TOP500

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Distribution of top 500 supercomputers among different countries as of June 2014

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful (non-distributed) computer systems in the world. The project was started in 1993 and publishes an updated list of the supercomputers twice a year. The first of these updates always coincides with the International Supercomputing Conference in June, and the second one is presented in November at the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference. The project aims to provide a reliable basis for tracking and detecting trends in high-performance computing and bases rankings on HPL,[1] a portable implementation of the high-performance LINPACK benchmark written in Fortran for distributed-memory computers.

The TOP500 list is compiled by Hans Meuer of the University of Mannheim, Germany, Jack Dongarra of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Erich Strohmaier and Horst Simon of NERSC/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

History[edit]

Rapid growth of supercomputers performance, based on data from top500.org site. The logarithmic y-axis shows performance in GFLOPS.
  Combined performance of 500 largest supercomputers
  Fastest supercomputer
  Supercomputer on 500th place

In the early 1990s, a new definition of supercomputer was needed to produce meaningful statistics. After experimenting with metrics based on processor count in 1992, the idea was born at the University of Mannheim to use a detailed listing of installed systems as the basis. Early 1993 Jack Dongarra was persuaded to join the project with his LINPACK benchmark. A first test version was produced in May 1993, partially based on data available on the Internet, including the following sources:[2][3]

The information from those sources was used for the first two lists. Since June 1993, the TOP500 is produced bi-annually based on site and vendor submissions only.

Since 1993, performance of the #1 ranked position has steadily grown in agreement with Moore's law, doubling roughly every 14 months. As of June 2013, the fastest system, the Tianhe-2 with Rpeak[6] of 54.9024 PFlop/s, is over 419,102 times faster than the fastest system in November 1993, the Connection Machine CM-5/1024 (1024 cores) with Rpeak of 131.0 GFlop/s.[7]

Architecture and operating systems[edit]

As of November 2013, TOP500 supercomputers are overwhelmingly based on x86-64 CPUs (Intel EMT64 and AMD AMD64 instruction set architecture), with the RISC-based Power Architecture used by IBM POWER microprocessors, and SPARC making up the remainder. Prior to the ascendance of 32-bit x86 and later 64-bit x86-64 in the early 2000s, a variety of RISC processor families made up the majority of TOP500 supercomputers, including RISC architectures such as SPARC, MIPS, PA-RISC and Alpha.

Share of processor architecture families in TOP500 supercomputers by time trend.

Top 10 ranking[edit]

Top 10 positions of the 43rd TOP500 on June 23, 2014
Rank Rmax
Rpeak
(Pflops)
Name Computer design
Processor type, interconnect
Vendor Site
Country, year
Operating system
1 33.863
54.902
Tianhe-2 NUDT
Xeon E5–2692 + Xeon Phi 31S1P, TH Express-2
NUDT National Supercomputing Center in Guangzhou
  China, 2013
Linux (Kylin)
2 17.590
27.113
Titan Cray XK7
Opteron 6274 + Tesla K20X, Cray Gemini Interconnect
Cray Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  United States, 2012
Linux (CLE, SLES based)
3 17.173
20.133
Sequoia Blue Gene/Q
PowerPC A2, Custom
IBM Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  United States, 2013
Linux (RHEL and CNK)
4 10.510
11.280
K computer RIKEN
SPARC64 VIIIfx, Tofu
Fujitsu RIKEN
  Japan, 2011
Linux
5 8.586
10.066
Mira Blue Gene/Q
PowerPC A2, Custom
IBM Argonne National Laboratory
  United States, 2013
Linux (RHEL and CNK)
6 6.271
7.779
Piz Daint Cray XC30
Xeon E5–2670 + Tesla K20X, Aries
Cray Inc. Swiss National Supercomputing Centre
   Switzerland, 2013
Linux (CLE)
7 5.168
8.520
Stampede PowerEdge C8220
Xeon E5–2680 + Xeon Phi, Infiniband
Dell Texas Advanced Computing Center
  United States, 2013
Linux
8 5.008
5.872
JUQUEEN Blue Gene/Q
PowerPC A2, Custom
IBM Forschungszentrum Jülich
  Germany, 2013
Linux (RHEL and CNK)
9 4.293
5.033
Vulcan Blue Gene/Q
PowerPC A2, Custom
IBM Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  United States, 2013
Linux (RHEL and CNK)
10 3.144
4.881
Cray XC30
Xeon E5–2697v2, Aries
Cray Inc.  United States, 2013/2014 Linux

Legend:

  • Rank – Position within the TOP500 ranking. In the TOP500 List table, the computers are ordered first by their Rmax value. In the case of equal performances (Rmax value) for different computers, the order is by Rpeak. For sites that have the same computer, the order is by memory size and then alphabetically.
  • Rmax – The highest score measured using the LINPACK benchmark suite. This is the number that is used to rank the computers. Measured in quadrillions of floating point operations per second, i.e. petaflops.
  • Rpeak – This is the theoretical peak performance of the system. Measured in Pflops.
  • Name – Some supercomputers are unique, at least on its location, and are therefore christened by its owner.
  • Computer – The computing platform as it is marketed.
  • Processor cores – The number of active processor cores actively used running LINPACK. After this figure is the processor architecture of the cores named. If the interconnect between computing nodes is of interest, it's also included here.
  • Vendor – The manufacturer of the platform and hardware.
  • Site – The name of the facility operating the supercomputer.
  • Country – The country in which the computer is situated.
  • Year – The year of installation/last major update.
  • Operating system – The operating system that the computer uses.

Other rankings[edit]

Top countries[edit]

Numbers below represent the number of computers in the TOP500 that are in each of the listed countries.

Country Jun 2014 Nov 2013 Jun 2013 Nov 2012 Jun 2012 Nov 2011 Jun 2011 Nov 2010 Jun 2010 Nov 2009 Jun 2009 Nov 2008 Jun 2008 Nov 2007
 United States 233 264 252 250 252 263 255 276 280 277 291 291 258 284
 China 76 63 66 72 68 74 61 41 25 21 21 15 12 10
 United Kingdom 30 23 29 24 25 27 27 24 38 44 43 45 52 47
 Japan 30 28 30 32 35 30 26 26 18 16 15 17 22 20
 France 27 22 23 21 22 23 25 25 29 26 23 26 34 17
 Germany 22 20 19 19 20 20 30 26 24 27 30 25 47 31
 Canada 9 10 9 11 10 9 8 6 7 9 8 2 2 5
 India 9 12 11 8 5 2 2 4 5 3 6 8 6 9
 Korea, South 8 5 4 4 3 3 4 3 1 2 1 1 1
 Australia 6 5 5 7 6 4 6 4 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Switzerland 6 5 4 4 1 3 4 4 5 5 4 4 6 7
 Italy 5 5 6 7 8 4 5 6 7 6 6 11 6 6
 Russia 5 5 8 8 5 5 12 11 11 8 4 8 8 7
 Netherlands 4 3 2 1 2 4 3 3 3 5 6
 Brazil 4 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1
 Saudi Arabia 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 6 4 5 3
 Norway 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 3
 Sweden 3 5 7 6 4 3 5 6 8 7 10 8 9 7
 Belgium 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
 Israel 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 2 1 1
 Finland 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 5
 Poland 2 2 3 4 5 6 5 6 5 3 4 6 3 1
 Spain 2 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 6 4 6 7 9
 Ireland 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Austria 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 8 5
 Denmark 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 1
 Taiwan 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 3 11
 Malaysia 1 1 1 1 2 3
 Hong Kong 1 2 1 1 1 1
 Mexico 1 1 1
 Slovak Republic 1 1
 Singapore 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1
 South Africa 1 1 1 1 1
 United Arab Emirates 1
 New Zealand 5 7 8 6 4 6 1
 Slovenia 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Turkey 1 1
 Bulgaria 1 1 1
 Cyprus 1 1
 Egypt 1 1
 Indonesia 1
 Luxembourg 1

Systems ranked #1 since 1993[edit]

Number of systems[edit]

By number of systems as of June 2014:[8]

Top processor generation
Top vendors
Operating system family

Large machines not on the list[edit]

A few machines that have not been benchmarked are not eligible for the list: such as NCSA's Blue Waters. Additionally purpose-built machines that are not capable or do not run the benchmark are not included: such as RIKEN MDGRAPE-3.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]