Tonneau

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This article is about automotive cargo compartments. For oak barrels used in winemaking, see Oak (wine).
1910 Buick Tonneau without tonneau cover
1903 Ford Model A rear-door Tonneau
1903 Sunbeam rear-door Tonneau

Tonneau cover (US /tʌˈn/ or UK /ˈtɒn/) describes a hard or soft cover used to protect unoccupied passenger seats in a convertible or roadster, or the cargo bed in a pickup truck. Hard tonneau covers open by a hinging or folding mechanism while soft covers open by rolling up.

The tonneau cover is used to conceal cargo. When the cover is pulled out, it keeps items out of the sun and provides extra security by keeping personal items out of sight,[1] as well as shielding the driver from view.

Origin[edit]

A tonneau was an open rear passenger compartment, rounded like a barrel,[2] on an automobile and, by extension, a body style incorporating such a compartment. The word derives from French, mostly meaning barrel[citation needed] or sometimes cask or container. Most tonneau covers were fixed in place as an optional element at purchase, but some could be removed as on the Crestmobile or the two-part (frame and cover) of the early MGB.

Early tonneaus normally had a rear-facing hinged door, but single and dual side doors were soon introduced. The first US side-door tonneau was made by Peerless, and others quickly followed. This led to the development of the modern sedan/saloon, with Cadillac manufacturing the first US production closed-body four-door car in 1910.

Race cars[edit]

Early open-bodied touring-type automobiles used tonneau covers to protect unoccupied rear seats. As early as the 1930s, lakes racers, searching for that extra competitive edge, pulled a page directly from early aircraft construction and skinned the cockpits of their roadsters and streamliners with removable canvas. The skins covered gaping cockpits that would otherwise disturb airflow and create undue drag; as a result, tonneau-equipped cars ultimately went faster with a given amount of power.[3]

Sports cars[edit]

Tonneau Cover

Tonneau covers are available for open sports cars such as the Porsche Boxster, MGA, Triumph, and Austin-Healey.[4] These covers, made of leather or vinyl, cover the entire passenger compartment, and are zippered to enable the driver's seating area to be uncovered, while the passenger seat and small rear storage space behind the seats remained covered.[5][6] Tonneau covers may be used in lieu of hard or soft convertible tops.

Buffeting[edit]

As air courses over the windshield at speed, it creates turbulence as it cascades into and bounces out of the cockpit. This condition is called buffeting, and can be annoying. A tonneau cover reduces buffeting at all speeds. Heat produced by a heater leaves as that turbulence exchanges the cockpit's warmer air for cooler ambient air. A tonneau cover is capable of both retaining heat and shielding a driver from UV exposure.[7]

Truck use and styles[edit]

Tonneau cover on pickup truck

Tonneau covers are used in utility vehicles and pickup trucks to cover and secure the truck bed and come in a variety of styles.

The most common style is the roll-up tonneau made from cloth or vinyl which uses a rib-like structure to support the fabric and keep it taut. A snap-based system is also used, but has become less common due to truck owners not wanting to install the snaps on their vehicle as they typically require drilling or permanent adhesive.[8] Roll-up Tonneaus[9] are opened by rolling the cover up toward the cab of the truck.

Another style of truck bed tonneau cover is a retractable unit, which is mounted at the front and sides of the bed and rolls up or retracts from the tailgate towards the cab. The retractable tonneau is typically made of vinyl, plastic or aluminum. Retractable tonneaus have the benefit of being more convenient than vinyl roll up styles as they don't involve time consuming assembly or disassembly. Retractable tonneau styles are usually lockable.[10][11]

Fiberglass or hard plastic tonneau covers are also common. Some may be painted to match the truck, are solid in construction, and can be locked. These covers are usually heavy and require gas struts to assist in opening and closing. They operate much like a vehicle's hood, typically opening from the tailgate end of the bed (back to front). Some are available with multiple compartments that will open front to back, back to front, side to side, or even rise vertically. Fiberglass or hard plastic tonneau covers are sometimes installed as a factory option on new vehicles.

The word is sometimes spelled incorrectly as "tonno."

Benefits[edit]

Tonneau covers offer a number of benefits to pick-up truck owners:

  • Protection from elements: Truck bed covers protect the bed and its contents from sun, rain, sleet, snow, hail, wind, leaves, and vermin.
  • Security: Truck bed covers hide the contents and offer increased security because the time it would take to open or remove a truck bed cover would discourage theft. Some covers can be locked. Truck bed covers also keep the contents from being blown around or blown out of the truck.
  • Aesthetics: Tonneau covers add a look many consider to be stylish by giving the truck bed a streamlined look.[12]
  • Increased fuel mileage: Engineering studies have demonstrated a significant reduction in drag coefficient (Cd) with the addition of a tonneau cover to a modern pickup truck body style.[13]

Myths[edit]

Improved aerodynamics and gas mileage on trucks

Many sellers will state that tonneau covers will improve gas mileage because they make the truck more streamlined. However, air currents create a wake inside the pickup bed which helps the aerodynamics. A tonneau cover interferes with this wake, and scientific tests have shown little to no improvement in mileage by using a tonneau cover traveling at less than 70 mph. A similar effect is seen when the tailgate is down and the mileage goes down. The only device that tests show will significantly improve mileage is using a mesh in place of a tailgate since it both keeps the truckbed wake in place and reduces tailgate drag.[14]


Other uses[edit]

"Tonneau case" is used to describe a type of watch case, with rounded, bulging sides resembling a barrel (or cask).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Toyota Glossary". Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University, 2011
  3. ^ "Street Rodder, March 2007". Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  4. ^ "Installation of Tonneau Cover". Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  5. ^ "Porsche wind & weather". Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  6. ^ "MGA tonneau cover". Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  7. ^ "Street Rodder by Chris Shelton, March 2007". Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  8. ^ Snapless Tonneau Cover TruXedo: Tonneau Cover Manufacturer
  9. ^ Roll Up Tonneau Cover Access: THE ORIGINAL roll up tonneau cover
  10. ^ Roll-Up Style Cover Roll-N-Lock "Roll Up" Style Cover
  11. ^ Retractable Style Tonneau Peragon Retractable Style Tonneau
  12. ^ "Tonneau Cover Research Guide Covering Benefits in Greater Detail". Retrieved 2011-09-09. 
  13. ^ Improving Aerodynamic Characteristics of A Dodge Ram Pickup Truck, 1997, Todd J. Ortolani, Vanwijak (Kehm) Ewosakul, Western New England College.
  14. ^ Annotated Mythbusters Mythbusters Episode 64