Tongue diseases can be congenital or acquired. Glossitis is a general term for tongue inflammation, which can be caused by various etiologies such as infection.
The condition of the tongue provide information about many other conditions, as in strawberry tongue.
Assessment of the tongue has historically been an important part of a medical examination.
- White tongue: White spots and patches or coating of the tongue are a symptom of several medical conditions:
- Geographic tongue. This is very common condition that affects the anterior two thirds of the dorsal and lateral tongue mucosa of 1% to 2.5% of the population. When lesions involve other oral mucosa in addition to the dorsal and lateral tongue, the condition is called migratory stomatitis (or ectopic geographic tongue); in this uncommon condition, lesions infrequently involve also the ventral tongue and buccal or labial mucosa, the soft palate and floor of the mouth. Although this condition is considered a normal variant rather than pathology, it occasionally symptomatic.
- Hypoglossia - congenitally short tongue
- Tongue necrosis owing to local or systemic ischemic conditions, most commonly giant cell arteritis.
- Squamous cell carcinoma
The tongue is examined and observed diagnostically in traditional Chinese medicine. A painful tongue may be an indication of several underlying serious medical conditions
See also 
- ^ Haller JS (September 1982). "The foul tongue: a 19th century index of disease". West. J. Med. 137 (3): 258–64. PMC 1274095. PMID 6755914.
- ^ Hodgson TA, Greenspan D, Greenspan JS (April 2006). "Oral lesions of HIV disease and HAART in industrialized countries". Adv Dent Res 19 (1): 57–62. PMID 16672551.
- ^ Zadik Yehuda, Burnstein Saar, Derazne Estella, Sandler Vadim, Ianculovici Clariel, Halperin Tamar (March 2010). "Colonization of Candida: prevalence among tongue-pierced and non-pierced immunocompetent adults". Oral Dis 16 (2): 172–5. doi:10.1111/j.1601-0825.2009.01618.x. PMID 19732353.
- ^ Zadik Y, Drucker S, Pallmon S (Aug 2011). "Migratory stomatitis (ectopic geographic tongue) on the floor of the mouth". J Am Acad Dermatol 65 (2): 459–60. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2010.04.016. PMID 21763590.
- ^ Sainuddin S, Saeed NR (December 2008). "Acute bilateral tongue necrosis – a case report". Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 46 (8): 671–2. doi:10.1016/j.bjoms.2008.03.027. PMID 18499311.
- ^ Zadik Y, Findler M, Maly A, et al. (January 2011). "A 78-year-old woman with bilateral tongue necrosis". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 111 (1): 15–9. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2010.09.001. PMID 21176820.
- ^ "Painful tongue".
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