Toqui

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Toqui (Mapudungun for axe or axe-bearer) is a title conferred by the Mapuche (an indigenous Chilean people) on those chosen as leaders during times of war. The toqui is chosen in an assembly or parliament (coyag) of the chieftains (loncos) of various clans (Rehues) or confederation of clans (Aillarehues), allied during the war at hand. The toqui commanded strict obedience of all the warriors and their loncos during the war, would organize them into units and appoint leaders over them. This command would continue until the toqui was killed, abdicated (Cayancaru), was deposed in another parliament (as in the case of Lincoyan, for poor leadership), or upon completion of the war for which he was chosen.

Some of the more famous Toqui in the Arauco War with the Spanish introduced tactical innovations. For example Lautaro introduced infantry tactics to defeat horsemen. Lemucaguin was the first Toqui to use firearms and artillery in battle. Nongoniel was the first Toqui to use cavalry with the Mapuche army. Cadeguala was the first to successfully use Mapuche cavalry to defeat Spanish cavalry in battle. Anganamón was the first to mount his infantry to keep up with his fast-moving cavalry. Lientur pioneered the tactic of numerous and rapid malóns into Spanish territory.

The greatest of the Toqui was the older Paillamachu, who developed the strategy, patiently organized and trained his forces and then with his two younger Vice Toqui, Pelantaro and Millacolquin, carried out the Great Revolt of 1598-1604 which finally expelled the Spanish from Araucania.

List of Mapuche Toquis[edit]

The following Mapuche leaders were at some time named as toquis:[1]

† Killed in battle or †† executed for rebellion or @ assassinated.

References[edit]

  1. ^ José Ignacio Víctor Eyzaguirre, Historia eclesiastica: Politica y literaria de Chile, Vol. 1, IMPRENTA DEL COMERCIO, VALPARAISO, June 1850. List of Toquis, pg. 162-163, 498-500.
  2. ^ Jerónimo de Vivar, Crónica y relación copiosa y verdadera de los reinos de Chile, Capítulo LXVI
  3. ^ Vivar, Crónica..., Cap. XCV,XCVII
  4. ^ Pedro Mariño de Lobera, Crónica del Reino de Chile., Cap. XXXI
  5. ^ Diego de Rosales, Historia general de el Reino de Chile, Flandes Indiano, Tomo II, CAPÍTULO XXI
  6. ^ Rosales, Historia general ..., Tomo II, CAPÍTULO XXI
  7. ^ Juan Ignacio Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, Vol II, Book III, Chap. VIII
  8. ^ Alonso de Góngora Marmolejo, Historia de Todas las Cosas que han Acaecido en el Reino de Chile y de los que lo han gobernado (1536-1575), Capítulo XLVI
  9. ^ Lobera, CRÓNICA DEL REINO DE CHILE, Libro Segundo, Capítulo XXII
  10. ^ Rosales, “Historia General del Reino de Chile”, Flandes Indiano, Tomo II, Cap. XXX
  11. ^ Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, Volume II, Book IV, Chap. 1
  12. ^ Góngora Marmolejo, Historia..., Capítulo XLV, Cap. XXXVI
  13. ^ Rosales, Historia general de el Reyno de Chile, Flandes Indiano, Tomo II
  14. ^ Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, pg. 207-208
  15. ^ Góngora Marmolejo, Historia..., Capítulo XLV
  16. ^ Vicente Carvallo y Goyeneche, Descripcion histórico-jeográfica del Reino de Chile, TOMO I; Coleccion de historiadores de Chile, Tomo VIII, IMPRENTA DE LA LIBRERÍA DEL MERCURIO de A. y M. Echeverria, Morando Núm. 38., Santiago,1878, Tomo I Cap. LI
  17. ^ Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, pg. 211
  18. ^ According to Rosales, Historia..., Tomo II, Capítulo LI, pg. 221.
  19. ^ Carvallo,Descripcion Histórico...
  20. ^ Lobera calls him Diego Díaz, Crónica..., Libro tercero, Parte tercera, Capítulo XXXII; Rosales and Carvallo call him Alonso Diaz
  21. ^ Diego de Rosales, Historia..., Tomo II, Capítulo LI
  22. ^ Rosales, Historia ... , Tomo II, CAPÍTULO LII
  23. ^ Lobera, Crónica ..., Cap. XXXV
  24. ^ Claudio Gay, Historia fisica y politica de Chile Tomo II, Capitulo XIII
  25. ^ Gay, Historia ... , Tomo II, Cap. XXXII.
  26. ^ José Ignacio Víctor Eyzaguirre, Historia eclesiastica: Politica y literaria de Chile, Impr. del Comercio, Valpraiso, 1850. pg. 498.
  27. ^ Gomez De Vidaurre, Coleccíon de historiadores de Chile y documentos relativos a la historia nacional, Tomo 15, HISTORIA GEOGRÁFICA, NATURAL Y CIVIL DEL REINO DE CHILE, TOMO II CON UNA INTRODUCCIÓN BIOGRÁFICA Y NOTAS POR J. T. MEDINA, IMPRENTA ERCILLA, SANTIAGO DE CHILE, 1889
  28. ^ Rosales, Historia general ..., Tomo II
  29. ^ Francisco Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán, El Cautiverio Feliz; Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili
  30. ^ Carvallo, Descripcion histórico..., TOMO I; Coleccion de historiadores de Chile, Tomo VIII, IMPRENTA DE LA LIBRERÍA DEL MERCURIO de A. y M. Echeverria, Morando Núm. 38., Santiago,1878
  31. ^ Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, p.234
  32. ^ Francisco Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán, El Cautiverio Feliz
  33. ^ Gay, Historia fisica y politica de Chile, Tomo III, CAPITULO XXVII
  34. ^ Pedro de Cordoba y Figueroa, HISTORIA DE CHILE (1492-1717)
  35. ^ Pedro de Cordoba y Figueroa , HISTORIA DE CHILE 1492-1717, Coleccion de historiadores de Chile Libro 7 Cap. 14
  36. ^ Vicente Carvallo Goyeneche, Descripcion Histórico Geografía del Reino de Chile, Tomo II, Primera parte, Capítulo LXIV

Sources[edit]