|Coat of Arms|
Location in the State of Jalisco
|Metropolitan Area||Guadalajara Metropolitan Area|
|Mayor||Jorge Arana Arana (2012–2015)|
|City Area||119.6 km²|
|Metro Area||500 km²|
|City Population (2005)||374,258 city; 408,729 municipality|
|Metro Population (2005)||4,095,853 (Rank 2)|
|Time Zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer||CDT (UTC-5)|
|Area Code||+52 (Mexico) / +33 (Jalisco)|
|Website – H. Ayuntamiento de Tonalá|
The city had a 2005 census population of 374,258 and the municipality had a population of 408,729 and an area of 119.58 km² (46.17 sq mi). The municipality lies adjacent to the east side of Guadalajara. The Guadalajara metropolitan area, which includes eight municipalities, had a population of 4,095,853, the second-largest urban concentration in Mexico after Mexico City. The city and the municipality both rank fourth in the state of Jalisco in population, after Guadalajara, Zapopan, and Tlaquepaque.
On two days a week (Thursdays and Sundays) there is a giant street market covering several of the main streets, with numerous vendors of ceramics, pottery, glass objects and all kinds of handcrafted items and novelties. Most of the art found on Tlaquepaque and Guadalajara was manufactured here.
Due to the clay soil in the area, pottery or alfareria has been a traditional occupation for centuries.
Portrait artist and political activist Jesús Guerrero Galván (1910–1973) was born here.
A native group, the Tonaltecas, lived on this area surrounding the Ixtépete or Cerro de la Reina ("The Queen's Hill"). They spoke Nahuatl mixed with their own indigenous vocabulary. Indeed, the word "Tonala" comes from the Nahuatl Tonallan, meaning "place from which the sun emerges".
Tonalá was founded by Zapotec Indians who eventually intermarried with other tribes including the Toltecs who succeeded in imposing their customs, religion and military techniques, among other things. Also there came to the region Nahualteca tribes.
During the War of Salitre (1480–1510) the Purépecha invaded the lands of the Tonalteca kingdom. The monarch of Tonalá amassed a powerful army that faced and defeated the invaders. In appreciation for their service the warriors who fought against the Purépecha were given the land of Tlajomulco.
When the Spanish arrived in 1530 Tonallán was ruled by a woman named Cihualpilli Tzapotzinco and had as tributaries the lords of Tlaquepaque, Tololotlán, Coyol, Mexquitán, Tzalatitán, Atemajac, Tetla, Tateposco, Tlaxomulco, Cuescomatitán, Coyutla and Toluquilla.
Those who chose to receive the Spaniards in a peaceful manner gave them some supplies and other native materials. The Conquistador Nuño de Guzmán ordered the natives to pay obedience to the king of Spain but his orders were met with a great outcry and a rain of arrows by those who did not welcome the invaders. In the midst of the fighting and resistance the Indian rebels became entrenched on a hill. As a result, Guzmán ordered an assault dividing his troops into three sections attacking the hill. After several hours of fighting the Spanish finally imposed their military strength, but not before they suffered many losses.
After this confrontation, Nuño de Guzmán took possession of the region of Tonallán on March 25, 1530, making the sovereign Cihualpilli swear allegiance to the King of Spain. Afterward he immediately sent orders for a temple to be built on the hill where they had just defeated the Indians. This temple he called "Victoria de la Cruz" (Victory of the Cross) imposing the badge of Christianity which could be seen from afar.
During the Spanish domination Tonallán was turned into a township of the new Kingdom of Nueva Galicia called Santiago de Tonalá.
For about 18 months Tonalá was the second settlement of Guadalajara which changed its location three times before finally settling in its present location. The village was settled from August 8, 1533 until February 1535.
On May 13, 1889 Tonalá which had belonged to Zapotlanejo department since 1824 became a member of the San Pedro department. But since September 17, 1873 Tonalá has been mentioned as being its own municipality.
- Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática
- Jalisco Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México
- Breve historia de Jalisco, José María Muriá,Fideicomiso Historia de las Américas, 1994
- Ayuntamiento de Tonalá Official website
- Handcraft producers in Tonalá
- Handcraft producers in Tonalá
- Exhibition of Tonalá artists in New York