Toponymy in the United Kingdom and Ireland

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The British Isles have a very varied toponymy due the different settlement patterns, political and linguistic histories. In addition to the old and modern varieties of English, Scottish and Irish Gaelic and Welsh, many other languages and cultures have had an impact on geographical names including Anglo-Normans, Anglo Saxons, Romans and Vikings. Ultimately, most of the toponyms derive from the Celtic, North and West Germanic and Italic (including Romance) branches of the Indo-European language family, although there is evidence of some Pre-Indo-European languages.

The different toponymy in different parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland are discussed in the following articles: