Tonopah Test Range Airport
|Tonopah Test Range Airport|
|Airport and surrounding test range|
|IATA: XSD – ICAO: KTNX – FAA LID: TNX|
|Airport type||Military: Air Force Base|
|Owner||U.S. Air Force|
|Location||Tonopah Test Range|
|Elevation AMSL||5,549 ft / 1,691 m|
|Source: Federal Aviation Administration|
Tonopah Test Range Airport (IATA: XSD, ICAO: KTNX, FAA LID: TNX), at the Tonopah Test Range (Senior Trend project site PS-66)[dead link] is 27 NM (50 km; 31 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada and 140 mi (230 km) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is a major airfield with a 12,000 ft × 150 ft (3,658 m × 46 m) runway, instrument approach facilities, and nighttime illumination. The facility boasts over fifty hangars and an extensive support infrastructure.
The primary (paved) access to the facility is off of U.S. Route 6 at the north end of the airport. Dirt road access points also exist on the south and east sides of the range. The site is plainly visible from commercial airliners, which pass 17 NM (31 km; 20 mi) north of the base on transcontinental flights.
The Tonopah Test Range airfield came into existence in 1957 and was largely used by the Department of Energy, the Air Force, and several contractors. The airfield was presumably originally built to support drop tests of nuclear weapons to support the AEC/DOE test programs, and only later was taken over by the military for flight testing. The area was open range, with wild horses running free.
1957-1968: The early years 
The Tonopah range first opened in 1957, supporting operations on the Test Range itself, which was used for United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, later Department of Energy or DOE)) funded weapon programs. It was apparently not a World War II era field, as it is not listed in the 1944 US Army/Navy Directory of Airfields. It was apparently established as an Air Force facility at some point in the late 1950s, as Tonopah Air Force Station was the location of a radar site operated by the 866th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron to provide active surveillance over the area. On 5 May 1965 Tonopah AFS became part of the Air Warfare Center based at Nellis AFB, however the runway may have not been completed until after 1967, as it was not depicted on the 1967 Mt. Whitney Sectional Chart. The earliest known depiction of the airfield was on the July 1970 Air Force Tactical Pilotage Chart. The 1982 Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Airport Directory described the Tonopah Test Range airfield as having a single 6,600 ft (2,012 m) paved runway.
1968-1990 Foreign Technology Evaluation 
Cold War test and evaluation of captured Soviet fighter aircraft based at the TTR Airport were for the HAVE DOUGHNUT, HAVE DRILL and HAVE FERRY programs that flew the MiGs against U.S. fighters. Air Force Systems Command recruited its evaluation pilots from the Air Force Flight Test Center, while Tactical Air Command's werer primarily United States Air Force Weapons School graduates. The TTR Airport also was the site of the MiG-21 from the 1966 Iraqi MiG-21 defection that was flown to Israel In 1968 the US Air Force and Navy jointly formed a project known as Have Donut in which they flew this acquired Soviet made MiG-21 aircraft in simulated air combat training at the Detachment 3, Air Force Flight Test Center facility. In 1968 two ex-Iraqi MiG-17s transferred from Israeli stocks were added to the operation and it was renamed Have Drill and the project was transferred to the Tonopah Test Range Airport. These aircraft were given USAF designations and fake serial numbers so that they may be identified in DOD standard flight logs. In May 1973, Project Have Idea was formed which took over from the older Have Donut, Have Ferry and Have Drill projects.
4477th Test and Evaluation Squadron 
In May 1973, when Project HAVE IDEA was initiated for joint technical and tactical evaluation of Soviet aircraft types, the tactical evaluation flights of foreign aircraft were undertaken by Detachment 1, 57th Fighter Weapons Wing.
In July 1975, the 4477th Tactical Evaluation Flight (“Red Eagles”) was formed at Nellis AFB as tactical evaluation organization, and in December 1977 the 6513th Test Squadron (“Red Hats”) was formed at Edwards AFB to perform technical evaluations of these aircraft. Some aggressor training was done where the units went head to head against USAF fighters in mock dogfights at this time to find out and exploit possible weaknesses. On 1 April 1977, the 4477th TEF was reassigned to Tonopah.
In 1980 the 4477th TEF was re-designated as the 4477th Test and Evaluation Squadron and the operation was renamed again to Constant Peg. The squadron developed realistic combat training operations featuring adversary tactics, dissimilar air combat training, and electronic warfare. Over the years more aircraft were acquired until they numbered about two dozen including ultra modern MiG-23s. Egypt was thought to turn over a number of un-needed MiGs but planes kept coming in from other sources as well. No less than three Cuban pilots brought their MiGs to Florida. A number of Chinese made MiGs were purchased outright from China via the front company Combat Core Certification Professionals Company (CCCP!) and imported in crates. Three Syrians flew their MiG-23 and MiG-29s to Turkey in 1988.
Over the course of its history the 4477th pilots flew three models of Soviet-designed MiGs.
- Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 (Russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-17) were a subsonic, early jet aircraft design. Though originally meant to counter American bombers of the 1950s and 1960s, durable, cigar-shaped MiG-17s became North Vietnam’s primary fighter and eventually served in at least 20 air forces worldwide. MiG-17s were designated as:
- YF-113A Soviet MiG-17F NATO:"Fresco-C" used in Have Drill program
- YF-113C Chinese J-5 used in Have Privilege program
- YF-114C Soviet MiG-17F NATO:"Fresco-C" used in Have Ferry program
- YF-114D Soviet MiG-17PF NATO:"Fresco-D" (Serial: 75-008)
- Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21) were cone-nosed, supersonic fighters that were somewhat less maneuverable than MiG-17s. They also saw action with the North Vietnamese and became a popular export aircraft, with more than 8,000 produced. MiG-21s were designated as:
- YF-110B Soviet MiG-21F-13 NATO:"Fishbed-C/E" (Serials assigned: 75-001, 75-004 and 75-010)
- YF-110C Chinese Chengdu J-7B (MiG-21F-13 variant)
- YF-110D Soviet MiG-21MF NATO:"Fishbed-J"
- Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 (Russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-23 were the MiG-21’s replacement. Their swing-wing was patterned on that of the F-111, but unlike their US antecedent, the MiG-23s were small and light enough to serve as dogfighters. MiG-23s were designated as:
- YF-113B Soviet MiG-23BN NATO:"Flogger-F"
- YF-113E Soviet MiG-23MS NATO:"Flogger-E"
In addition, unconfirmed Soviet aircraft flown were MiG-25 Foxbat (YF-116); MiG-29 Fulcrum (YF-118) and Sukhoi Su-22 Fitter (YF-112). Crashes associated with the foreign aircraft included the 1979 Tonopah MiG-17 crash during training versus an F-5 and the 1984 Little Skull Mountain MiG-23 crash which killed a USAF general.
Aerial dogfights were staged between the various MiG models against virtually every fighter in US service, and against SAC’s B-52 Stratofortress and B-58 Hustlers to judge the ability of the bombers countermeasures systems, they performed radar cross-section and propulsion tests that contributed greatly to improvements in US aerial performance.
All the models had quirks. The MiG-17 did not have an electric seat, so pilots had to use cushions to position themselves properly inside the cockpit. Both it and the MiG-21 had pneumatic brakes applied by squeezing a lever on the front of the stick. Many of the MiG-21s did not have steerable nose gears, making them difficult to taxi; the sign of a novice Fishbed pilot was the zigzag track he made while moving on the ground. If a pilot put the throttle back on a MiG-21, it would take a long time to spool up again when trying to accelerate. Thus many of those who flew it stayed on afterburners as much as possible. The MiG-23 did not have that problem, as it was designed for speed-but it was unstable and difficult to fly.
None of the Soviet-designed aircraft at Tonopah flew in bad weather or at night. All were very short-legged, compared to contemporary US aircraft, and sorties were limited to 20 minutes or so. The MiGs had US airspeed indicators and a few other minor instrument and safety modifications. Other than that, they were stock-down to their Warsaw Pact paint jobs. Two pilots of the 4477th died flying the Soviet planes. The pilots had no manuals for the aircraft, although some tried to write one. Nor was there a consistent supply of spare parts, which had to be refurbished or manufactured at high cost.
What was learned during these projects prompted the US Navy to commence Top Gun exercises first at NAS Miramar, California and then NAS Fallon, Nevada. Shortly thereafter the Air Force commenced its Red Flag exercises at Nellis AFB, Nevada.
Near the end of the Cold War the program was abandoned and the squadron was disbanded. Flight operations closed down in March 1988, although the 4477th was not inactivated until July 1990, according to one official Air Force history. In 2006, the Constant Peg program was declassified and the USAF held a series of press conferences about the former top secret US MiGs. It was revealed that the US MiGs flew more than 15,000 sorties and nearly 7,000 aircrew flew in training against dissimilar aggressors in the Nevada desert between 1980 and the end of the program in 1988.
1982-1992: The F-117A Program 
The airfield became a major operating location for the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk. The first flight testing of the stealth YF-117A aircraft began in June 1981 at Groom Lake Nevada. Although ideal for testing, the Groom Lake test site was not a suitable location for an operational base, so a new covert base had to be established. In the summer of 1979, Tonopah Test Range Airport was selected to be the home of the Tactical Air Command 4450th Tactical Group (4450th TG). The mission of the 4450th at Tonopah was to guide the classified F-117A Stealth Fighter to an initial operating capability.
Beginning in October 1979 Tonopah Test Range Airport was reconstructed and expanded. The base was immediately staffed with US Air Force security police. The flight line was walled off with a double fence; the only access to the runway was through gates. The area between the fences was lighted at night and had intruder detectors. At first, the facilities were limited to a few buildings, a small mess hall, and sixteen winterized trailers. Security checkpoints were placed on the sole public access road which led to the TTR. The 6,000 ft (1,829 m) runway was lengthened to 10,000 ft (3,048 m). Taxiways, a concrete apron, a large maintenance hangar, and a propane storage tank were added. Phase II of the expansion consisted of the construction of an extra taxiway, a new control tower, a 42,000-square-foot (3,900 m2) hangar, a parts warehouse, a dining hall, a water storage tank, and extensive fuel storage tanks. Phase III expansion of the facility was a 2,000 ft (610 m) runway extension to a total length of 12,000 ft (3,658 m). Extensions were made to taxiways, the ramp, the runway gained arrester gear, and new navigation aids were installed. More fuel storage was provided, together with Liquid Oxygen (LOX) storage, a fire station, and the first 24 aircraft hangars. The cost was over $100 million.
On May 17, 1982, the move of the 4450th TG from Groom Lake to Tonopah was initiated and completed in 1983. The F-117 project was highly classified and Tonopah Test Range became a black project facility. Nearly all Air Force personnel and their families lived in the city of Las Vegas. The Air Force member was assigned to Nellis AFB and was considered to be working "uprange". A typical Air Force member would drive to Nellis AFB on Monday and board a contract Key Airlines Boeing 727-100 aircraft, which operated about 15 daily flights between the two bases. The member would live in dormitories at "Mancamp" during the work week, then fly back to Nellis AFB Thursday afternoon or Friday morning. All dormitory rooms had private bathrooms and showers, televisions with about 30 cable TV channels, a telephone with unrestricted local service to Las Vegas, access to laundry rooms in the building, and access to 24-hour recreational and dining facilities around Mancamp. Civilian engineers and executives were allowed to commute on the Key Airlines or Janet flights, but all other civilians generally lived in the surrounding region and drove to the TTR in their own vehicles or commuted in chartered buses.
Routine F-117 operations began in the mid-1980s. Before each night's sorties, there would be a mass briefing of the pilots, followed by target and route study. The hangar doors were not opened until one hour after sunset. This meant the first takeoff would not be made until about 7:00 P.M. in winter and 9:30 P.M. in the summer. Eventually two waves were flown per night. This involved eight primary aircraft and two spares, for a total of eighteen sorties. The aircraft would fly the first wave (called the "early-go"), then return to TTR and be serviced. A second group of pilots would then fly the second wave (the "late-go"). Typically, the training flights simulated actual missions. A normal mission would have two targets and several turn points. On other nights, there would be a "turkey shoot" with some fourteen targets. The pilots would get points for each one; at the end of the night, they would be added up to see who "won." The missions ranged across the southwest, and the targets were changed each time, to make it more challenging. The second wave was completed by about 2:30 or 3:00 A.M. in the winter, a few hours later in the summer. The planes had to be in their hangars and the doors closed one hour before sunrise. After landing, the pilots would be debriefed.
The area around TTR was closely monitored. If a truck was seen in the hills around the base, it would be checked out, as were airplanes flying near the base's restricted airspace. Air Force members were also prohibited from driving into the town of Tonopah without special permission. Internal security at the base was also stringent. Personnel crossing into the double-fence area housing the hangars and flightline were required to pass through a security control point. This relied upon the Identimat hand geometry scanner, a biometric technology acquired by Wackenhut, the same company that provided perimeter security on the TTR. The F-117 operations building was a giant vault with no windows. Within the building was another vault room where the flight manuals were stored. When in use, the manuals always had to be in the pilot's physical possession. If a pilot had to go to the bathroom, his manuals were loaned to another pilot or returned to the vault.
The new F-117 fleet was considered for several high-profile military operations during the mid-1980s, but operations remained largely confined to nighttime flights around Nevada and California for a number of years. It took a presidential authorization to begin off-range flights. In the event of an unscheduled landing, the pilots carried a signed letter from a senior Air Force general ordering the base or wing commander to protect the aircraft.
Transition to white world operations 
In spite of the tight security, the Air Force was already making plans to “normalize” future support within the AF Logistics Command structure. As a “black” program, it would probably never achieve a support structure similar to that for F-15s for F-111s. Sacramento Air Logistics Center was tasked in late 1983/early 1984 to prepare to take on full logistics and management responsibility for support of the F-117A. A depot was established in 1984 to accomplish repairs and install modifications on the aircraft. This depot, first located in Lockheed’s Palmdale Plant 10 (PS-77), eventually took the place of Lockheed Depot Field Teams performing the depot work at Tonopah. The F-117s were moved between the TTR and depot by C-5, and were only loaded and unloaded at night. This arrangement required the aircraft to be defueled, disassembled, cradled, and then loaded aboard the C-5, flown to the depot, and unloaded before the real work could begin. Of course, this meant that the reverse actions had to occur at the end of the depot work before the aircraft could be reassembled, flight-tested, and redelivered to Tonopah.
In addition to the logistical problems, the security also created safety problems. The nighttime operations resulted in two F-117A losses due to spatial disorientation, one of the planes crashing 30 miles east of the airfield in October 1987. An F-117 based at Tonopah Test Range and piloted by Maj. Ross Mulhare crashed on July 11, 1986 near Bakersfield, California. Another F-117 piloted by Michael C. Stewart was lost on October 14, 1987 on the range about 30 miles east of the TTR Airfield, and it took the Air Force nearly a day to find the wreckage In both crashes the pilot was killed on impact, and both were attributed to fatigue and disorientation.
In November 1988 the Air Force formally acknowledged its F-117 activities at Tonopah, bringing what was a "black world" program into "gray world" status. However F-117 flight operations continued to be restricted to the nighttime hours. Late in 1989 the Air Force began preparations to lead the F-117 into regular Air Force operations. This would be done in two phases: first, bringing the aircraft under the umbrella of the Tactical Air Command, and second, locating the fleet at a regular Air Force base. The first phase came on October 5, 1989 when the 4450th Tactical Group was deactivated and the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing from George AFB was assigned to Tonopah. The Tactical Air Command (TAC) also activated the Det 1, 57 Fighter Weapons Wing (FWW) at Tonopah. During this phase, three pairs of F-117 aircraft left the TTR for Panama in December 1989 to participate in Operation JUST CAUSE. Only one mission with two F-117As was attempted.
The second phase of real-world integration came in January 1990 with the announcement that the 37th TFW would move from Tonopah to Holloman AFB, New Mexico, which would ultimately be delayed due to the Gulf War. In April 1990, the F-117 was placed on public display at Nellis AFB and the Air Force mission at Tonopah Test Range became a mostly unclassified "white world" program, though at no time would the general public be permitted near the TTR complex or on the Nellis Range. During this phase, daytime F-117 flying operations began. Previously, training sorties were flown at nighttime under radio silence and without air traffic control contact. The change to daytime, white-world flying required much less vigilance on the part of pilots and was cited as improving the safety of training operations.
Drawdown of F-117A operations 
Summer 1990 saw the peak of Air Force activity at the Tonopah Test Range Airport. After the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait the base was mobilized to support Desert Shield. On August 19, 1990, 22 F-117A's from the 415th and a dozen tankers left Tonopah for Langley AFB. A total of 18 F-117s would continue onward to Khamis Mushait Air Base in Saudi Arabia for Operation DESERT SHIELD, followed by hundreds of TTR support personnel. The planes and a contingent of Tonopah Test Range personnel remained in Saudi Arabia until late 1991. As a result of the deployment and the pending relocation to New Mexico, flying operations and staffing at the TTR declined significantly during 1991. Some of the support facilities which had been open 24 hours a day, such as the dining halls and library, began routinely closing at night.
The official ceremony for the F-117A arrival at Holloman AFB came on May 9, 1992, setting into motion the final exodus of the Air Force at Tonopah. On June 1, 1992 Det 1, 57 FWW moved from Tonopah to Holloman AFB. On July 8, the 37th FW was inactivated and the 415th FS, 416th FS, and 417th FS had all become part of the 49th Fighter Wing. By August 1992, the TTR Airport was largely in caretaker status with many of the facilities mothballed.
A-7D Corsair II 
Because of the tight restrictions on F-117A flights during the 4450th TG "black" era, a surrogate aircraft was needed for training and practice and to provide a cover story for the 4450th TG's existence. The aircraft chosen was the Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV) A-7 Corsairs II. The SLUFF (Short Little Ugly Fat Fellow) was chosen because it demanded about the correct amount of pilot workload expected in the F-117A, was single seat, and therefore would bring all pilots to a common flight training base line. The 4450th TG was the last active USAF unit to fly the A-7D.
A-7 flight operations began in June 1981 concurrent with the very first YF-117A flights. The A-7's wore a unique "LV" tailcode (for Las Vegas) and were based officially at Nellis Air Force Base. They were maintained by the 4450th Maintenance Squadron, based at Nellis. Some A-7s operated from Tonopah from the beginning, and care was taken to leave them outside the hangars, so that prowling satellites could see that Tonopah operated nothing more exciting than some Corsairs. There were approximately 20 aircraft, including a couple of A-7K trainers.
In addition to providing an excuse for the 4450th's existence and activities the A-7's were also used to maintain pilot currency, particularly in the early stages when very few production F-117As were available. The pilots learned to fly chase on F-117A test and training flights, perform practice covert deployments, and practice any other purpose that could not be accomplished using F-117As, given the tight restrictions imposed on all F-117A operations. On off-range flights, the pilots talked to the air traffic controllers as if they were in an A-7D Corsair II. Each F-117 aircraft also carried a transponder that indicated to radar operators that it was an A-7.
T-38 Talon 
In January 1989, just three months after the USAF admitted the F-117A existed, the aging A-7's were replaced with newer T-38A and AT-38B Talon trainers.
Many of these "Talons" formerly belonged to the 4447th TS "Red Hats" that flew "acquired" Soviet aircraft at Groom Lake, Nevada. One of the AT-38B Talons even served as a USAF Thunderbird in the 1970s.
Most of the T-38s were reassigned to training units with the disbanding of the 37th FW.
Post 1992: Tonopah nowadays 
After 1992, very little was published about what, if any, aircraft were based there. The facility was placed on caretaker status effective 31 December 1992, however the USAF continued to maintain the runway as active along with the navigation aids remaining open to the DOE and the USAF on an as-needed basis.
The 30th Reconnaissance Squadron, operating Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, was activated at Tonopah in August 2005 as part of the 57th Operations Group at Nellis. The squadron currently operates the USAF's RQ-170 Sentinel UAVs.
On April 22, 2008, the last of the F-117s were returned to Tonopah to be mothballed. Since the aircraft still contain classified material, the Air Force was not able to mothball them in the normal facilities and will use hangars at Tonopah instead. One aircraft will be left in service at Nellis.
The airfield continues to be used by the DOE in support of its mission at the Tonopah Test Range. The DOE facility supports approximately 15 flights per week for its operations. The remaining flights are in support of the USAF and other organizations at the Tonopah Test Range.
Detachment 3, 53rd Test and Evaluation Group 
After the 4477th TES was inactivated, the remaining assets were reconstituted as a detachment of the 57th Fighter Wing at Nellis AFB. It later became DET 2, 57th Fighter Wing in October 1991 and DET 2, 57th Wing in April 1993; in October 1996, DET 2, 57th Wing, became Detachment 3 of the 53rd Test and Evaluation Group. It is believed that Air Force Material Command operates MiG-29 Fulcrums and Su-27 Flanker aircraft somewhere in Nevada flying against Fighter Weapons School instructors, 422d Test and Evaluation Squadron aircrews and F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon "Aggressor" aircraft flying from Nellis AFB.
It is known that the USAF continues a Foreign Materiel Acquisition/Exploitation program, although the extent of acquisitions and operations of that program is not available. In March 1991, in the aftermath of the 1991 Gulf War, a team from the Joint Captured Materiel Exploitation Center arrived at Jalibah Southeast Air Base in Iraq. They returned with a MiG-29 nose, providing Air Force intelligence personnel with a Slot Back I radar and the Fulcrum’s infrared search and tracking system. Later in the decade, Air Force intelligence personnel were able to acquire more complete versions of the MiG-29, the result of spending money rather than fighting a war. In October 1997, the US purchased 21 fighter aircraft from the Republic of Moldova—including the MiG-29UB. According to the National Air and Space Intelligence Center, after "undergoing years of study" and employing "all the [center’s foreign materiel exploitation] resources," the MiG-29UB was displayed in front of NASIC headquarters at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
In 1997, the United States purchased 21 Moldovan aircraft for evaluation and analysis, under the Cooperative Threat Reduction accord. Fourteen were MiG-29Ss, which are equipped with an active radar jammer in its spine and are capable of being armed with nuclear weapons. Part of the United States’ motive to purchase these aircraft was to prevent them from being sold to "rogue states", especially Iran. In late 1997, the MiGs were delivered to the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, though many of the former Moldovan MiG-29s are believed to have been scrapped.
In 2003, after the seizure of the Iraqi Air Force Al-Taqaddum Air Base, an advanced Russian MiG-25 Foxbat was found buried in the sand after an informant tipped off U.S. troops. The MiG was dug out of a massive sand dune near the Al Taqqadum airfield by U.S. Air Force recovery teams. The MiG was reportedly one of over two dozen Iraqi jets buried in the sand, like hidden treasure, waiting to be recovered at a later date.
Contrary to what some in the major media have reported, not all the jets found at captured Iraqi Air Force bases were from the Gulf War era. The Russian-made MiG-25 Foxbat recovered was an advanced reconnaissance version never before seen in the West and was equipped with sophisticated electronic warfare devices. Air Force recovery teams had to use large earth-moving equipment to uncover the MiG, which was over 70 feet long and weighed 25 tons. The advanced electronic reconnaissance version found by the U.S. Air Force is currently in service with the Russian air force.
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See also 
- Tonopah Air Force Station (Evaluation of Soviet "Barlock" Radar)
- AirNav: KTNX - Tonopah Test Range
- FlightAware: KTNX - Tonopah Test Range
- Great Circle Mapper: XSD/KTNX - Tonopah, Nevada (Tonopah Test Range)
- F-117 Site History, Stealth Fighter Association webpage, accessed 2011-10-26.
- USAFHRA Document 00414943
- USAFHRA Document 01120743
- Davies, Steve (2008), Red Eagles, Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey, p. 352, ISBN 978-1-84603-378-0
- Constant Peg, Air Force Magazine, April 2007 , Vol. 90, No. 4
- Steve Davies: "Red Eagles. America's Secret MiGs", Osprey Publishing, 2008
- Peebles, Curtis, (1999), Dark Eagles, Presidio Press; Revised edition, ISBN 0-89141-696-X
- Fatigue, night flights add to danger for F-117 pilots, Mark Thompson, Houston Chronicle, 3 June 1989.
- Barrier, Terri. "F-117A retirement bittersweet occasion." Aerotech News and Review, March 16, 2007.
- ROGERS, KEITH (2008-04-23). "Flying Into History". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- F-117A: The Black Jet Website
- Declassified Presentations of the tactical and technical exploitation of the MiG-17 and MiG-21 at Tonopah:
- Resources for this airport: