|68th Tony Awards|
Designed by Herman Rosse, 1949
|Awarded for||Excellence in Broadway theatre|
|Presented by||American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League|
The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known informally as the Tony Award, recognizes achievement in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League at an annual ceremony in New York City. The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, and an award is given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are also given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award. The awards are named after Antoinette Perry, co-founder of the American Theatre Wing.
The rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document "Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards", which applies for that season only. The Tony Awards are considered the highest U.S. theatre honor, the New York theatre industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards (Oscars) for motion pictures, the Grammy Awards for music and the Emmy Awards for television, and the Laurence Olivier Award for theatre in the United Kingdom and the Molière Award of France.
From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, when it was held at the Gershwin Theatre. In 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre. The 67th Tony Awards returned to Radio City Music Hall on June 9, 2013, as did the 68th Tony Awards on June 8, 2014.
As of 2014[update], there are 24 categories of awards, plus several special awards. Starting with 11 awards in 1947, the names and number of categories have changed over the years. Some examples: the category Best Book of a Musical was originally called "Best Author (Musical)". The category of Best Costume Design was one of the original awards. For two years, in 1960 and 1961, this category was split into Best Costume Designer (Dramatic) and Best Costume Designer (Musical). It then went to a single category, but in 2005 it was divided again. For the category of Best Director of a Play, a single category was for directors of plays and musicals prior to 1960.
A newly established non-competitive award, The Isabelle Stevenson Award, was given for the first time at the awards ceremony in 2009. The award is for an individual who has made a "substantial contribution of volunteered time and effort on behalf of one or more humanitarian, social service or charitable organizations".
The category of Best Special Theatrical Event was retired as of the 2009–2010 season. The categories of Best Sound Design of a Play and Best Sound Design of a Musical were retired as of the 2014-2015 season.
- Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play
- Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Play
- Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical
- Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical
- Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Play
- Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Play
- Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical
- Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical
Show and technical categories
- Best Musical
- Best Revival of a Musical
- Best Direction of a Musical
- Best Book of a Musical
- Best Original Score
- Best Orchestrations
- Best Choreography
- Best Scenic Design of a Musical
- Best Costume Design of a Musical
- Best Lighting Design of a Musical
- Best Play
- Best Revival of a Play
- Best Direction of a Play
- Best Costume Design of a Play
- Best Scenic Design of a Play
- Best Lighting Design of a Play
- Tony Award for Best Author
- Best Conductor and Musical Director
- Tony Award for Best Revival (split into two categories: Best Revival of a Musical and Best Revival of a Play)
- Tony Award for Best Stage Technician
- Best Special Theatrical Event
- Best Director (split into two categories: Best Direction of a Musical and Best Direction of a Play)
- Best Sound Design of a Musical
- Best Sound Design of a Play
The award was founded in 1947 by a committee of the American Theatre Wing headed by Brock Pemberton. The award is named after Antoinette Perry, nicknamed Tony, an actress, director, producer and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, who died in 1946. As her official biography at the Tony Awards website states, "At [Warner Bros. story editor] Jacob Wilk's suggestion, [Pemberton] proposed an award in her honor for distinguished stage acting and technical achievement. At the initial event in 1947, as he handed out an award, he called it a Tony. The name stuck."
The first awards ceremony was held on April 6, 1947, at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City. The first prizes were "a scroll, cigarette lighter and articles of jewelry such as 14-carat gold compacts and bracelets for the women, and money clips for the men." It was not until the third awards ceremony in 1949 that the first Tony medallion was given to award winners.
Awarded by a panel of approximately 868 voters (as of 2014) from various areas of the entertainment industry and press, the Tony Award is generally regarded as the theatre's equivalent to the Academy Award, for excellence in film; the Grammy Award, for the music industry, and the Emmy Award, for excellence in television. In British theatre, the equivalent of the Tony Award is the Laurence Olivier Award. A number of the world's longest-running and most successful shows, as well as some actors, directors, choreographers and designers, have received both Tony Awards and Olivier Awards.
Since 1967, the award ceremony has been broadcast on U.S. national television and includes songs from the nominated musicals, and occasionally has included video clips of, or presentations about, nominated plays. The American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League jointly present and administer the awards. Audience size for the telecast is generally well below that of the Academy Awards shows, but the program reaches an affluent audience, which is prized by advertisers. According to a June 2003 article in The New York Times: "What the Tony broadcast does have, say CBS officials, is an all-important demographic: rich and smart. Jack Sussman, CBS's senior vice president in charge of specials, said the Tony show sold almost all its advertising slots shortly after CBS announced it would present the three hours. 'It draws upscale premium viewers who are attractive to upscale premium advertisers,' Mr. Sussman said..." The viewership has declined from the early years of its broadcast history (for example, the number of viewers in 1974 was 20,026,000, in 1999 9,155,000) but has settled into between six and eight million viewers for most of the decade of the 2000s. In contrast, the 2009 Oscar telecast had 36.3 million viewers.
The Tony Award medallion was designed by art director Herman Rosse and is a mix of mostly brass and a little bronze, with a nickel plating on the outside; a black acrylic glass base, and the nickel-plated pewter swivel. The face of the medallion portrays an adaptation of the comedy and tragedy masks. Originally, the reverse side had a relief profile of Antoinette Perry; this later was changed to contain the winner's name, award category, production and year. The medallion has been mounted on a black base since 1967.
A larger base was introduced in time for the 2010 award ceremony. The new base is slightly taller – 5 inches (13 cm), up from 3 1⁄4 inches (8.3 cm) – and heavier – 3 1⁄2 pounds (1.6 kg), up from 1 1⁄2 pounds (680 grams). This change was implemented to make the award "feel more substantial" and easier to handle at the moment the award is presented to the winners. According to Howard Sherman, the executive director of the American Theatre Wing:
We know the physical scale of the Oscars, Emmys and Grammys he said. While we're not attempting to keep up with the Joneses, we felt this is a significant award, and it could feel and look a bit more significant... By adding height, now someone can grip the Tony, raise it over their head in triumph and not worry about keeping their grip he said. Believe me, you can tell the difference.
For the specific Tony Awards presented to a Broadway production, awards are given to the author and up to two of the producers free of charge. All other members of the above-the-title producing team are eligible to purchase the physical award. Sums collected are designed to help defray the cost of the Tony Awards ceremony itself. An award cost $400 as of at least 2000, $750 as of at least 2009, and, as of 2013, had been $2,500 "for several years", according to Tony Award Productions.
Details of the Tony Awards
Source: Tony Awards Official Site, Rules
Rules for a new play or musical
For the purposes of the award, a new play or musical is one that has not previously been produced on Broadway and is not "determined to be 'classic' or in the historical or popular repertoire", as determined by the Administration Committee (per Section (2g) of the Rules and Regulations). The rule about "classic" productions was instituted by the Tony Award Administration Committee in 2002, and stated (in summary) "A play or musical that is determined ... to be a 'classic' or in the historical or popular repertoire shall not be eligible for an Award in the Best Play or Best Musical Category but may be eligible in that appropriate Best Revival category." Shows transferred from Off-Broadway or the West End are eligible as "new", as are productions based closely on films.
This rule has been the subject of some controversy, as some shows have been ruled ineligible for the "new" category, meaning that their authors did not have a chance to win the important awards of Best Play or Best Musical (or Best Score or Best Book for musicals). On the other hand, some people[who?] feel that allowing plays and musicals that have been frequently produced to be eligible as "new" gives them an unfair advantage, because they will have benefited from additional development time as well as additional familiarity with the Tony voters.
Committees and voters
The Tony Awards Administration Committee has twenty-four members: ten designated by the American Theatre Wing, ten by The Broadway League, and one each by the Dramatists Guild, Actors' Equity Association, United Scenic Artists and the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers. This committee, among other duties, determines eligibility for nominations in all awards categories.
The Tony Awards Nominating Committee makes the nominations for the various categories. This rotating group of theatre professionals is selected by the Tony Awards Administration Committee. Nominators serve three-year terms and are asked to see every new Broadway production. The Nominating Committee for the 2012-13 Broadway season (named in June 2012) had 42 members; the Nominating Committee for the 2014-2015 season has 50 members and was appointed in June 2014.
There are approximately 868 eligible Tony Award voters (as of 2014), a number that changes slightly from year to year. The number was decreased in 2009 when the first-night critics were excluded as voters. That decision was changed, and members of the New York Drama Critics' Circle were invited to be Tony voters beginning in the 2010-2011 season.
The eligible Tony voters include the board of directors and designated members of the advisory committee of the American Theatre Wing, members of the governing boards of Actors' Equity Association, the Dramatists Guild, the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers, United Scenic Artists, and the Association of Theatrical Press Agents and Managers, members of the Theatrical Council of the Casting Society of America and voting members of The Broadway League.
Eligibility date (Season)
To be eligible for Tony Award consideration, a production must have officially opened on Broadway by the eligibility date that the Management Committee establishes each year. For example, the cut-off date for eligibility the 2013–2014 season was April 24, 2014. The season for Tony Award eligibility is defined in the Rules and Regulations.
A Broadway theatre is defined as having 500 or more seats, among other requirements. While the rules define a Broadway theatre in terms of its size, not its geographical location, the list of Broadway theatres is determined solely by the Tony Awards Administration Committee. As of the 2010–2011 season, the list consisted solely of the 40 theaters located in the vicinity of Times Square in New York City and Lincoln Center's Vivian Beaumont Theater.
While the theatre-going public may consider the Tony Awards to be the Oscars of live theatre, critics have suggested that the Tony Awards are primarily a promotional vehicle for a small number of large production companies and theatre owners in New York City. In a 2014 Playbill article, Robert Simonson wrote that "Who gets to perform on the Tony Awards broadcast, what they get to perform, and for how long, have long been politically charged questions in the Broadway theatre community..." The producers "accept the situation ... because just as much as actually winning a Tony, a performance that lands well with the viewing public can translate into big box-office sales." Producer Robyn Goodman noted that if the presentation at the ceremony shows well, and the show wins a Tony, "you’re going to spike at the box office". 
Some notable records and facts about the Tony Awards include the following:
- Wins: The most Tony Awards ever received by a single production was the musical The Producers (2001) with 12 awards, including best musical.
- Non-musical wins: The most Tonys ever received by a non-musical play was The Coast of Utopia (2007) with seven awards, including best play.
- Most nominated with fewer wins: The musical The Scottsboro Boys (2011) was nominated for 12 Tony Awards but did not win any. It also holds the record for most nominations for a closed show (having closed nearly six months before the Tony Awards).
- Three productions, all musicals, have won all "big six" awards for their category: South Pacific (1950 awards), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (1979 awards) and Hairspray (2003 awards); each won the Best Musical, Best Score, Best Book, Best Performance by a Leading Actor, Best Performance by a Leading Actress and Best Direction awards.
- Acting Awards: Only one production, South Pacific (1950 awards), has won all four of the acting awards in a single year.
- Words and Music: Only four musicals have won the Tony Award for Best Musical when a person had (co-)written the Book (non-sung dialogue and storyline) and the Score (music and lyrics): 1958 winner The Music Man (Meredith Willson – award for Book and Score did not exist that year), 1986 winner The Mystery of Edwin Drood (Rupert Holmes – who also won for Book and Score), 1996 winner Rent (Jonathan Larson – who also won for Book and Score), and 2011 winner The Book of Mormon (Trey Parker, Robert Lopez, and Matt Stone also won for Book and Score).
- Design Awards: Eight shows have swept the design awards (original 3 of Best Scenic Design, Best Costume Design, Best Lighting Design – joined by Best Sound Design starting in 2008): Follies (1972), The Phantom of the Opera (1986), The Lion King (1998), The Producers (2001), The Light in the Piazza (2005), The Coast of Utopia (2007), the 2008 revival of South Pacific (first to sweep the expanded 4 awards for Creative Arts) and Peter and the Starcatcher (first straight play to sweep the expanded four awards for Creative Arts) (2012).
- Revivals: Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller in 2012 became the first show (play or musical) to win as Best Production in four different years, Best Play at the 1949 awards, Best Revival at the 1984 awards (before the Best Revival award was split into two categories for Play and Musical in 1994), and Best Revival of a Play at the 1999 and 2012 awards. La Cage aux Folles made history as the first musical to win as Best Production in three different years, Best Musical at the 1984 awards and Best Revival of a Musical at both the 2005 awards and the 2010 awards.
- Wins: Harold Prince has won 21 Tony Awards, more than anyone else, including eight for directing, eight for producing, two as producer of a year's Best Musical, and three special Tony Awards. Tommy Tune has won nine Tony Awards including three for direction, four for choreography, and two for performing. Stephen Sondheim has won more Tony Awards than any other composer, with eight. Bob Fosse has won the most Tonys for choreography, also eight. Oliver Smith has won a record eight scenic design Tony Awards. Jules Fisher has won the most lighting design awards, also eight. Audra McDonald has the most performance Tony Awards with six. Terrence McNally and Tom Stoppard are the most awarded writers with four Tonys each; McNally has won Best Play twice and Best Book of a Musical twice, while Stoppard has won Best Play four times.
- Most nominations: Julie Harris has been nominated more often than any other performer, a total of ten times.
- Performers in two categories: Five performers have been nominated in two acting categories in the same year: Amanda Plummer, Dana Ivey, Kate Burton, Jan Maxwell, and Mark Rylance. Plummer in 1982 was nominated for Best Actress in a Play for A Taste of Honey and Best Featured Actress in a Play for Agnes of God, for which she won. Ivey in 1984 was nominated as Best Featured Actress in Musical for Sunday in the Park with George and Best Featured Actress in a Play for Heartbreak House. In 2002, Burton was nominated for Best Actress in Play for Hedda Gabler and Best Featured Actress in a Play for The Elephant Man. Maxwell was nominated in 2010 for Best Actress in a Play for The Royal Family and Best Featured Actress in a Play for Lend Me a Tenor. Rylance was nominated in 2014 for Best Actor in a Play for Richard III and Best Featured Actor in a Play for Twelfth Night, for which he won.
- Performers in all categories: Five performers have been nominated for all four performance awards for which a performer is eligible.
- Boyd Gaines was the first performer to be nominated for each of Best Featured Actor in a Play in The Heidi Chronicles (1989), Best Actor in a Musical for She Loves Me (1994), Best Featured Actor in a Musical for Contact (2000) and Gypsy (2008) and Best Actor in a Play for Journey's End (2007). Gaines won in three of the categories (and four of the five nominations), missing only for the performance in Journey's End.
- Raúl Esparza was the second performer to be nominated in all four categories (no wins), achieving this over a mere six seasons: Best Featured Actor in a Musical for Taboo (2004), Best Actor in a Musical for Company (2007), Best Featured Actor in a Play for The Homecoming (2008), and Best Actor in a Play for Speed-the-Plow (2009).
- Angela Lansbury was the third performer to be nominated for all four performance awards. She won Best Actress in a Musical for Mame (1966), Dear World (1969), Gypsy (1975), and Sweeney Todd (1979). She was nominated for Best Actress in a Play for Deuce (2007). She won Best Featured Actress in a Play for Blithe Spirit (2009). She was nominated for Featured Actress in a Musical for A Little Night Music (2010).
- Jan Maxwell became the fourth performer to achieve this distinction by being nominated for Best Featured Actress in a Musical for Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (2005), Best Featured Actress in a Play for Coram Boy (2007) and Lend Me a Tenor (2010), Best Actress in a Play for The Royal Family (2010), and Best Actress in a Musical for Follies (2012).
- Audra McDonald became the fifth performer to accomplish the feat and the first to win in all four categories, winning Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical for Carousel (1994) and Ragtime (1998), Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Play for Master Class (1996) and A Raisin in the Sun (2004), Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical for Porgy and Bess (2012), and Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play for Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill (2014). She was nominated for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical for Marie Christine (2000) and 110 in the Shade (2007).
- Performers Playing Opposite Sex: While several performers have won Tonys for roles that have involved cross dressing, only four have won for playing a character of the opposite sex: Mary Martin in the title role of Peter Pan (1955), Harvey Fierstein as Edna Turnblad in Hairspray (2003), Mark Rylance as Olivia in Twelfth Night (2014), and Lena Hall as Yitzhak in Hedwig and the Angry Inch (2014). In 2000, Australian actor Barry Humphries won the Special Tony Award for a live theatrical event at the 55th Annual Tony Awards for Dame Edna: The Royal Tour.
- Shared Performances: All three of the young actors who shared the duties of performing the lead character in Billy Elliot the Musical (2009 awards) – David Alvarez, Trent Kowalik and Kiril Kulish – also shared a single nomination, then shared the win, for Best Actor in a Musical. Previously, the only prior joint winners were John Kani and Winston Ntshona, who shared the Best Actor in a Play award in 1975 for Sizwe Banzi is Dead and The Island, two plays they co-wrote and co-starred in.
- Both sexes in one role: Ben Vereen and Patina Miller both won, respectively, Best Actor in a Musical in 1972 and Best Actress in a Musical in 2013 for the role of the Leading Player in Pippin, marking the first time the same role has been won by both a male and a female in a Broadway production.
- Writing and performing: Two people have won Tonys as an author and as a performer. Harvey Fierstein won Best Play and Best Lead Actor in a Play for Torch Song Trilogy (1983). Tracy Letts, the author of 2008 Best Play August: Osage County, won Best Lead Actor in a Play for Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (2013).
- First female to win Best Direction of a Musical: Julie Taymor for The Lion King in 1998.
- First female to win Best Direction of a Play: Garry Hynes for The Beauty Queen of Leenane in 1998.
- First female author to win Best Play: Frances Goodrich with her partner (and husband) Albert Hackett for The Diary of Anne Frank in 1956; Wendy Wasserstein for The Heidi Chronicles in 1989 was the first solo winner.
- First African-American author to win Best Play: Joseph A. Walker for The River Niger in 1974.
- First African-American to win Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play: Phylicia Rashad for A Raisin in the Sun in 2004.
- First African-American to win Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Play: James Earl Jones for The Great White Hope in 1969.
- First African-American to win Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical: Cleavon Little for Purlie in 1970.
- First African-American to win Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical: Diahann Carroll for No Strings in 1962.
- First Asian-American to win Best Play: David Henry Hwang for M Butterfly in 1988.
- First female to solely win Tony Award for Best Score: Cyndi Lauper for Kinky Boots in 2013.
- List of Tony Awards ceremonies
- Drama Desk Awards
- Laurence Olivier Awards
- Helpmann Awards
- Obie Awards
- New York Drama Critics' Circle
- Theatre World Award
- Broadway theatre
- The Society of London Theatre
- List of persons who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards
- List of African-American Tony nominees and winners
- Gans, Andrew (December 18, 2007). "League of American Theatres and Producers Announces Name Change". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013. The League of American Theatres and Producers was renamed "The Broadway League".
- Staff (undated). "Who's Who". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- "Tony Awards Rules and Regulations for 2013–14 season" tonyawards.com, accessed June 12, 2014
- Lefkowitz, David and Simonson, Robert. " 'Fosse', 'Annie', 'Salesman' & 'Side Man' Win Top Tonys" playbill.com, June 7, 1999
- Gans, Andrew (April 18, 2011). "No Tickets Will Be Available to General Public for 2011 Tony Awards". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Purcell, Carey (June 9, 2013). Kinky Boots, Vanya and Sonia, Pippin and Virginia Woolf? Are Big Winners at 67th Annual Tony Awards". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Pesner, Ben. "The Tony Awards - Category by Category" tonyawards.com (webcache.googleusercontent.com), accessed June 12, 2014
- Gans, Andrew (October 8, 2008). "Tony Awards to Present Isabelle Stevenson Award in May 2009" Playbill. Retrieved September 2013.
- Gans, Andrew (June 18, 2009)."Tony Awards Retire Special Theatrical Event Category". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Bowgen, Philippe. "Tony Award Administration Committee Eliminates Sound Design Categories" playbill.com, June 11, 2014
- Nassour, Ellis (June 10, 2011). "From The 2011 Tony Playbill: Who Was the Original 'Tony'?". Playbill. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
- Nassour, Ellis. "Who Is 'Tony'?". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Bloom, Ken (2004). "Tony Award" Broadway – Its History, People and Places. Taylor & Francis. p. 531. ISBN 978-0-415-93704-7.
- Nassour, Ellis (June 12, 2011). "From the 2011 Tony Playbill: Tony Awards at 65 – Then and Now". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Staff (undated). "Rules & Voting". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- McKinley, Jesse (June 1, 2003). "The Tony Awards; Is There a Tony Doctor in the House". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- [not in citation given] Tony Homepage tonyawards.com
- Gorman, Bill (June 10, 2011)."Guess This Year's 'Tony Awards' Viewership (Poll) + Ratings History". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Bierly, Mandi (February 24, 2009). "Ratings: Oscars Up, 'Dollhouse' Down". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Pincus-Roth, Zachary. (May 22, 2008). "Ask Playbill.com: Tony Statuettes". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Staff. "Tony Awards FAQ". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Staff. "A History of the Tony Awards". American Theatre Wing. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Piepenburg, Erik. "Tony Gets a Mini-Makeover" The New York Times, June 10, 2010
- Healy, Patrick (July 4, 2013). "Broadway Success Has a Price: $2,500". The New York Times. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
- Gans, Andrew; Simonson, Robert (September 19, 2002). "New Tony Awards Ruling on Classic Texts May Affect Current and Upcoming Shows". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Gans, Andrew. "Tony Administration Committee Convenes for Final Meeting of the Season April 25" playbill.com, April 25, 2014
- Gans, Andrew. 50-Member Tony Awards Nominating Committee Announced for 2014-15 Season" playbill.com, June 11, 2014
- Jones, Kenneth (June 18, 2012). "Mark Brokaw, Cheyenne Jackson, Liza Gennaro, Adam Guettel and More Join Tony Nominating Committee for 2012–13". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- (registration required) Healy, Patrick (July 15, 2009). "Tony Awards Committee Trims List of Voters, Citing Conflicts". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- Gans, Andrew. "First-Nighters Lose Tony-Voting Privilege" playbill.com, July 14, 2009
- Gans, Andrew. "Tony Awards Extend Votes to Members of New York Drama Critics' Circle" playbill.com, March 25, 2010
- Gans, Andrew. "68th Annual Tony Awards Will Be Broadcast Live from Radio City Music Hall" Playbill, October 9, 2013
- Pincus-Roth, Zachary (February 7, 2008). "Ask Playbill.com: Broadway or Off-Broadway – Part I". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Okrent, Daniel (May 9, 2004). "The Public Editor; There's No Business Like Tony Awards Business". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Simonson, Robert. "Previews of Coming Attractions: Tony Awards Favor Future Musicals Over Present Ones" playbill.com, June 12, 2014
- Tony Trivia" tonyawards.com, (webcache.googleusercontent.com) accessed June 12, 2014
- Jones, Kenneth; Gans, Andrew (May 3, 2011). 2011 "Tony Nominations Announced; 'Book of Mormon' Earns 14 Nominations". Playbill, Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Jones, Kenneth (June 9, 2003). " 'Take Me Out', 'Hairspray' Are Top Winners in 2003 Tony Awards; 'Long Day's Journey', 'Nine' Also Hot". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- tonyawards.com, the Tony Award's official website
- www.cbs.com/shows/tony_awards/, the Tony Award's official broadcast website
- americantheatrewing.org, the American Theatre Wing's official website
- broadwayleague.com, The Broadway League's official website