Tool stone

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Not to be confused with Stone tool.

The term tool stone has multiple meanings. In archaeology, a tool stone is a type of stone that is used to manufacture stone tools.[1] Alternatively, the term can be used to refer to stones used as the raw material for tools.[2]

Generally speaking, tools that require a sharp edge are made using cryptocrystalline materials that fracture in an easily controlled conchoidal manner.[1] Cryptocrystalline tool stones include flint and chert, which are fine-grained sedimentary materials; rhyolite and felsite, which are igneous flowstones; and obsidian, a form of natural glass created by igneous processes. These materials fracture in a predictable fashion, and are easily resharpened. For more information on this subject, see lithic reduction.

Large-grained materials, such as basalt, granite, and sandstone, may also be used as tool stones, but for a very different purpose: they are ideal for ground stone artifacts. Whereas cryptocrystalline materials are most useful for killing and processing animals, large-grained materials are usually used for processing plant matter. Their rough faces often make excellent surfaces for grinding plant seeds. With much effort, some large-grained stones may be ground down into awls, adzes, and axes.

In the contemporary diamond industry a tool stone is a diamond attached to a pole, used to work a second diamond.[3]

In metal-working fragments of diamond are bonded to the edge of cutting tools.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Andrefsky Jr., William (2005). Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis (Second Edition ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-61500-3. 
  2. ^ Daniel S. Amick (1999). Folsom lithic technology: explorations in structure and variation. International Monographs in Prehistory. ISBN 978-1-879621-27-5. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  3. ^ David E. Koskoff (1981). The diamond world, Volume 1981, Part 2. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-038005-2. Retrieved 2010-10-03. "This second diamond, known as the tool stone, is cemented to a short pole, ... As the revolving stone repeatedly knocks against the tool stone, the out-of-circular portions of the stone being worked are knocked off" 
  4. ^ Mining journal, Volume 259. p. 167. Retrieved 2010-10-03. "Diamond substitutes for Green Grit. More suitable bonds substitute for less suitable bonds. Diamond bonded products substitute for non-diamond products. Specialised tool-stone selection substitutes for inexperienced diamond selection. ..."