Tone deafness is the lack of relative pitch, or the inability to distinguish between musical notes that is not due to the lack of musical training or education. Tone deafness is also known variously as amusia, tune deafness, "tin ear", dysmelodia and dysmusia.
Most humans in most societies can hear and reproduce relative pitch. The hearing impairment seems genetically influenced and can result from brain damage. Someone who cannot reproduce pitches for lack of musical training would not be considered tone deaf in a medical sense. Tone deafness affects the ability to hear relative pitch changes of a musical instrument.
Tone deaf people seem to be[not in citation given] disabled only with music: they can fully interpret the prosody or intonation of human speech. Tone deafness has a strong negative correlation with belonging to societies with tonal languages, potentially evincing that accurate pitch discrimination is learned or naturally selected; a correlation between allele frequencies and linguistic typological features has been recently discovered, supporting the latter hypothesis.
Tone deafness is also associated with other such musical-specific impairments as the inability to keep time with music (the lack of rhythm) or to remember or recognize a song. These disabilities can separately appear, and some research shows that they more often appear in tone-deaf people. Experienced musicians, such as W. A. Mathieu, have addressed tone deafness in adults as correctable with training.
In nine of ten tone deaf people, the superior arcuate fasciculus in the right hemisphere could not be detected, suggesting a disconnection between the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. Researchers suggested the posterior superior temporal gyrus was the origin of the disorder.
- Amusia, the medical loss of musical ability
- Absolute pitch, the rare ability to name a musical note when played or sung
- Relative pitch, the normal human ability to accurately distinguish pitch intervals
- Tonal memory
- Musical aptitude
- Beat deafness
- Deafness, the inability to hear sound
- Color blindness
Notable tone-deaf people
- Dediu, Dan; D. Robert Ladd (June 2007). "Linguistic tone relates to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and Microcephalin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (26): 10944–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610848104. PMC 1904158. PMID 17537923. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- Ayotte, Julie; Isabelle Peretz and Krista Hyde (February 2002). "Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder". Brain 125 (2): 238–51. doi:10.1093/brain/awf028. PMID 11844725. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- Mathieu, W. A. "Tone-Deaf Choir". Retrieved 26 February 2009.
- Loui P, Alsop D, Schlaug S. (2009). Tone Deafness: A New Disconnection Syndrome? Journal of Neuroscience, 29(33):10215–10220 doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1701-09.2009
- LaFee, Scott (9 February 2009). "Darwin's Legacy: Natural selections". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- Norwich, John Julius. The Duff Cooper Diaries 1915-1951.Phoenix, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7538-2105-3. P.109.
- Sacks, Oliver; Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain; p 108 ISBN 1-4000-3353-5
- See Isaac Asimov's Book of Facts
- Cox, Stephen (2004). The Woman and the Dynamo: Isabel Paterson and the Idea of America. New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA: Transaction Publishers. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7658-0241-5.
- Hunter, Graeme K.; Light is a messenger: the life and science of William Lawrence Bragg; p. 158. ISBN 0-19-852921-X
- Crow, James Franklin and Dove, William F.; Perspectives on genetics: anecdotal, historical, and critical commentaries; p. 254. ISBN 0-299-16604-X
- Baril, Daniel (12 April 1999). "Le cerveau musical". Forum 33 (26) (Université de Montréal). Retrieved 19 July 2008
- Hamilton, W. D. and Ridley, Mark; Narrow Roads of Gene Land: The Collected Papers of W. D. Hamilton Volume 3; p. 7. ISBN 0-19-856690-5
- Zeltner, Philip N.; John Dewey's Aesthetic Philosophy; p. 93. ISBN 90-6032-029-8
- "The Life of W. B. Yeats". The New York Times.
- University of Newcastle: Musical Listening Test
- BBC: Listening Displeasure
- NPR: Test for tone deafness (requires RealAudio player)
- MedicineNet: Amusia
- NIH: Distorted Tunes Test
- The Listening Book: Tone-Deaf Choir audio description by W. A. Mathieu
- (English) Kazez, D. (1985). The myth of tone deafness. Music Educators Journal, 71, 46-47.</ref>.