Aviation Barnaul, Moscow-Vnukovo, St Petersburg, Surgut

The airport is also served by charter flights operated by UTair and Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise

Education[edit]

Tomsk has a number of prominent institutions of higher education, including:

A large number of educational institutions in the city have contributed to making Tomsk a major center for Russia's IT industry. Tomsk was one of the first cities in Russia to gain access to the Internet, which became available in the early 1990s owing to grants received by universities and scientific cooperation.

Culture[edit]

Tomsk Museum for Regional Studies and the Organ Hall of the Philharmonic
Example of wood carving in Tomsk wooden architecture

Tomsk has many local cultural institutions including several drama theaters as well as a children's theater and a puppet theater. Major concert venues in the city include the Conservatory Concert hall and the Tomsk Palace of Sport. The city also has cultural centers dedicated to German, Polish and Tatar languages and culture.

One of the city's prominent theaters was destroyed in an act of terrorism in 1905. The Korolevsky Theater (built in 1884–85) was being used by a group of communist revolutionaries when the theater was attacked and set on fire by members of the Black Hundred, a hard-line nationalist organization. Those who escaped the flames were gunned down by Black Hundred members waiting outside the theater. Estimates put the number of casualties between 200 and 1000.

There are a number of museums in Tomsk devoted to various subjects, most notably art, local history and wood carving. There is also a Museum of Oppression, housed in a former KGB dungeon. Tomsk State University has a number of small museums with exhibits on archaeology, paleontology, zoology, as well as a herbarium and a botanical garden

As in many other cities in the former Soviet Union, the revolutionary government destroyed a number of old churches in the city including two that had existed since the 17th century. However, Tomsk managed to save some of its churches by transforming them into machine shops, warehouses, archives, and even residential buildings. Since the end of the communist era some of the churches have been renovated and returned to their congregations.

Tomsk is well known for its intricate "gingerbread" decoration of traditional wooden houses in the area. However, the number of old homes in this style is decreasing due to redevelopment or some of them catching fire, as the structures have little to no fire protection.

Trud (Labor) Stadium, in central Tomsk is the base for matches with the FC Tom Tomsk, the city's professional soccer club. The team's 2004 promotion to the Russian Premier League gave local fans a chance to see some of the nation's best teams play at the city's own stadium.

Tomsk has many local media outlets including the TV2 television station, the radio stations Radio Siberia and Echo of Moscow in Tomsk along with several newspapers (Tomskii Vestnik, Tomskaya Nedelya, Krasnoye Znamya and Vechernii Tomsk).

In April 2006 Tomsk received international media attention as the venue of a major summit on economic cooperation, held in the city between Russian President Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Tomsk was the name given by children's author Elizabeth Beresford to one of her fictional characters The Wombles, all of whom are named after places.

Notable people[edit]

A satirical monument to Anton Chekhov, who made an unfavorable mention of Tomsk in his diaries while traveling through the city on his way to Sakhalin

International relations[edit]

Tomsk is the only non-capital member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Tomsk is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Law #271-OZ
  2. ^ a b c Law #238-OZ
  3. ^ Law #241-OZ
  4. ^ a b Official website of the City of Tomsk. Structure of the Territory's Economy (Russian)
  5. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  8. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ Хахалкин А.А. "Томская Хроника XVII—XVIII вв.". Хронос. Всемирная история в Интернете. Archived from the original on 2012-02-03. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  11. ^ a b c d General Information about Tomsk, Kommersant Daily
  12. ^ Погода и климат - Климат Томска (Weather and climate - Climate of Tomsk)
  13. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  14. ^ Газета «Континент Сибирь» Пересадка в Томске
  15. ^ Официальный интернет-сайт муниципалитета г.Томска: Николайчук Николай Алексеевич
  16. ^ Исполняющий обязанности мэра города Томска Николайчук Николай Алексеевич
  17. ^ Николайчук Николай Алексеевич - Первый заместитель Мэра г. Томска // Кто есть кто :: Деловой мир Сибири

Sources[edit]

  • Государственная Дума Томской области. Закон №271-ОЗ от 22 декабря 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Томской области», в ред. Закона №62-ОЗ от 11 апреля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Томской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Томской области"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Томские новости", №51, 24 декабря 2009 г. (State Duma of Tomsk Oblast. Law #271-OZ of December 22, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tomsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #62-OZ of April 11, 2013 On Amending the Law of Tomsk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tomsk Oblast". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Государственная Дума Томской области. Закон №238-ОЗ от 12 ноября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования "Город Томск" статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №5-ОЗ от 12 января 2005 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Томской области». Вступил в силу по истечении 20 дней со дня официального опубликования (6 декабря 2004 г.). Опубликован: "Красное знамя", №154, 16 ноября 2004 г. (State Duma of Tomsk Oblast. Law #238-OZ of November 12, 2004 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Tomsk", as amended by the Law #5-OZ of January 12, 2005 On Amending Various Laws of Tomsk Oblast. Effective as of upon passing of 20 days from the day of the official publication (December 6, 2004).).
  • Государственная Дума Томской области. Закон №241-ОЗ от 12 ноября 2004 г. «О наделении статусом муниципального района, сельского поселения и установлении границ муниципальных образований на территории Томского района», в ред. Закона №5-ОЗ от 12 января 2005 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Томской области». Вступил в силу по истечении 20 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Томские ведомости", №47, 18 ноября 2004 г. (State Duma of Tomsk Oblast. Law #241-OZ of November 12, 2004 On Granting the Status of a Municipal District, Rural Settlement to and on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Tomsky District, as amended by the Law #5-OZ of January 12, 2005 On Amending Various Laws of Tomsk Oblast. Effective as of after 20 days from the day of the official publication have passed.).

External links[edit]