List of Tom and Jerry characters
- 1 Main characters
- 2 Recurring characters
- 2.1 Spike and Tyke the Bulldog
- 2.2 Butch
- 2.3 Clint Clobber
- 2.4 Toodles Galore
- 2.5 Muscles Mouse
- 2.6 Mammy Two Shoes
- 2.7 Nibbles
- 2.8 Quacker
- 2.9 Cuckoo
- 2.10 Lightning
- 2.11 Topsy
- 2.12 Meathead
- 2.13 George and Joan
- 2.14 Jeannie and the Baby
- 2.15 The Ants
- 2.16 Guardian devils
- 2.17 Fluff, Muff and Puff
- 2.18 Cherie
- 2.19 Toots
- 2.20 King of France
- 2.21 Mechano and Robot-Mouse
- 2.22 Porpoise
- 2.23 The St.Bernard
- 2.24 Tiny Bulldog
- 2.25 Eagle
- 2.26 Lion
- 2.27 Uncle Pecos
- 3 The Tom and Jerry Show (1975)
- 4 The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show
- 5 Tom and Jerry Kids
- 6 Tom and Jerry Tales
- 7 The Tom and Jerry Show (2014)
- 8 Tom and Jerry movies
- 9 Non-recurring characters
- 10 References
"Tom" Cat and "Jerry" Mouse
"Tom" Cat is a blue/grey domestic short-haired cat who first appeared in the 1940 animated short Puss Gets the Boot. Tom was originally known as "Jasper" during his debut in that short, however, beginning from his next appearance in The Midnight Snack and onwards, he is known as "Tom".
"Jerry" Mouse is a brown domestic mouse, who first appeared as an unnamed mouse in the 1940 MGM animated short Puss Gets the Boot. Years later, William Hanna gave the mouse's original name as "Jinx", while Joseph Barbera claimed the mouse went unnamed in his first appearance.
||This section includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but the sources of this section remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (June 2010)|
Spike and Tyke the Bulldog
Spike (voiced by Jim Cummings),occasionally referred to as Butch or Killer, is a stern but occasionally dumb American bulldog who is particularly disapproving of cats, but a softie when it comes to mice (though in his debut episode, Dog Trouble, Spike goes after both Tom and Jerry), and later, his son Tyke. In the shorts Jerry would often try to get Tom in trouble with Spike making him a shoo-in for a beating from the bulldog. Spike has a few weaknesses that Tom tries to capitalize upon: his possessiveness about his bone and his ticklishness. He made his first appearance in the 1942 Tom and Jerry cartoon Dog Trouble, and his first speaking role was in 1944's The Bodyguard, where he was voiced by Billy Bletcher up until 1949, from which point he was voiced by Daws Butler. Unlike his father Spike, Tyke does not speak. He only communicates by yapping, whimpering, growling, facial expressions and wagging his tail. In Tom and Jerry Kids, Tyke does have a speaking role in the program and is the first time that viewers were able to hear Tyke speak. Spike is very protective towards his son and gets very angry at Tom if Tyke is bothered or harmed. Although Tyke has spoken in Tom and Jerry Kids, he has laughed in one episode of Tom and Jerry. After Daws Butler, Maurice LaMarche, Frank Welker, John DiMaggio, Jeff Bergman and currently Phil LaMarr would all perform Spike's voice. Tyke's vocal effects are provided by Frank Welker and speaking roles by Patric Zimmerman.
Butch (voiced by Frank Graham) is a black alley cat who made his first appearance in the Tom and Jerry series in the 1943 short Baby Puss, alongside Topsy and the already-established Meathead. His character, however (along with the character of Toodles Galore), first appeared in the 1941 MGM short The Alley Cat, directed by Hugh Harman, Butch's only solo cartoon. Butch is the leader of the alley cat bullies who usually help Tom catch Jerry (although a very few times, he does however become enraged when Tom's offense between him and Jerry has gone far enough). In his first appearance, however, Butch was an antagonist, tormenting Tom after Tom's young girl owner treated him like a baby—to the point of dressing Tom up in a diaper, a bonnet, and pink paw mittens. Thus costumed, Tom couldn't help but be a figure of fun—both for Butch and his gang, and for Jerry. Butch also battles with Tom over Toodles Galore and her affections in a couple of shorts including the 1946 short, Springtime for Thomas and the 1951 short Casanova Cat. In some cartoons, such as A Mouse in the House, Butch battles with Tom to catch Jerry. He is voiced by Maurice LaMarche in Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring, Jeff Bennett in The Karate Guard, Colin Murdock in Tom and Jerry Tales, Billy West in Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers, and Joey D'Auria in The Tom and Jerry Show.
There is some debate as to whether this is the genuine Clint Clobber as the real Clint would never be an animal abuser, he was just a put-upon grouch.
Toodles Galore is an attractive white female cat, and is supposedly Tom's usual love interest, although Tom is a reputed playboy, and had other love interests before and after Toodles. Toodles is the only love interest who appeared more than twice, and is probably the most favored. During the classic era, Tom had to compete twice against Butch and even once against Spike for Toodles' affection, and he lost them all. In one episode Casanova Cat, Toodles fell in love with Jerry. However, in her final short Love Me, Love My Mouse, she remained with Tom. Toodles is one of the most anthropomorphic animals in the series, with the only cat features being her tail, nose and ears. She never speaks and she rarely moves around. However in Tom and Jerry Show, her appearance and attitude is shown differently and she is heard speaking for the first time.
Muscles is Jerry's cousin and a mouse with incredible strength. In Jerry's Cousin, Muscles appears to hate cats, including Tom. In Haunted Mouse, he is a magician. His final appearance was in "Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring", however his name was changed to Freddie and he was hostile towards Jerry. He was voiced by Paul Frees in Jerry's Cousin and by Billy West in Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring.
Mammy Two Shoes
From the beginning, Tom also has to deal with Mammy Two Shoes (voiced by Lillian Randolph), an African-American domestic housemaid based on Hattie McDaniel. In the earliest shorts, Mammy is depicted as the maid taking care of the often opulent home in which Tom and Jerry reside. Later Tom and Jerry shorts are set in what appears to be Mammy's own house. Her face is never seen (with the exception of 1950s Saturday Evening Puss, in which her face is very briefly seen as she runs towards the camera), and she usually wallops the cat with a broom when he misbehaves. When Mammy was not present, other humans would sometimes be seen, usually from the neck down as well. Mammy would appear in many cartoons until 1952's Push-Button Kitty; Mammy's character was retired after that year following McDaniel's death. Later cartoons would instead show Tom and Jerry living with a 1950s suburban couple. Soon after, virtually all humans in the series had visible faces.
Nibbles is a little grey house mouse who is close to Jerry and appears frequently with him, especially in the comics. He is sometimes seen as Jerry's nephew, but occasionally referred to as an orphan. In many cartoons, Nibbles is seen eating a lot (he is always hungry). In his first animated appearance, he was left on Jerry's doorstep, abandoned by his parents. Tom enjoys chasing Nibbles much as he does with Jerry.
Though the character was created under the name Tuffy for the comics in 1942, his early animated appearances (from 1945) gave him the name Nibbles. From the 1950s, the mouse was called Tuffy on-screen as well. In Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring, the name Nibbles was used again—and the character was depicted as a pet-store mouse whom Jerry doesn't know.
In the Mouseketeer shorts, Nibbles speaks in French and English. He also is not Jerry's nephew; rather, he is the son of François Mouse—who does not make an appearance, but his name was given in two letters in the short Touche, Pussy Cat!
Nibbles is often mistaken for a girl due to the extaordinarily high pitched voice. He was voiced by Tara Strong in "Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring", Kath Soucie from 2010, onwards and Nancy Cartwright in War of the Whiskers.
Another recurring character in the series was Little Quacker the duckling, who was later adapted into the Hanna-Barbera character Yakky Doodle. He appears in Little Quacker, The Duck Doctor, Just Ducky, Downhearted Duckling, Southbound Duckling, That's My Mommy, Happy Go Ducky and The Vanishing Duck. Quacker talks a lot compared to Tom and Jerry. His voice is a 'duck voice' similar to Disney's Donald Duck. In many episodes, he is the only one who speaks. He's very trusting, even trusting Tom in many situations in which Tom wishes to eat him. He's a friend of Jerry, but unlike Jerry harbors no hard feelings towards Tom. He appeared in The Tom and Jerry Show episode The Lost Duckling. He also got his own series of shorts on The Yogi Bear Show (renamed Yakky Doodle) after guesting in several Hanna-Barbera TV shows. Quacker was then used as a template for the 'Hard Luck Duck' character starring in the titular character's short from the What A Cartoon series. His What-A Cartoon counterpart Hard Luck Duck was voiced by Russi Taylor.
In the 2014 Tom & Jerry Show, Quacker's "duck voice" was provided by Sam Kwasman.
Lightning is a ginger orange cat who first appeared in the 1948 short Old Rockin' Chair Tom as Tom's rival. Lightning is named as such because in his first short, he practically moved at the speed of lightning. In later cartoons, Lightning often appeared as one of Tom's alley cat buddies/rivals. Lightning has the same character design as Butch Cat, but with an orange color (although his coloring occasionally varies from film-to-film). He also appears in Switchin' Kitten. Lightning also makes several appearances in Tom and Jerry Tales, often with a red nose and, in two episodes, a bushy tail. Fans have occasionally confused Lightning with Meathead, though the two are not the same and have appeared side-by-side in two cartoons.
Topsy is a grey/brown kitten. He is one of Tom's alley cat friends/foes, although in Professor Tom he befriends Jerry. He first appeared in Baby Puss; his final appearance in the original theatrical shorts was in Scat Cats. He also appears in Tom and Jerry Tales with a more yellowish color (similar to Life with Tom). In Professor Tom, Topsy is explicitly a house cat; more often (as in Saturday Evening Puss and elsewhere), he is depicted as an alley cat or a cat of unknown origin.
Meathead is a brown, mangy alley cat who wears a red toupee (which is occasionally seen the same color as the rest of his fur). He is generally portrayed as dull-witted and first appeared in the 1943 short, Sufferin' Cats!, as Tom's rival. Meathead later reappeared in Baby Puss and additional shorts as one of Tom's alley cat buddies/foes. In Scat Cats, his final appearance in the original theatrical shorts, he is seen as a gray cat. Fans have occasionally confused Meathead with Lightning, though the two are not the same and have appeared side-by-side in two cartoons.
George and Joan
George and Joan are an average middle class white couple, who debuted in the 1954 episode Pet Peeve. They are the new owners of Tom and Spike, but Tom likes to keep Joan company and Spike likes to keep George company. Joan is often seen either cooking or sitting on her armchair knitting or sewing a dress with Tom keeping her company. George, on the other hand, hates the monthly bills and complains that they're too expensive. But when he's not complaining about the bills, he is sitting in his armchair or on the sofa reading the newspaper wearing his smart purple or grey suit and Spike is keeping him company. Both George and Joan are very kind and polite towards each other and Tom and Spike. In Pet Peeve, George and Joan decided that they keep Jerry as a pet because he is easy to look after and doesn't eat too much (George and Joan do not know Jerry's secret: He eats a lot more than Tom and Spike combined, which explains the amount of food he has in his mouse hole shown later) and tell Tom and Spike to leave. However, in later episodes with George and Joan, Tom and Spike still happily live with them and Jerry is not known by the couple and he is not a pet anymore.
In some episodes, Joan appears without George, such as Mouse for Sale, The Flying Sorceress and Mucho Mouse. It could be presumed that George would be working at his office during the settings of these cartoons.
Jeannie and the Baby
Jeannie, the babysitter of George and Joan's baby, is an average teenager who spends much of her time talking on the phone. She is often called on to look after the baby if they're going out. Jeannie proceeds to leap straight onto the phone just as George and Joan shut the front door, which tells us that she is very negligent about her job. Despite this, Jeannie is very kind, friendly, cheerful and rarely loses a smile—except to scold Tom for "bothering the baby", which she thinks he is doing on purpose to annoy her. Jeannie was seen in only two cartoons: Busy Buddies (1956) and Tot Watchers (1958). The baby also appears in Tom & Jerry Kids where the babysitter is a Caucasian woman instead.
The Ants are an army of red ants who steal food as they see them. They appeared in four cartoons Cat Napping, Pup on a Picnic, Barbecue Brawl and Carmen Get It!. They also appeared in Tom and Jerry Kids. They're unusually heavy for their size, and their combined weight often causes many items, such as Tom's hammock, to break. It's unclear how or why the ants are so heavy, as they are even capable of making tables and diving boards shake as they march onto them.
Each guardian devil for Tom and Jerry appeared in three cartoons Sufferin' Cats!, Springtime for Thomas and Smitten Kitten. In the first of these cartoons, one served as evil conscience for Tom and in the other two for Jerry.
Fluff, Muff and Puff
Fluff, Muff and Puff are a trio of brown, black and orange kittens that first appeared in Heavenly Puss as adorable kittens in cameo roles. They also appeared in Triplet Trouble as cute but extremely mischievous kittens.
Cherie is a brown/grey female mouse who serves as Jerry's love interest. She first appeared at the end of Springtime For Thomas, and then later in Smitten Kitten, Touche, Pussy Cat! (only cartoon where she has an identical twin), Tom and Cherie (the first cartoon where she is named) and The Mouse from H.U.N.G.E.R. (as a ticking time bomb set by Tom).
Toots is the name given to three different characters that have appeared infrequently. The first of these is a fluffy beige cat who appears in Puss n' Toots and The Mouse Comes to Dinner, the latter being her only speaking role. This version of Toots also appeared in some 1940s Tom and Jerry comics. Toots is also a different cat by the same name who appears in The Zoot Cat and in the Tom and Jerry Tales episode Kitty Cat Blues. She has occasionally and erroneously been referred to as "Sheikie," but this is actually Tom's nickname, as seen on a gift card in the cartoon. Finally Toots is the name of a mouse who serves as Jerry's love interest in Blue Cat Blues.
King of France
In some of the mouseketeer series of cartoons, Tom serves the king of France. This is an obvious reference to Louis XVI of France, who is shown as an extremely short-tempered and cruel monarch. In The Two Mouseketeers, the king guillotines Tom while in Royal Cat Nap, he orders for Tom's decapitation.
Mechano and Robot-Mouse
Mechano first appeared in Push Button Kitty as Tom's rival. Later, Mechano and Robot-Mouse are seen as a cat-like-robot and mouse-like-robot who serve Tom and Jerry (except at the end of Advance and Be Mechanized, when they get revenge and switch roles with Tom and Jerry, as they control their minds and make them do the work) in the three Chuck Jones outer space cartoons O-Solar Meow, Guided Mouse-ille and Advance and Be Mechanized. Mechano's efforts to catch or trap Jerry or Robot-Mouse always backfire for Tom, except in Advance and Be Mechanized, when he succeeds to catch Robot-Mouse in the beginning. In Guided Mouse-ille, he can stand up right and have hands to use a gun with to try and blast Jerry in his mobile tank. This backfired and left Mechano with a black face. He sneaks back and promptly shoots Tom, who attempts to shoot Mechano back for his insubordination, However, the shot came out on the wrong end and Tom faints leaving Mechano laughing himself silly. He also appeared in the Tom and Jerry Tales episode Tin Cat of Tomorrow where he is named Verminator 7000. Mechano (called "Robot Cat") also appeared as a fighter in the video game, War of the Whiskers, and was voiced by Dee Bradley Baker.
A shark who tries to eat Tom and Jerry. He appears in Cannery Rodent, Puss 'n' Boats, Filet Meow and Surf-Bored Cat The creature's color and species varies, in Cannery Rodent and Surf-Bored Cat it is a blue shark, while in Filet Meow and Puss 'n' Boats it is a great white shark.
This nameless mouse-sized bulldog, designed similarly to Spike the Bulldog, is Jerry's pet dog companion in only two shorts: The Cat's Me-Ouch and Purr-Chance to Dream. His role is similar to Spike in cartoons such as The Bodyguard, Fit To Be Tied, and Much Ado About Mousing, which is to defend Jerry against Tom. He is presumably the oldest son of Spike before Tyke, and this could be identified by his looks and personality that is similar to his father Spike. Unlike Spike and Tyke he has a big bite (similar to those of Looney Tunes' Tasmanian Devil).
Eagle is an Eagle that tries to steal Jerry for food from Tom. He first appeared in Flirty Birdy, then in The Tom and Jerry Show episode The Egg and Tom and Jerry (where he is female instead of male) and then again in Tom and Jerry Tales episode Bend it like Thomas. Eagle also appeared as a playable character in "Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers", voiced by Rob Paulsen.
Lion is a lion that has switched from a tame one in Jerry and the Lion, to a nervous one in The Tom and Jerry Show episode The Hypochondriac Lion to a monster in the Tom and Jerry Tales episode You're Lion. He is also a playable character in "Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers" where he is voiced by Jim Cummings.
Uncle Pecos is Jerry's Cowboyish uncle who appears in Pecos Pest. He was voiced by Shug Fisher. He is known to always play with a guitar and wears a black cowboy hat that covers his eyes. He gets angry at Tom because he plucks one of Tom's whiskers off to replace broken strings on the guitar.
Uncle Pecos returned in the Tom and Jerry Tales episode "Cry Uncle", Voiced by Greg Burson. In the episode he arrives at Tom and Jerry's house and annoys Tom and Jerry with his music. He later leaves with Mamma Two Shoes in the end of the episode.
The Tom and Jerry Show (1975)
The following characters were introduced in the 1975 television series The Tom and Jerry Show.
A gopher that devours vegetables in Gopher Broke. He appeared in the cartoon's sequel The Son of Gopher Broke.
Robin Ho Ho and his merry men
A parody of Robin Hood and his merry men, they appeared in Robin Ho Ho. They also appeared in Tom and Jerry: Robin Hood and His Merry Mouse.
Sheriff of Nottingham
The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show
The following characters were introduced in the television series The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show.
A Basset Hound often with a miserable look on his face, originally introduced in the Tex Avery shorts of the 1940s. He first made a poster cameo in Matinee Mouse. He also appeared in the Droopy and Dripple segments of Tom and Jerry Kids. He is sometimes an adversary of Spike.
An anthropomorphic cartoon character, a sluggish, sleepy bear who often is in pursuit of nothing but peace and quiet.
Tom and Jerry Kids
The following characters were introduced in the television series Tom & Jerry Kids.
The son of Droopy. He is always with his father and they always do the same (although sometimes Dripple thinks “better” than his father). The identity of his mother is never mentioned or even addressed, although, due to Droopy's frequent relationships with Miss Vavoom, it can be assumed that his mother is either dead or is divorced from Droopy with no visitation rights. He is voiced by Charlie Adler.
The villain of the "Droopy and Dripple" segments. A bad and cruel wolf whose only mission is to ruin the life of Droopy and Dripple (and sometimes to remain with Miss Vavoom). Sometimes for of crazy scientist whom it loves to dominate the world, of space villain, a criminal fat person (known as "The Chubby Man"), etc. His character is based on the wolf in Red Hot Riding Hood. He is voiced by Frank Welker.
The contiguous woman of the show, based on Tex Avery's Red Hot Riding Hood. She is very seductive and she always takes different hairdos. She always is conquered by Droopy and most of times is the greater target of McWolf. Sometimes she is called Bubbles Vavoom, Ultra Vavoom, Sugar Vavoom, etc. Her character is based on Red from Red Hot Riding Hood. She is voiced by Teresa Ganzel.
A gold cat owner of a show of demonstration and participation. He is arrogant (sometimes), has a rancher accent, and is sometimes presented as an enemy to Tom. Purportedly inspired by legendary Southern California car dealer Cal Worthington. He was originally voiced by Phil Hartman and currently by Tom Kenny.
Urfo is a six-legged alien dog that arrives on Earth many times and helps Jerry fend off Tom. His owners often send people to retrieve him.
Kyle the Cat
Bernie the Swallow
A medically challenged yellow swallow that is friends with Jerry in "Hard to Swallow". He had a color change to blue in "Swallow the Swallow" and "Grab that Bird" as he is chased mostly by Clyde and Kyle. Voiced by David L. Lander.
A grayish-green, shaggy fanged mouse who occasionally replaces Jerry and outwits his foes. Like Tom and Jerry, Wildmouse is voiced by Frank Welker. He first appears in the episode Wildmouse and is last seen in the episode King Windmouse. His personality is very similar to that of the Tasmanian Devil from the Looney Tunes franchise.
The elderly sheriff of Hokey Finokey Swamp. He is arrogant, rude, and self-centered. He threatened to send Swampy back to the circus (which Swampy is aware of the fact that it promotes animal cruelty), throwing Swampy into tears. He also envies the map Swampy made out to search for the hidden treasure. He appears in the episode Cajun Gumbo as the episode's main antagonist. Aside from the lone episode where he battled Swampy, the Sheriff and the Gator Brothers were also used as antagonists in an episode featuring Wild Mouse.
Sheriff Potgut's henchmen. They appear in the episode "Cajun Gumbo" as the episode's secondary antagonists and in another episode featuring Wild Mouse.
Stinky Jr. McWolf
Stinky Jr. is the Father of McWolf who has the same personality as Him.
Screwball Squirrel is based on the original Screwball "Screwy" Squirrel in 1944, but now his adventures take place in a public city park, as He messes with hot-headed park attendant Dweeble and his dumb guard dog, Rumpley.
Tom and Jerry Tales
The following characters were introduced in the television series Tom and Jerry Tales.
Morizzio is an Octopus who first appeared in the 1953 musical film Dangerous When Wet. In Octo Sauve, Tom encounters a very amorous octopus gentleman named Morizzio, who mistakes Tom for a lady. Morizzio wants to date Tom, and they end up getting lost in the sea.
Nicole Bouma voiced the princess in Tom and Jerry Tales. The princess appears in Medieval Menace where she kisses Tom -who has turned into a frog- thinking he is a prince transformed by a spell.
The Tom and Jerry Show (2014)
The following characters were introduced in the 2014 television series Tom and Jerry Show.
Rick and Ginger
Tom's new owners are Rick and Ginger, a middle-class couple similar to George and Joan. Much like the original couple, the husband is more sympathetic towards Spike while the wife favors Tom. Rick is stouter in appearance when compared to George.
Napoleon is a small rat with grey fur. He has light pink ears, light pink hands, feet and tail and has black eyes.
Hamster is a small hamster with light brown fur. He wears glasses and is the smartest hamster in the lab.
Newt is a newt with orange skin. He has yellow spots and long feet. He wears a black eye-patch over his right eye and has green eyes with a black pupil.
Bot is a robot that cleans the lab with his vacuum cleaner and control arm. He has a red screen that spots trash all over the lab.
Beatie and Hildie
Beatie and Hildie are witch sisters who appear in cameo appearances. In Cats-Ruffled Furniture though they appear to be cruel owners of Tom.
The detective is a detective who is the owner of Tom (and presumably Jerry too). In his absence, Tom and Jerry work as sleuths themselves, in the process using his name and fame. He appeared in "Female fatale" , "One of a Kind" , "Haunted Mouse" , "Sleuth or Consequences" and "Poof!".
He is a mad scientist reminiscent of Frankenstein. He appeared first in "Franken Kitty" and then in cartoons such as "Molecular Breakup".
Tom and Jerry movies
The following recurring characters were introduced in the various Tom and Jerry movies.
Biff Buzzard and Buzz Blister
Biff Buzzard and Buzz Blister are characters in Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry and Tom and Jerry: Blast Off to Mars. In Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry, they were news reporters. In Tom and Jerry: Blast Off to Mars, they were astronauts. Biff is voiced by Billy West and Buzz by Jess Harnell.
There are many notable characters that appear in only one episode. Such characters include titular characters such as Dupli-cat, Calypso cat and so on. Sometimes non titular characters also play a very prominent role such as baby woodpecker in The Egg and Jerry or Robyn Starling in the 1992 film Tom and Jerry: The Movie. Various other named and unnamed characters have appeared in Tom and Jerry such as Topo the mouse, Frankie, Fancy, Chocolate, Tara, mother hen, baby seal, several unnamed cats, mice, dogs and humans. Historical characters have also appeared for e.g. Kaiser Franz Joseph and Johann Strauss.
- IMDb. "Puss Gets the Boot". Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Mark Christopher Carnes, American national biography (2)
- IMDb. "The Midnight Snack (1941)". Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 73–76. ISBN 978-1570360428.
- Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. pp. 39–46. ISBN 0-306-80917-6.