Toramana

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For the Turkish male given name, see Toraman.

Toramana was a ruler of the Hephthalite Empire who ruled its Indian region in the late 5th and the early 6th century. Toramana consolidated the Hephthalite power in Punjab (present-day Pakistan and northwestern India), and conquered northern and central India including Eran in Madhya Pradesh. His territory also included Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Kashmir.[1] He was defeated by the Indian Emperor Bhanugupta of the Gupta Empire in 510 A.D.[2][3]

Overview[edit]

Toramana is known from Rajatarangini, coins and inscriptions. In the Gwalior inscription, written in Sanskrit, Toramana is described as:

A ruler of [the earth], of great merit, who was renowned by the name of the glorious Tôramâna; by whom, through (his) heroism that was specially characterised by truthfulness, the earth was governed with justice.

In the Kura inscription, his name is mentioned as Rajadhiraja Maharaja Toramana Shahi Jaula. The Eran Boar Image inscription of his first regnal year indicates that eastern Malwa was included in his dominion. A Jaina work of the 8th century, the Kuvalayamala states that he lived in Pavvaiya on the bank of the Chandrabhaga and enjoyed the sovereignty of the world.[4] The silver coins of Toramana closely followed the Gupta silver coins. The only difference in the obverse is that the king's head is turned to the left. The reverse retains the fantailed peacock and the legend is almost similar, except the change of name to Toramana Deva.[5] According to the Risthal stone-slab inscription, discovered in 1983, the Aulikara king Prakashadharma of Malwa defeated him.[6]

Successor[edit]

Toramana was succeeded by his son Mihirakula.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 142. ISBN 8120815408. Retrieved November 5, 2012. 
  2. ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates by S. B. Bhattacherje A15
  3. ^ The Classical Age by R.K. Pruthi p.262
  4. ^ Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, p.519
  5. ^ Gupta, P.L. (2000). Coins, New Delhi: National Book Trust, ISBN 81-237-1887-X, p.78
  6. ^ Ojha, N.K. (2001). The Aulikaras of Central India: History and Inscriptions, Chandigarh: Arun Publishing House, ISBN 81-85212-78-3, pp.48-50
  7. ^ "Gwalior Stone Inscription of Mihirakula". Project South Asia. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
Preceded by
Khingila I
Hepthalite rulers Succeeded by
Mihirakula