Tongguan County

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Tongguan County
Chinese transcription(s)
 • Characters 潼关县
 • Pinyin Tóngguān Xiàn
Country China
Province Shaanxi
Prefecture Weinan
 • Total 526 km2 (203 sq mi)
 • Total 150,000
 • Density 290/km2 (740/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)

Tongguan County (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tóngguān Xiàn; Wade–Giles: T'ung-kuan Hsien; literally: "High Pass County") is a county in Weinan, Shaanxi, China. It is located in the east of the Central Plain, north of the Qin Mountains, south of Wei and Luo River, east of the Mount Hua and in between the three provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi and Henan. Throughout Chinese history, Tongguan remains to be a strategic point due to its geographical significance.


Located between the Qin Mountains and the Yellow River, the path to Tongguan is very narrow and its terrain was difficult to pass. After the Eastern Han Dynasty, Tongguan gradually replaced Hangu Pass in significance and became the eastern portal of Guanzhong. Beginning from the Battle of Tongguan until the Sui and Tang Dynasty, Tongguan was always an important strategic base. It was especially apparent during the Tang Dynasty, as the safety of the national capital Chang'an was directly connected with the defense of Tongguan. The loss of Tongguan usually led directly to the fall of Chang'an as it happened during the An Shi Rebellion.[1]

In the 19th and early 20th century, it was known as Tungkwan.


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Coordinates: 34°29′11″N 110°15′49″E / 34.48639°N 110.26361°E / 34.48639; 110.26361