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|— Borough & unitary authority —|
|Borough of Torbay|
|Nickname(s): The English Riviera|
|Motto: SALUS ET FELICITS
"Health and Happiness"
|Devon and England|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||South West England|
|• Type||Borough Council|
|• Elected Mayor||Gordon Oliver (Independent)|
|• UK Parliament|
|• Total||24.28 sq mi (62.88 km2)|
|Lowest elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Ethnicity (2011 est.)||98.8% White|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC0)|
|• Summer (DST)||BST (UTC+1)|
|Postcode district||TQ1 – 5|
Torbay (pron.: //) is a borough in Devon, England, administered as a unitary authority by Torbay Borough Council. It consists of 62.88 square kilometres (24.28 sq mi) of land spanning the towns of Torquay, Paignton and Brixham, which together occupy an east-facing natural harbour by the English Channel. Torbay is roughly equidistant from the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. A popular tourist destination with a tight conurbation of resort towns, Torbay's sandy beaches, mild climate and recreational and leisure attractions have given rise to the nickname of the English Riviera.
That Torbay has been inhabited since paleolithic times is shown by human bones and tools found in Kents Cavern in Torquay. A maxilla fragment known as Kents Cavern 4 may be the oldest example of a modern human in Europe, dating back to 37,000–40,000 years ago. Roman soldiers are known to have visited Torquay during the period when Britain was a part of the Roman Empire, leaving offerings at a curious rock formation in Kent's Cavern, known as "The Face".
Both Brixham and Paignton appear in the Domesday Book of 1086 and Paignton was given the status of a borough having a market and fair in 1294. The first major building in Torquay was Torre Abbey, a Premonstratensian monastery founded in 1196.
William Prince of Orange (afterwards King William III) landed in Brixham on 5 November 1688, during the Glorious Revolution, and issued his famous declaration "The Liberties of England and The Protestant Religion I Will Maintain".
Torquay's economy was, like Brixham's, initially based on fishing and agriculture, but in the early 19th century it began to develop into a fashionable seaside resort, initially frequented by members of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars while the Royal Navy anchored in Torbay and later, as the town's fame spread, by Victorian society.
The historic part of Paignton is inland: the low-lying coastal fringe was originally salt marsh. Kirkham House is a late medieval stone house which is open to the public at certain times of year, and the Coverdale Tower adjacent to Paignton Parish Church is named after Bishop Miles Coverdale, who published an English translation of the Bible in 1536. Paignton remained a small fishing village until the early 19th century; a new harbour was built here in 1837.
The second phase in the expansion of Torbay began when Torre railway station was opened in December 1848. The railway was extended to Paignton in 1859 and to Brixham in 1861. As a result of its expansion, Torquay was granted borough status in 1872, and 1902 saw its first marketing campaign to summer tourists.
The County Borough of Torbay was created in 1968 by the amalgamation of the Municipal Borough of Torquay, Urban District of Paignton and Urban District of Brixham, also taking in parts of the civil parishes of Coffinswell and Kerswells from Newton Abbot Rural District and Churston Ferrers and Marldon from Totnes Rural District. The County Borough became the Borough of Torbay under local government reorganisation in 1974. It was made a unitary authority on 1 April 1998 making it responsible for its own affairs.
The area is represented nationally at the House of Commons by two MPs. Torquay (along with part of Paignton) is in the Torbay parliamentary constituency which was created in 1974 and has been held by Adrian Sanders of the Liberal Democrats since 1997. Brixham and part of Paignton fall within the Totnes constituency, with Conservative Sarah Wollaston elected. Torbay is in the South West England constituency of the European Parliament, together with the rest of South West England and Gibraltar.
Until May 2011, Torbay Council had been headed by the first directly elected mayor in the South West region. Conservative candidate Nicholas Bye who won in October 2005, under an electoral system which was later described as "a total failure" with Bye receiving votes from fewer than 7% of the electorate. However, he was defeated in the May 2011 election by Gordon Oliver who stood as an independent.
For local elections the district is divided into 15 wards.[notes 1] The Council elects 36 councillors in elections held every four years. Since the Torbay Council election, 2011, the council has a Conservative majority. The composition as of 28 June 2012 was:
There are three main towns around the bay: Torquay in the north, Paignton in the centre, and Brixham in the south, which have become connected over the years, swallowing up villages and towns such as St Marychurch, Cockington, Marldon, Churston Ferrers and Galmpton. Torbay is bordered by the South Hams to the south and west, and by Teignbridge to the north. Nearby towns include Totnes and Dartmouth in the South Hams, and Newton Abbot and Teignmouth in Teignbridge.
The southern limit of Torbay is Berry Head, and the northern limit is Hopes Nose, although Torquay itself stretches further north into Babbacombe Bay, where the beaches at Oddicombe and Babbacombe can be found; these are noted for their interesting Breccia cliffs. Torbay's many geological features have led to the establishment of the English Riviera Geopark; as of July 2008, this is the sole urban geopark of the 53 geoparks worldwide.
Because of the mild climate, Torbay palm trees are a common sight along the coast. However, this 'palm' is in fact a lily (Cordyline australis), originating from New Zealand where it is known as cabbage tree due to its edible young shoots. These trees also flourish elsewhere in the UK. It is suggested that the popularity of cabbage trees in Torbay is attributable to their first being introduced to the UK in that region.
Torbay's main industry is tourism. It has a large number of European students learning English.
The fishing port of Brixham is home to one of England and Wales' most successful fishing fleets and regularly lands more value than any UK port outside Scotland. It is also a base for Her Majesty's Coastguard and the Torbay Lifeboat Station.
Torbay lacks direct motorway links and is primarily served by the A380 road from Exeter. The last stretch of road, from Newton Abbot via Kingskerswell is mostly single carriageway and is often congested in summer and during commuter hours. There have been plans to remedy the situation though alternative routes were difficult to find because the road passes by areas of outstanding natural beauty. A bypass had been planned since as early as the 1930s and has come close on a few occasions to being built: the latest plan was halted in autumn 2008, and in October 2010 it was confirmed that the bypass was not one of the 24 schemes that had been approved. However in November 2011 the government awarded £74.6 million towards the cost of the bypass, and the county council stated that it hoped that construction would start in October 2012 with completion in December 2015.
Torbay's other main road links are the A379, which follows a coastal route from Teignmouth, passes through Torquay and Paignton, then goes on to Dartmouth; and the A385 which goes inland to Totnes and the A38.
The bus franchise is largely operated by Stagecoach South West of the similarly named group, that operates a large share of the market in Torbay and the neighbouring towns of South Devon.
Torbay has three stations on the National Rail network, operated by First Great Western: Torre railway station is inland on the road from Torquay to Newton Abbot, Torquay railway station is close to Torre Abbey Sands and Paignton railway station serves that town and links with the heritage Dartmouth Steam Railway and River Boat Company to Kingswear connecting via the Dart ferry to Dartmouth.
Notable people 
Famous former residents of Torbay include authors Agatha Christie (who set many of her novels in a thinly disguised version of the borough), Charles Kingsley, Edmund Gosse and Rudyard Kipling. Peter Cook, comic, (half of a famous comedy team with Dudley Moore); the industrialist and architect of the nearby Atmospheric railway, Isambard Kingdom Brunel; Prog-rock band Wishbone Ash, supermodel Lily Cole and comedian Jim Davidson. Tennis player/TV presenter Sue Barker originates from the area.
- Torbay's wards are Berry Head-with-Furzeham (3 councillors), Blatchcombe (3 councillors), Churston Ferrers-with-Galmpton (2 councillors), Clifton-with-Maidenway (2 councillors), Cockington-with-Chelston (3 councillors), Ellacombe (2 councillors), Goodrington-with-Roselands (2 councillors), Preston (3 councillors), Roundham-with-Hyde (2 councillors), St Marychurch (3 councillors), St. Mary's-with-Summercombe (2 councillors), Shiphay-with-The Willows (2 councillors), Tormohun (3 councillors), Watcombe (2 councillors), and Wellswood (2 councillors)
- John R. Pike, Torquay (Torquay: Torbay Borough Council Printing Services, 1994), 5-6
- Rincon, Paul (27 April 2005). "Jawbone hints at earliest Britons". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2006-11-07.
- Parnell, Peggy (2007). A Paignton Scrapbook. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-4739-8.
- Percy Russell, A History Of Torquay (Torquay: Devonshire Press Limited, 1960), p.19
- Kirkham House : Devon : South West : View properties : Properties : Days Out & Events : English Heritage
- 1948 Summer Olympics official report. p. 50.
- "Mayor voting system is condemned". BBC News. 25 October 2005. Retrieved 2008-04-03.
- "England council elections". BBC News.
- "Declaration of result of poll". Torbay Council. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
- Global status for Torbay (retried 7 July 2008)
- "Impact of the First Local Travel Plan on Torbay". torbay.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2006-12-02.
- Herald Express 26 November 2008
- "Kingskerswell bypass 'not on government transport list'". BBC News - Devon. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- "Kingskerswell bypass work could start in 2012". BBC News. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-30.