Toronto District School Board
- For French language Public schools in Toronto, see Conseil scolaire Viamonde.
|Toronto District School Board|
|Board office location||5050 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario, M2N 5N8, Canada|
|Number of schools||451 elementary schools
105 secondary schools
5 adult education schools
|2013-2014 budget (CAD $ millions)||$3B|
|Number of students||188,304 elementary students
87,273 high school students
14,000 adult students
|Chair of the Board||Mari Rutka|
|Director of Education||Donna Quan|
2 (Alternative and Adult programs)
The Toronto District School Board (TDSB; known as English-language Public District School Board No. 12 prior to 1999) is the English-language public-secular school board for Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The minority public-secular francophone (Conseil scolaire Viamonde), public-separate anglophone (Toronto Catholic District School Board), and public-separate francophone (Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud) communities of Toronto also have their own publicly funded school boards and schools that operate in the same area, but which are independent of the TDSB. Its headquarters are in North York. The TDSB is Canada's largest school board and the fourth largest school board in North America.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Trustees
- 4 Community involvement
- 5 Controversies
- 6 School Building Architecture
- 7 Schools
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The TDSB was created in 1998 following the merger of the Board of Education for the City of York, the East York Board of Education, the North York Board of Education, the Scarborough Board of Education, the Etobicoke Board of Education, the Toronto Board of Education and the Metropolitan Toronto School Board.
Originally the headquarters was located at 155 College Street, the former offices of the Toronto Board of Education. The head office moved from 155 College Street to 5050 Yonge Street, which was previously occupied by the North York Board of Education.
The school board's organizational mission is "to enable all students to reach high levels of achievement and to acquire the knowledge, skills, and values they need to become responsible members of a democratic society."
The TDSB is the largest school board in Canada and the 4th largest in North America. The record was previously held by the Metropolitan Separate School Board with over 100,000 students until 1998 what is now the Toronto Catholic District School Board.
There are more than 250,000 students  in nearly 600 schools within the TDSB. Of these schools, 451 offer elementary education, 102 offer secondary level education, and there are five adult day schools. The TDSB has 16 alternative elementary schools as well as 20 alternative secondary schools. TDSB has approximately 31,000 permanent and 8,000 temporary staff, which includes 10,000 elementary school teachers and 5,800 at the secondary level.
Parent and Community involvement occurs at all levels of the school board system, from parental involvement at local schools, the involvement of local organizations at the school level and formal advisory committees at the Board level.
There has also been an effort to include more student involvement in the Toronto District School Board. The "Super Council" is an organization which acts as a student council for the entire board. There has also been an attempt to place student input in the TDSB's Equity Department through the second, and last, board-wide student group: Students Working Against Great Injustice. Both groups have put together various events and have had much success in giving input towards the decisions of the Board.
- Chris Spence 2009-2013 - resigned due to a plagiarism scandal
- Gerry Connelly 2005-2009
- David Reid 2001-2005 - now with Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
- Marguerite Jackson 1998-2001 - now CEO of the Education Quality and Accountability Office
|Ward 1||John Hastings||Etobicoke North|
|Ward 2||Chris Glover||Etobicoke Centre|
|Ward 3||Pamela Gough||Etobicoke—Lakeshore|
|Ward 4||Stephnie Payne||York West|
|Ward 5||Howard Kaplan||York Centre|
|Ward 6||Chris Tonks||York South—Weston|
|Ward 7||Irene Atkinson||Parkdale—High Park|
|Ward 8||Howard Goodman||Eglinton—Lawrence|
|Ward 9||Maria Rodrigues||Davenport|
|Ward 11||Shelley Laskin||St. Paul's|
|Ward 12||Mari Rutka||Willowdale|
|Ward 13||Gerri Gershon||Don Valley West|
|Ward 14||Sheila Ward||Toronto Centre|
|Ward 15||Cathy Dandy||Toronto—Danforth|
|Ward 16||Sheila Cary-Meagher||Beaches—East York|
|Ward 17||Harout Manougian||Don Valley East|
|Ward 18||Elizabeth Moyer||Scarborough Southwest|
|Ward 19||David Smith||Scarborough Centre|
|Ward 20||Sam Sotiropoulos||Scarborough—Agincourt|
|Ward 21||Shaun Chen||Scarborough—Rouge River|
|Ward 22||Jerry Chadwick||Scarborough East|
|Student Trustee||Nelia Wong|
|Student Trustee||Jesse Waugh|
The TDSB's Parent and Community Involvement Policy describes ways in which "parents, the community, students, staff and the Board" are working together. One option is the Parent Involvement Advisory Committee.
Proposing and starting a school
Parents can design and propose a new school in the TDSB. There is a 2-year process for review, approval and opening the school.
||This section lends undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. (September 2014)|
In 2002, the Government of Ontario stripped all power and authority from the school board trustees because they failed to balance the board's budget. Paul Christie was appointed by the province to serve as supervisor of the Toronto District School Board, with authority for all financial and administrative functions of the Board. This allowed Christie to supersede the authority of elected school trustees. The provincial government argued that the appointment was necessary, as the TDSB had not submitted a budget to the Ontario Minister of Education as legally required. Representatives of the TDSB claimed that they could not find the necessary operating expenses for the year, given provincial regulations which prohibited deficit spending. Christie balanced the TDSB's budget through a dramatic spending reduction of $90 million. Under his watch, the TDSB eliminated many secretarial positions, phased out school-community advisors, child and youth counsellors, and attendance counsellors and reduced the number of vice-principals, cut outdoor education and adult education, and re-evaluated the position of social workers in the system. Christie's staff reports were not made public, and some critics argued that there were no adequate checks or balances on his authority.
Blackstone Partners carried out a review in 2006. They submitted a 113-page report in January 2007. Blackstone Partners were "asked to determine if the facilities division had "effective governance."" The report showed "high costs of repairs, lots of workers and spotty results, and managerial “silos” that made it hard for principals to figure out whom to approach to get a job done." Blackstone Partners gave 43 recommendations in the report. The school board claims a few have been carried out and others are in the works. When surveyed about a wide range of topics, the worst result was the school board’s maintenance and construction division. Eighty percent of principals didn't believe the maintenance and construction division delivered good value for the money TDSB director Chris Spence "To use a football analogy, we are trying to move the yardstick. There is no quick fix." The Toronto Star reported that in recent investigation showed little has changed since that review. A high school principal "raised questions about the $143 cost of installing a pencil sharpener and the $19,000 cost of installing a sign on the school’s front lawn."
|To attach a pencil sharpener with four screws||$143|||
|sign on a school’s front lawn||$19,000|||
|Electrical outlet on the wall in a school library||$3,000|||
|"Breakfast club" kitchen||$250,000|||
|Basketball bolt installation||$1,492.13|||
|Repairing drinking fountains||$2,703|||
|Replacing a Green Bin||$664|||
|Hanging a picture in the office||$700|||
|Toilet seats||$27 (to purchase)
$500 (to install)
In 2007, again due to alleged mismanagement by the trustees, the board will try to submit a budget with a deficit of $84 million.
The school board wants $3.6 million from the Toronto Star before it releases a database. The database shows "work orders showing what taxpayers have been charged for maintenance and construction projects at local schools." In June 2012, the Toronto Star asked for "an electronic copy showing three years of work at the TDSB." The Toronto Star stated that "the request was made under the Municipal Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act."
The Ontario Ministry of Education Froze funding for the school board's buildings project. The ministry cited the possibility of a $10 million to $11 million cost overrun for the retrofit of Nelson Mandela Park Public School. The project was originally priced at $21.7 million. Some of the school board's trustees are "outraged". Laurel Broten, Ontario's Minster of Education, stated, "We are not happy they don’t know why" when talking about the overrun. She also stated that a supervisor may be sent in.
The Maintenance and Construction Skilled Trades Council gets 0.5% on all outside contracts even though it does not perform the work. Several contractors have stated that "contractors sometimes inflate their price for school board work to pay Hazel’s group." Maintenance and Construction Skilled Trades Council are unable to do all the maintenance and construction work. TDSB spokesperson Shari Schwartz-Maltz said "the dues are considered a "temporary union membership." The TDSB does not charge the trades council rent for its offices on school board property. The school board's trustees want to stop paying the fee.
Employees of the school board visited bars, bought groceries and filled the gas tanks of their cars using "public money" and while on the job.
Contract with Trade Council
A top official from the Toronto District School Board stated that he has concerns about a "controversial contract" between the Trades Council and the Ontario Government and claims that the contract with the trades council is "politically motivated." Chris Bolton, the Chairman of the school board, stated that the Trade Council is a "major contributors to the Liberals" and even campaigned for the Liberals. A government spokesperson stated that Education Minister Laurel Broten decision to retain the Trade Council's services "nothing to do with politics."
Terms of the contract includes:
- "The TDSB will not be allowed to hire outside workers for some jobs." The school board won't be allowed to hire outside workers even if it would cost taxpayers less.
- "The trades council is still allowed to choose all new workers for the publicly funded school board." The Toronto District School Board, who pays the workers, doesn't have a say on who is hired.
- A structured shift system will be preserved where the morning and afternoon shifts overlaps. This requires the school board to maintain extra trucks and vehicles. The school board has estimated "it could have sold off up to 300 trucks and other vehicles that would not be needed if the afternoon shift started when the morning shift ended."
Immigration Act charges
In 2001, Toronto School Board Trustee Sam Basra was convicted of Immigration Act charges and was forced under the Education Act to resign his seat. He pleaded guilty in August 2001 to selling fake offers of employment to potential immigrants for US$1,500.00 each. This came to light after being tipped by a former employee, police raided Basra's paralegal firm and found 250 false letters of employment. In March 2001 Arjan Singh launched a $15 million lawsuit against Basra alleging that while doing paralegal work, Basra forged documents to make him think his rights case was active more than a year after it was closed. After much infighting among the trustees and inaction from then Chair of the Board Donna Cansfield to make an appointment to fill the vacant trustee seat left by Basra, a by-election was called for April 2002 costing the board $160,000.00. Stan Nemiroff defeated former Mayor of Etobicoke Bruce Sinclair in the by-election to become the new Ward 1 trustee representing Etobicoke North.
In December 2001, a $70 million class-action lawsuit was filed against the Toronto District School Board on behalf of the parents of special needs students who were sent home during the boards support workers strike in April 2001. The suit claimed that 27,000 special needs students were discriminated against on the basis of their disabilities because they were sent home during the month long strike while the schools stayed open for their able-bodied counterparts. The claims were based on the fact that they weren’t permitted to go to school and missed a month of school while everyone else was able to go. The suit also claimed that the Toronto District School Board should stop treating special needs students as lesser students. The four-week strike, led by 13,000 support workers ended in early May 2001.
On November 14, 2005, the Ontario Human Rights Commission reached a settlement with the Toronto District School Board following a Commission-initiated complaint against the Board in July 2005. On July 7, 2005 the On Human Rights Commission initiated a complaint against the Toronto District School Board in the public interest and on behalf of racialized students and students with disabilities alleging that the application of the Safe Schools Act and the Toronto District School Board’s policies on discipline are having a disproportionate impact on racial minority students and students with disabilities. The complaint alleges that the TDSB had failed to meet its duty to accommodate racialized students and students with disabilities in the application of discipline, including providing adequate alternative education services for racial minority students and students with disabilities who are suspended or expelled and that the above amounts to a failure on the part of the TDSB to provide equal access to education services and that this constitutes discrimination and contravenes sections 1, 11 and 9 of the Ontario Human Rights Code. The TDSB accepts and acknowledges a widespread perception that the application of Ontario’s school disciplinary legislation, regulations and policies can have a discriminatory effect on students from racialized communities and students with disabilities and further exacerbate their already disadvantaged position in society.
In 2005, controversy erupted when the TDSB's Board Chair Sheila Ward and Executive Officer of Student and Community Equity, Lloyd McKell, spoke in favour of “Black-focused schools”. The proposal brought about a media backlash, as many interpreted this as a "Black-only" school. After long and sometimes raucous debate, the proposal for an Afrocentric school was adopted and registration began. Similar controversy had taken place in the North York Board of Education in the 1980s when the board attempted to turn Georges Vanier Secondary School into a black-only school.
"Explicit" sex-ed brochures
Wade Vroom, an "occasional teacher" at Delta alternative school, "pinned up brochures meant to advise gay bar and bath house patrons on safe sex procedures" in a grade seven and eight classroom. Liz Sandals, the minister for education, stated that it was "totally inappropriate." Sandals also stated, "clearly, from what was described in the media, the materials that were being used are totally inappropriate and are in no way connected to the Ontario health and phys ed curriculum" and "I’m relieved that Toronto District School Board (TDSB) has gotten rid of the material and that the teacher is no longer in the classroom." He had been "ordered to work from home pending an investigation." Sandals called it a "one off." Sandals stated how this type of material would not be included in the new Ontario curriculum. Lisa MacLeod, the critic for education from the Progressive Conservative Party, stated "parents have not asked for this type of sexually explicit information to be made available to their children. The fact that an Ontario teacher felt comfortable enough to post it speaks to the cozy relationship the Liberal government has with their unions." MacLeod feels that the Toronto District School Board is "clearly out of control when it comes to this." She also stated that "this is not the first time something like has occurred there - and I think the government really has to put their foot down and make it known that that type of material is unacceptable." A spokesman for the school board claimed that the teacher had "good intentions." MacLeod criticized the spokesman and thinks that the school board should fire someone for the material being posted. The AIDS Committee of Toronto, who published one of the brochures, stated that the intended material published by them was for adults. The Toronto Sun asked in an article, "if the teacher now being paid to be at home, or any adult, were to pass out this material in a park, would the police not be called?" and when is the TDSB going to notify police about a brochure teaching children?"safer sucking tips?" A spokesman for the board stated, "At this time, police have not been notified." Toronto Police Service investigated the brochures and decided that no charges would be pressed against Vroom because it "didn't meet Criminal Code criteria to lay charges for exposing children to obscene material or corrupting the morals of children." Vroom was later reinstated after the issue had been "resolved."
Fraud and Corruption Toronto trustees and senior staff interfered and tampered with documents related to trustee expenses requested by the Toronto Star, say emails sent by the board’s own freedom of information officer. Maria Mavroyannis, a lawyer herself, was so concerned by the “clear interference in my ability to carry out the FOI request responsibly” that her emails say she sought outside legal help to ensure “we have discharged our duties responsibly” given the “misinformation being provided … and given evident trustee tampering.” The Star obtained these emails following a freedom of information request, or FOI, to the Toronto District School Board seeking copies of correspondence between Mavroyannis, the board’s executive officer of governance, and director of education Donna Quan. Much of the document released to the Star was blacked out, including the identity of the trustees and board staff. The Star is appealing the decision to censor the names and will, via an appeal, ask Ontario’s privacy commissioner’s office to investigate alleged tampering. Quan said in an email to the Star that “following recent (board) audits, stronger processes for trustee expenses and freedom of information requests have been put in place over the last year and we have focused on staff training and understanding of both. “I am confident that these processes have been followed.”
The original FOI request for the audit, which documented questionable spending by trustees including a trip to Israel and billing taxpayers for overnight stays at a downtown Toronto hotel during a conference, created turmoil behind the scenes at the board, the emails show. “I am seriously concerned about the integrity of the FOI process given the sudden confusion and misinformation being provided … and given evident trustee tampering … the version (of the audit) below is entirely inconsistent with the discussions we have had and deliberately obfuscates what information has been changed in the reports and undermines the credibility on the completeness of the information being provided to requestors,” said an August email sent by Mavroyannis. Michel Drapeau, a lawyer, professor and author of several works on information requests, said “if ever there has been a ‘smoking gun’ in an (FOI) request records, you found it … The exchange of records illustrate better than anything I have seen in the recent past about the increasing level of ‘impotence’ of the FOI process which is victim to the open defiance, self-importance and arrogance of individuals who place their interests ahead of the public interest and their fiduciary duties,” he said. The “very obvious and repeated attempts to obfuscate and frustrate the ‘right to know’ of the public … goes totally against the accepted Canadian-wide concept of the rule of law.” He praised Mavroyannis, saying “she clearly comes across as a true and honest public servant doing her best to uphold the law (and) provide a ‘service’ to the public.” Ottawa University professor Amir Attaran, an expert in FOI requests who suggested asking the privacy commissioner to investigate, said that if tampering is confirmed, any staff involved should be fired. Mavroyannis, in an email to one individual whose name was blacked out, said that “at the Tuesday meeting this week, you indicated that you had made changes to …(the expense audit) based upon discussions” with someone whose name is also blacked out. “Yesterday at the meeting with the director, you indicated that there was yet another version of the trustee report containing changes, and there were many more changes to be made.” Another email adds: “We cannot alter files that are the subject of an FOI. I have repeatedly said that. This constant flip-flopping detracts from the credibility of the integrity of the information being provided, and the independence of the FOI process … this process should not be interfered with …” She went on to say that “throughout this file, I have seen trustees and staff discuss the information to be provided, and provide opinion for matters for which they are not responsible. There has been clear interference in my ability to carry out the FOI request responsibly.” Drapeau said trustees should not have been told about the FOI expense audit request at all, and that trustees cannot ask to “correct a record.” “This is tampering with a record,” he added. “If you need to correct a record you produce a new version of a record and leave the original safe and intact.” Mavroyannis’ emails refer to at least three versions. While the freedom of information act doesn’t specifically deal with tampering or destruction of records, Drapeau said “it is an offence to obstruct the commissioner during its investigation of a complaint.” The unredacted portions of the emails do not name any staff or trustees who are alleged to have tampered with or interfered with the FOI process. Chair Mari Rutka said trustees did discuss the FOI request for the audit report, but would not say when or if it was during a private meeting. She said they have been seeking more “clarity” around the FOI process. “I think one of the concerns that trustees had around the information that’s already come out is that the context of it be explained,” she said. “The initial documents that went out to the Star were draft documents that contained errors, and contained items that were flagged” and trustees were concerned their explanations for those items would not be included. Trustee Shelley Laskin said her portion of the expense audit, released to the Star and CTV, mistakenly contained censored information and that she did not ask staff, at any time, to do such censoring. She said she did, however, ask which version of the report would be released, given she’d seen two last April, which was two months before the Star’s FOI request was submitted. “Did I seek clarification of what would be released? Absolutely. Did I question the release of working documents which can be exempt? Absolutely. Were there a series of emails from me to staff to clarify which version of the working papers would be released. Absolutely.” Laskin, who is familiar with the FOI process from her previous job with an Ontario government ministry, said most trustees are not aware of the process and need to be better informed about their obligations under the law.
School Building Architecture
Many of the TDSB stock of school buildings outside of the old City of Toronto were built after World War II and during the 1950s. These are typically Mid-Century modern in style with two to three storey brick facade and large double hung windows are-mo found in older areas of suburbs. Post-modern schools are brick with casement windows appeared from the 1970s onwards.
- Toronto Catholic District School Board, the English-language Catholic school board that also operates in Toronto
- Conseil scolaire Viamonde, the French-language school board that also operates in Toronto
- Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud, the French-language Catholic school board in Toronto
- Middle schools in Toronto (also includes Toronto-area schools that are not part of the TDSB)
- Elementary schools in Toronto (also includes Toronto-area schools that are not part of the TDSB)
- Schools in the TDSB
- List of school districts in Ontario
- List of high schools in Ontario
- "Facts and Figures". Toronto District School Board. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
- Rushowy, Kristin (December 10, 2013). "TDSB gave senior staff $1.3 million in raises despite provincial wage freeze: audit". Toronto Star. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Connelly, Gerry (2006). "The 2004-05 Financial Results" (PDF). Director's Annual Report,2004-05. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
- "Ontario Regulation 107/08". e-Laws. Government of Ontario. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "5050_2.gif." (Archive) Toronto District School Board. Retrieved on March 12, 2011.
- "City of Toronto Council and Committees School Board Lands." (Archive). City of Toronto. March 26, 1999. Retrieved on July 23, 2013. "The TDSB administrative capital management strategy identifies the former Toronto Board of Education's facility at 155 College Street as the main headquarters of the new School Board, for its sole use."
- Home page. (Archive) North York Board of Education. Retrieved on November 12, 2010. "5050 Yonge Street, North York, Ontario Canada, M2N 5N8, 416-395-4661"
- Our Mission Statement
- Connelly, Gerry (2006). "A Message from the Director" (PDF). Director's Annual Report,2004-05. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
- "About Us." Toronto District School Board. Retrieved on June 8, 2012.
- Working Together for our Students' Success
- TDSB Student SuperCouncil
- "Trustees". Toronto District School Board. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
- Parent and Community Involvement Policy
- Parent Involvement Advisory Committee
- Winsa, Patti (16 Nov 2012). "Skateboard academy, dude? Alternative schools gathering considers four new concepts". Toronto Star. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Trish Worron, "Education democracy an illusion", Toronto Star, 12 July 2003, F6.
- Kevin Donovan; Moira Welsh (July 4, 2012). "TDSB was warned in 2006 about spending problems". Toronto Star. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Donovan, Kevin (June 22, 2012). "Popular TDSB principal backed by his association". Toronto Star. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Moira Welsh; Kevin Donovan (June 21, 2012). "Toronto schools pay high prices for small jobs". Toronto Star. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Donovan, Kevin (July 7, 2014). "Cost of fixing TDSB locks less than originally estimated". Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Kevin Donovan; Moira Welsh (July 25, 2012). "Toronto school board will hand over work order data — for $3.6 million". Toronto Star. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Rob Ferguson; Louise Brown (October 4, 2012). "Toronto school board cost overruns: Province warns supervisor may be sent in to run board". Toronto Star. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Kevin Donovan; Moira Welsh (June 25, 2012). "TDSB trades council gets a cut of outside contractors’ work". Toronto Star. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Moira Welsh; Kevin Donovan (July 11, 2012). "TDSB trustees want to end 0.5 per cent surcharge to union". Toronto Star. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Hammr, Kate (December 20, 2012). "TDSB workers used public funds for personal business, manager says". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Donovan, Kevin (January 4, 2013). "TDSB says politics behind Liberal decision to back Jimmy Hazel’s trades council". Toronto Star. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Trustee Sam Basra Temporarily Withdraws from Board Duties". Toronto District School Board (Toronto, ON). December 14, 2001. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- McLeod, Judi (April 2000). "Local Schoolboard: From Corruption to Communism". Canada Free Press. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Nicholas Keung and Kristin Rushowy, "Toronto School Board sued for bias", Toronto Star, 8 December 2001, E3.
- James, Royson (November 18, 2007). "Black schools in focus". The Star (Toronto). Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- Solomon, Galit (November 7, 2008). "Africentric school starts to gear up". CTV. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Yuen, Jenny (May 28, 2013). "TDSB teacher back in class after posting explicit brochures". Toronto Sun. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Artuso, Antonella (May 7, 2013). "'Someone at the TDSB ought to be fired' over explicit sex-ed brochures in classroom". Toronto Sun. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Davidson, Terry (May 6, 2013). "TDSB teacher posts explicit sex-ed brochures in Grade 7-8 class". Toronto Sun. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Warmington, Joe (May 8, 2013). "TDSB should contact police about sexual brochures in classroom". Toronto Sun. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Yuen, Jenny (May 29, 2014). "Police investigating sex brochures at Toronto school". Toronto Sun. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Davidson, Terry (June 7, 2014). "No charges for sex brochures in Toronto school". Toronto Sun. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- MacLellan, Duncan (Ryerson University Department of Politics and Public Administration). "The Fewer Schools Boards Act and the Toronto District School Board: Educational Restructuring 1997- 2003." (working paper) (Archive) - Presented to the annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, June 1, 2007.
- Rushowy, Kristin. "TDSB’s Chris Spence resigns amid growing plagiarism scandal." Toronto Star. Thursday January 10, 2013.
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