Toni Packer (1978)
|Known for||Meditative inquiry|
Toni Packer (born 1927) is a teacher of "meditative inquiry", and the founder of Springwater Center. Packer is a former student in the Sanbo Kyodan lineage of Zen Buddhism, and was previously in line to be the successor of Phillip Kapleau at the Rochester Zen Center.
Toni Packer was born in Berlin, Germany in 1927. Her family was Lutheran in name only, as they endeavored not to divulge the fact that her mother was of Jewish descent. It was in her childhood, growing up amidst the turmoil of Nazi Germany, that Packer first developed mistrust for authority. The family eventually made a move to Switzerland, where she married her husband Kyle Packer in 1950. The pair moved to New York near the State University of New York at Buffalo, where Kyle came to earn a degree in psychology. Toni began reading the pioneering works about Zen Buddhism by Alan Watts, D. T. Suzuki and Philip Kapleau. It was the latter which had the greatest impact on her, and she soon joined the nearby Rochester Zen Center with her husband.
Throughout the 1970s she accepted minor teaching positions at Rochester, and in 1981 she ran the center for an extended period in Kapleau's absence. During this time she instituted many changes in the practice there and discontinued wearing the rakusu that normally distinguishes teachers from students.
Packer left the Center shortly after Kapleau's return and ceased calling herself a Buddhist. Her eventual departure from Zen Buddhism was due in part to her growing scepticism toward the use of Japanese ritual in Zen as practised at the Rochester Zen center.
In 1981 she opened the Genesee Valley Zen Center, in Springwater, in the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York, an hour south of Rochester. In 1986 the center relocated and changed its name, dropping the word Zen to become the Springwater Center for Meditative Inquiry and Retreats in Springwater, New York. Packer has rejected labels for herself such as a teacher or authority, though some of the individuals she has asked to carry on her work do not.[a]
The word "Zen" was dropped from the Center's name as a result of Packer's move away from Japanese Zen Buddhist traditions.
Teaching style 
Up to 16 retreats are held a year, giving a blend of ritual-less zen and neo-advaita silent retreats, and David Bohm style dialogues/group meetings.
Packer has been described as "...a Zen teacher minus the 'Zen' and minus the 'teacher,'" emphasizing the importance of meditative inquiry without practicing Buddhism. Though stripped of rituals, Packer still finds the practice of zazen to be useful.
- Packer, T (1990). The Work of This Moment. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-536-0.
- Packer, T (1995). The Light of Discovery. Charles E. Tuttle. ISBN 0-8048-3063-0.
- Packer, T (1995). Seeing Without Knowing & What Is Meditative Inquiry?. Springwater Center. OCLC 35850237.
- Packer, T (2002). The Wonder of Presence and the Way of Meditative Inquiry. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-57062-875-0.
- Packer, T (2007). The Silent Question: Meditating in the Stillness of Not-Knowing. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-59030-410-1.
See also 
- Jiddu Krishnamurti
- David Bohm
- Buddhism in the United States
- Buddhism in the West
- Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States
- Advaita Vedanta
- as evidenced on the Springwater Center web site
- Ford, James Ishmael (2006). Zen Master Who?: A Guide to the People and Stories of Zen. Wisdom Publications. pp. 159–62. ISBN 0-86171-509-8.
- Coleman, James William (2001). The New Buddhism: The Western Transformation of an Ancient Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 82. ISBN 0-19-515241-7.
- Kraft, Kenneth (1988). Zen: Tradition and Transition. Grove Press. pp. 195. ISBN 0-8021-3162-X.
- Smith, Huston; Novak, Philip (2004). Buddhism: A Concise Introduction. HarperCollins. p. 159. ISBN 0-06-073067-6.
- Prebish, Charles S.; Baumann, Martin (2002). Westward Dharma: Buddhism Beyond Asia. University of California Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN 0-520-22625-9.