Toronto Transit Commission
||This article has an unclear citation style. (January 2012)|
|Toronto Transit Commission|
|Owner||City of Toronto|
|Locale||Toronto, parts of the GTA (may incur extra fare)|
|Transit type||Bus, rapid transit, streetcar|
|Number of lines||149+ bus routes, 4 rapid transit lines, 11 streetcar routes|
|Number of stations||69|
|Daily ridership||2.65 million |
|Chief executive||Andy Byford|
|Headquarters||William McBrien Building
1900 Yonge Street
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Number of vehicles||2,031 buses, 706 rapid transit cars, 248 streetcars, 129 Wheel-Trans buses|
|Track gauge||1,495 mm (4 ft 10 7⁄8 in) Toronto gauge|
|Average speed||Subway/L-train: 65-70kph Streetcar: 55kph Bus: 50-60kph|
|Top speed||Subway/L-train/Streetcar: 85kph Bus: 100kph|
The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is a public transport agency that operates transit bus, streetcar, paratransit, and rapid transit services in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Established in 1921, the TTC comprises four rapid transit lines with a total of 69 stations, over 149 bus routes, and 11 streetcar lines, of which 148 routes make 243 connections with a rapid transit station during weekday rush hours.
The TTC operates the third-most heavily used urban mass transit system in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority and Mexico City Metro. In 4th quarter 2012, the average daily ridership was 2.76 million passengers: 1,425,300 by bus, 271,100 by streetcar, 46,400 by intermediate rail, and 1,011,700 by subway. The projected 2013 ridership is 528 million riders. The TTC also provides door-to-door services for persons with physical disabilities known as Wheel-Trans; in 4th quarter, 2012, 9,800 trips were made through this service daily. The TTC employed 12,449 personnel as of December 31, 2011.
Colloquially, the subway cars were known as "red rockets", a nickname originally given to Gloucester subway cars, which were painted bright red and which have since been retired. The name lives on as the TTC uses the phrase to advertise the service, such as "Ride the Rocket" in advertising material, "Rocket" in the names of some express buses, and the new "Toronto Rocket" subway cars, which began revenue operation on July 21, 2011. Another common slogan is "The Better Way".
- 1 History
- 2 Transit modes
- 3 Services
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Safety
- 6 Management
- 7 Personnel
- 8 Incidents
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Privately operated transit services in Toronto began in 1850. In later years, a few routes were operated by the city, but it was 1921 when the city took over all routes and formed the Toronto Transportation Commission to operate them. During this period, service was mainly provided by streetcars. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, and greatly expanded its service area to cover the newly formed municipality of Metropolitan Toronto (which eventually became the enlarged city of Toronto). The system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17, 2008, the TTC made many service improvements, finally reversing more than a decade of service reductions and only minor improvements.
Historically, the TTC recovered its operating costs from the fare box. This was especially true during the Great Depression and the Second World War, when it accumulated the considerable wealth which allowed it to expand widely after the war. It was not until the late 1950s that the newly formed Metro government was forced to provide operational subsidies, required primarily due to the TTC's requirement to provide bus service to the low-density suburbs in Metro Toronto.
Until the mid-1990s, the TTC received operational subsidies from both the municipal level and the provincial level of government. When the Harris Conservatives in Ontario ended those subsidies, the TTC was forced to cut back service with a significant curtailment put into effect on February 18, 1996, and an increased financial burden was placed on the municipal government. Since then, the TTC has consistently been in financial difficulties. Service cuts were averted in 2007, though, when the Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC. As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state funding. The TTC has received federal funding from as early as 2009. The TTC is also considered one of the most costly transit systems in North America. For the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered approximately 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city. In 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives approximately 10% of its operating budget from the provincial (Quebec) government, and Ottawa Transpo receives 9% of its funding from the province. The fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens.
Past transit operators
- "Transit History of Toronto".
- Metropolitan Street Railway
- Toronto and Scarboro' Electric Railway, Light and Power Company
- Toronto and Mimico Electric Railway and Light Company
- Schomberg and Aurora Railway
- Toronto Civic Railways
- North Yonge Railways
- Del-Ray Coach Lines
- West York and District Bus Service
- West York Coach Lines
- = private omnibus
- = private animal railway
- = private electric railway
- = private bus line
- = private ferry
- = public electric railway
- = public bus line
- = public transit body (all modes)
The ferry service to the Toronto Islands was operated by the TTC from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department.
Gray Coach Lines was a suburban and regional intercity bus operator founded in 1927 by the TTC. Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario. In addition, Gray Coach operated tour buses in association with Gray Line Tours. The main terminal was the Metropolitan Toronto Bus Terminal on Elizabeth Street north of Dundas Street, downtown. In 1954, Gray Coach expanded further when it acquired suburban routes from independent bus operators not merged with the TTC as it expanded to cover Metro Toronto. By the 1980s, Gray Coach faced fierce competition in the interurban service in the GTA. The TTC sold Gray Coach Lines in 1990.
Buses are a large part of TTC operations today. But before about 1960, they played a minor role compared to streetcars. Buses began to operate in the city in 1921, and became necessary for areas without streetcar service. After an earlier experiment in the 1920s, trolleybuses were used on a number of routes starting in 1947, but all trolley bus routes were converted to bus operation between 1991 and 1993. The TTC always used the term "trolley coach" to refer to its trackless electric vehicles. Hundreds of old buses were recently replaced with the new, low-floor Orion VII, and the TTC has acquired many hybrid electric buses. The TTC's hybrid buses were first put on the road in 2006; these were replaced with the newer 500 Orion VII Next Generation Hybrids in 2008. A new order will bring the total number of hybrids to over 500, second only to New York City. Older (2001–2006) TTC Orion VIIs feature the standard "breadbox" style, whereas newer (2007- ) buses feature Orion's new, more stylish body. Although most of the bus fleet has already been replaced, a number of lift-equipped, high floor buses are reaching the end of their useful lifespan, and another order of buses may be needed around 2012. With a total of 2,031 buses, the TTC is the third-largest transit bus operator in North America, behind the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in New York City (6,263) and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (2,911).
The TTC also runs Wheel-Trans, a paratransit service for the physically disabled with special low-floor buses designed to accommodate wheelchairs and to make boarding easier for ambulatory customers with limited mobility.
The TTC has ordered 27 articulated buses, nicknamed 'Artics', which should be running in the fall of 2013. At 60 feet (18 metres) long versus a standard 40-foot bus, the Nova LFS Artics will hold about 112 people, in contrast to 65 on the usual bus.
The Toronto subway and RT is a basic system consisting of the Yonge–University–Spadina line, a U-shaped line that was opened in 1954 and was last extended in 1996; the Bloor–Danforth line, an east-west line that was opened in 1966 and was last extended in 1980; the Scarborough RT, a partly elevated light metro line that was opened in 1985 and continues from the Bloor-Danforth line's eastern terminus. The Sheppard line opened in 2002. The three subway lines are serviced by 678 cars grouped in trains of 4 cars on the SRT and Sheppard subway, and 6 cars on the Yonge-University-Spadina and Bloor-Danforth lines, with all three sharing non-revenue track connections and using the same technology. The Scarborough RT has a fleet of 28 cars grouped into trains of 4 cars each, and is not compatible with the subway system whatsoever. It therefore shares no track connections or equipment.
All subway lines provide service seven days a week from approximately 5:45 a.m. to 1:30 a.m. (the following day) (last train runs at approximately 1:45 in each direction) except for Sundays, in which the opening is delayed until approximately 9:00 a.m. During the overnight periods, the subway and its stations are closed in order for maintenance at track level and in the stations themselves. Overnight service is provided by buses operating above ground. These special overnight routes are issued numbers in the 300 series and are referred to as Blue Night routes, indicated by a typical TTC bus stop sign with a blue band added.
Plans were made for a streetcar subway along Queen Street, which were upgraded to a full subway in 1964, from the Humber loop to Greenwood, curving north to connect to the Bloor-Danforth subway. All that ever materialized of this line was an incomplete east-west station structure under Queen station at Yonge that remains in existence today, and structural provisions for an east-west station under Osgoode station at Queen and University Avenue. The Queen Subway plan was cancelled in 1974 in favour of new lines in North York. However, plans from Toronto and Ontario now necessitate its construction within the next 20 years to relieve pressure from the growing ridership on the Yonge subway line.
In the mid-1990s, work began on an Eglinton West subway line, but the project was cancelled before significant progress was made. Construction of this line is no longer a priority for the TTC. But in early 2007, Eglinton Crosstown LRT revisited the idea. The LRT would run underground in the central part of the line between Keele Street and Laird Drive, with the remainder a surface LRT route which would span almost the entire length of the city, from Pearson International Airport to Scarborough. It was eventually relaunched as the Eglinton Crosstown line after Transit City was cancelled, now being completely underground and incorporating the Scarborough RT.
Toronto's streetcar system is one of the few in North America still operating along street-running tracks and has been operating since the mid-19th century (horsecar service started in 1861, and 600 V DC overhead electric service in 1892). Streetcar service dates back to the Toronto Street Railway horse-drawn cars, and continues today with the current electric cars. New TTC routes since the 1940s have generally been operated by other modes, and the less busy streetcar routes have also been converted. Streetcar routes are now focused on the downtown area, with none running farther north than St. Clair Avenue, 6 km from Lake Ontario.
A great expansion of the streetcar network (as "Light Rapid Transit" on private rights-of-way) was proposed by the City of Toronto and the TTC on March 16, 2007, in the Transit City report. In November 2007, streetcars were equipped with the Surface Vehicle Automatic Stop Announcement System (SVASAS). The system calls out the name of the next stop over the public address system. Also, an LED board mounted inside behind the operator's shield displays to passengers the name of the cross street and updates as the vehicle passes a stop. Now, almost all TTC surface vehicles are fitted with the SVASAS. In October 2007, the Ontario Human Rights Commission introduced new regulations that require all transit operators in Ontario to call out all stops for the visually impaired passengers.
Prior to the introduction of the Canadian Light Rail Vehicle and the Articulated Light Rail Vehicle, the TTC operated a fleet of 765 PCC-type streetcars, 540 of which they purchased new. The rest of them were purchased as other cities sold off their PCC streetcar fleets.
The TTC's current fleet of 248 streetcars is nearing the end of its useful life, and the TTC will be buying at least 204 new LRVs. The commission has stated that potential bidders for the new contract must propose a 100% low-floor vehicle. These new vehicles will likely be costly, as the TTC's network has unique challenges, such as steep grades on hills (up to 8%), many extremely sharp curves (as little as 10.973 m or 36 ft in radius), and a unique track gauge of 1,495 mm (4 ft 10 7⁄8 in). The commission intends to customize a model that meets approximately 75% of its criteria. Bombardier Transportation won the bid with its Flexity Outlook model. The new streetcars, customized Bombardier Flexity Outlooks, are set to be built and in service as soon as 2014.
The TTC has retained two PCC streetcars (#4500 and #4549) and one Peter Witt streetcar (#2766) primarily for charter service.
However, during the summer of 2009 and 2010, the TTC ran one of its two PCC cars on the 509 Harbourfront route on Sundays between May and the Labour Day weekend. In previous years, one of the PCC cars would run along the Harbourfront route on holidays during the summer.
The TTC has begun on-street testing of its new streetcar fleet, having successfully run the first test vehicle from the TTC’s Bathurst St. facility (Hillcrest) to Bathurst Station and back in the early hours of March 14, 2013.
Plans call for the new streetcar to serve the 510 Spadina line first. As production vehicles arrive and are commissioned by the TTC, more streetcar routes will begin to be serviced by the new car. Full deployment across the streetcar network is expected by 2018.
The TTC fare system accepts cash, tickets (for students ages 13 to 19 and seniors 65 or older), tokens, and transit passes. As of January 3, 2010, the adult cash fare is $3.00 for a single trip, and the cost remains unchanged since. Tokens, however, have increased in price per token from $2.50 in 2010 to $2.60 in 2012 and $2.65 in 2013. An annual fare increase of 10 cents is anticipated for at least 2014 and 2015. Tokens are sold in sets of three or seven at the same price per token, and each token is valid for a single trip. They must be purchased in increments of four from token vending machines (TVMs) or from collector booths.
Historically, TTC cash fare prices have risen faster than inflation since 1990. While the consumer price index (CPI) has risen at an annualized rate of 1.8% in Canada, TTC fares have increased at 4.5%. Ironically, a hypothetical investment in tokens would have been more profitable than to deposit money in a savings account or GIC. Causes for the disproportionate price increase likely include the abolishment of provincial subsidies, a largely unionized labour force, and a growing set of pension obligations.
|Type of Fare||Adult||Senior & Student||Child|
|Cash (Single fare)||$3.00||$2.00||$0.75|
|Tickets & Tokens||3 tokens tokens for $7.95
7 tokens tokens for $18.55
|5 senior/student tickets for $9.00
10 senior/student tickets for $18.00
10 child tickets for $6.00
(Choose 1 Option)
|- $2.65 cash
- Express Sticker
|- $1.80 cash
- Senior/Student Ticket
- Express Sticker
|- $0.60 cash
- Child Ticket
- Express Sticker
|Day Pass||GTA Weekly Pass||Post-Secondary Students Metropass||PRESTO Fare System|
Transfers are free for trips in one direction, and are encouraged by the grid system of routes and by transfer terminals at many subway stations. Transfers must be picked up at the point of entry, as outgoing buses and streetcars will not accept transfers from the closest subway station.
The provincial Minister of Transportation has announced plans to introduce the Presto card, a unified smart card-based payment system for the entire Greater Toronto Area. Union railway station will be the first Toronto location to use the card in 2007 and four other stations (Don Mills, Downsview, Finch, and Islington) by 2010. There are no plans for the TTC to adopt the Presto card—only stations connecting to other systems will be equipped: Don Mills (YRT), Finch (YRT, GO, Brampton Transit), Downsview (YRT), Union (GO Trains, buses) and Islington (Mississauga Transit). The TTC has indicated that it is not willing to invest the required capital to convert to the Presto card. According to the director of corporate communications for the TTC, the Presto system is at least five years away from full implementation.
The TTC hopes to install a new fare box designed to catch counterfeit tokens and passes on all city buses, streetcars, and subway stops by the end of 2011. The system is being introduced to combat a fare fraud of $1 million per year. With this installation costing about $5.3 million, by current estimates it would take at least five years for the system to pay for itself. The new system is incompatible with the Presto card, and is only a stopgap measure which would require an upgrade or replacement to make it compatible. It is being tested on a trial basis on limited bus lines.
Schedules and route information
Route information can be accessed through the TTC Info number 416-393-INFO. Individual route schedules are available online at TTC.ca. Google Maps has supported the TTC since October 2010. Schedules for particular route are also usually posted at TTC transfer points, and trip planning services are available by phone.
Additional TTC information is circulated by "What's On" and "Rocket Rider/TTC Customer News" pamphlets located on some vehicles. Information can be accessed in person at the TTC head office (Davisville Station 1900 Yonge St.), but the TTC Info Centre at the Bloor-Yonge Station has been closed.
On December 15, 2008, the TTC launched a new Next Vehicle Arrival System (NVAS) to indicate the time of arrival of the next vehicle along a given route. The Spadina and Harbourfont streetcar lines were the first equipped with the NVIS system, with time-to-arrival information displayed on LED systems at Union and Spadina stations. Spadina also features a flat-screen television that shows all of the cars on the 510 Spadina route. All TTC streetcars have been upgraded with GPS receivers and now operate with NVIS. Most subway stations are equipped with OneStop media screens that display the time until the next train, the time of day, and other useful information, replacing the older and years-derelict "Subway Online" system. The next vehicle feature has been expanded to all routes, and are in place in LCD screens across all stations. By mid-2011, all buses and streetcars also have the tracking feature enabled, accessible free online and by SMS for commuters.
Online trip planner
On February 3, 2010, the TTC launched an online trip planner, which allows commuters to plan their routes and transfers by typing in an address, main intersection, or landmark as a starting point or destination from the TTC's official website. However, since its launch, the trip planner has remained in beta mode. There are still a few bugs to be fixed. On October 2010, the TTC officially integrated its trip planner with Google Maps.
The TTC makes connections with other transit systems of the Greater Toronto Area. GO Transit, MiWay, York Region Transit, Viva Rapid Transit, Brampton Transit, and Durham Region Transit are connected to the TTC via some of Toronto's subway stations and GO Transit's commuter rail stations. Some of their bus routes also coincide or intercept some of those of the TTC's, such as the Viva buses plying Finch Avenue en route to its North York hub. Via Rail and Amtrak connect with the TTC at Union Station, while Greyhound intercity buses also connect with the TTC at the Toronto Coach Terminal, as well as Scarborough Centre and Yorkdale terminals.
Although the Wheel-Trans door-to-door service has been available since the mid-1970s, since the 1990s, the TTC has focused in providing accessible services on conventional bus routes, the RT and subway. While only 29 of the 68 stations on the Scarborough RT and the Yonge–University–Spadina and Bloor–Danforth subway lines are wheel-chair accessible, all stations on the Sheppard line are fully accessible. In December 2011 all bus routes became accessible with the retirement of Commissions last inaccessible buses. The TTC's streetcar network is not accessible, but the TTC plans to replace the fleet gradually with modern, low-floor vehicles, specifically Bombardier's Flexity Outlook, by 2020.
All surface vehicles are equipped with the Surface Vehicle Automatic Stop Announcement System (SVASAS) as of February 2008 which is operated over the loudspeakers dictating the name of the next stop (e.g., "Next Stop: Yonge Street, Queen Subway Station.") along with an LED board on the streetcar/bus displaying the name of the street and changes each time when a streetcar/bus passes a stop. As of October 25, 2007, the Ontario Human Rights Commission urges all public transit operations in Ontario including GO Transit to call out all stops for the visually impaired passengers. Transit operations who do not announce all stops could be violating riders' rights according to the OHRC.
Most TTC surface routes terminate at loops, side streets or subway station complexes. The TTC system is one of the few mass transit systems in Canada where many surface routes can be accessed inside a paid-fare zone common to other routes or subway lines. This feature allows boarding via the back doors at terminals, reduces the usage of paper transfers, and the need of operators to check for proof-of-payment. However, offenders caught by an authorized TTC employee, or Toronto Police officers face a $500 fine for fare evasion.
There are some larger loops at terminal buildings other than subway stations:
- Bingham Loop
- Humber Loop
- Long Branch Loop (adjacent to Long Branch GO Station)
- York University, in front of the York Lanes shopping centre
Other loops include:
- Neville Park Loop
- High Park Loop
- Woodbine Loop
- Earlscourt Loop
- Fleet Loop
- Gunns Loop
- Exhibition Loop
Stops and shelters
The shelters used by the systems are split between Astral Media (lately with CBS Outdoor and formerly Viacom Media) and Toronto Transportation Services. Astral Media has full shelters with ads, some full shelters with ads and canopy shelters (not enclosed) without ads. A total of 4,100 shelters are managed by Toronto Transportation and most from the former transportation departments of the municipalities that make up the City of Toronto.
There are 4 versions of shelters found in the city:
- Kramer Design Associates Ltd/Cantilevered arch roof - newest version being installed
- Cantilever arch roof canopy - used on St. Clair streetcar line
- Contemporary or Barrel vault dome roof - some by Daytech and installed by Viacom and CBS are found mostly in suburbs like Scarborough
- Barrel vault dome canopy - select stations with streetcar platforms
- Traditional flat top - older version in the former city of Toronto and variants in Etobicoke
- High Capacity Traditional - used on Spadina LRT
- Classic shelters - oldest version without adds and found mostly suburbs
The Otter Loop Shelter on Avenue Road south of Lawrence Avenue West is the only remaining bus shelter from the 1940s and 1950s. It was designed by John B. Parkin Associates. The loop and shelter are not in regular revenue service and not owned by the TTC.
The transit system is introducing shelters with solar panels and ones with next stop broadcast. The latter will appear along streetcar lines.
TTC buses and streetcars are operated out of a number of garages and carhouses located around the city and are serviced at several other facilities. The surface routes are divided into several divisions. Individual divisions have a superintendent, an on-duty mobile supervisor, a CIS communications centre, and a garage facility tasked with managing the division's vehicle fleet and routes.
TTC Head Office is located at 1900 Yonge Street at Davisville Avenue. Known as the William C. McBrien Building, it was opened in 1957. The previous TTC Headquarters was at Yonge and Front Streets in the Toronto Board of Trade Building.
There are plans to relocate the HQ to a yet to be built site at 4050 Yonge Street near York Mills Road. The site is a commuter parking lot with a TTC entrance to York Mills Subway Station. Build Toronto is charged with helping the commission relocate, but it is facing political opposition from many mayoral candidates.
Commuter parking lots
The TTC operates 30 commuter parking lots, all at subway stations, with a total of 13,981 parking spaces. Effective April 1, 2009, free parking for Metropass holders was eliminated. All passengers using parking facilities during peak hours must now pay for the service. The rates vary from lot to lot but are in the range of $2.00–$6.00 from 5:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. on weekdays, and free at other times. Certain lots can only be used by commuters with a valid metropass. All TTC lots are open (uncovered) parking lots.
Cleaning - Subway cars and washrooms
There are 10 sets (men and women) of public washrooms located on the TTC system, all at subway stations that are major transfer points, at the current ends of rapid transit lines, or at the former end of rapid transit lines. All are located within the paid fare area, thus accessible only after fare has been paid.
In early 2012, the TTC began a program of upgrading the washrooms by replacing tiles, fittings and fixtures, as well as a cleaning schedule to improve overall customer experience. The first washrooms were completed at Finch and Kipling stations in February and all were done by June 2012.
Improvements consisted of:
- new tiles on walls and floors
- heater replacement
- new ventilation system
- new hand dryers (Dyson)
- hands-free faucets
- soap dispensers
- new fixtures (sinks, toilets and urinals) and fittings (plumbing)
- new cubicle partitions
- new garbage cans (removable)
- new lighting and signage
The remaining eight washrooms (Bloor-Yonge, Kennedy, Downsview, Wilson, Sheppard-Yonge, Eglinton, Warden, Don Mills) will be completed by end of June.[year needed] Islington's washrooms were closed and will not undergo the renovation.
Washrooms will also be cleaned every 90 minutes during system hours to ensure they are clean as possible.
On the subway system cleaning crews will clean inside the subway cars between College and Osgoode stations as part of a pilot project. Sweeping and cleaning will also be done at Finch and Kipling stations at off peak times.
Safety features provided by the TTC include:
- Request Stop on surface routes (9 p.m.-5 a.m.) (excluding streetcar routes); all passengers travelling alone can request the driver to stop at points between bus stops. The program was started in 1991, due in part to the activities of serial rapist and killer Paul Bernardo. On October 13, 2011, after multiple requests from the public and, finally, a letter by LGBTQ rights group Queer Ontario, the TTC announced that it would make the Request Stop Program available to all passengers in need.
- Designated Waiting Areas (DWA) on subway and RT platforms; these are well lit, have intercoms, monitored by security cameras, and are at the location where the guard car stops.
- Toronto EMS Paramedics stationed at key locations within the subway system during the morning and evening rush to assist with medical emergencies, and provide a faster response. This also reduces delays on the rapid transit system.
- Emergency Power Cut stations - indicated by a blue beacon - and located on both ends of all Subway/RT platforms with a telephone to call Transit Control's emergency number (3555).
- Yellow Passenger Assistance Alarm strips on subway and RT cars since 1977.
- Emergency stopping mechanisms (PGEV - Passenger/Guard Emergency Valve) on all subway and RT trains (for use in severe emergencies, i.e., doors open while train in motion, person stuck in doors as train leaves station, derailment etc.).
- Approximately 12,000 cameras monitoring activities on the subway system and on the entire fleet of buses and streetcars.
- Underground Alert messages displayed on the subway platform video screens to notify passengers about criminals.
- TTC Transit Enforcement Unit
TTC By-law No. 1
The TTC's By-law No. 1 is a by-law governing the actions of passengers and employees while on Commission property. It can be enforced by a "proper authority" which is defined in the by-law as: "an employee or agent of the TTC wearing a TTC uniform; an employee or agent of the TTC carrying an identification card issued by the TTC; or a municipal police officer." The by-law covers rules regarding, fare payment and conduct while in the system. Effective 12 October 2009, a revised version of the by-law has been issued. Revisions include the restriction of placing feet or "any object that may soil" on seats, the prohibition of using offensive language, and the provision that one must give up their seat to a person with a disability in priority seating areas.
An online version of the by-law is available here.
Transit Enforcement Unit
From 1997 to 2011, the TTC employed Special Constables that were responsible for safety and security and had similar policing powers to Toronto Police Service officers. During the phase out of the Special Constables the Toronto Police reinstated its Transit Patrol Unit which had originally been cancelled in the mid-1990s. The Special Constables have been replaced by Bylaw enforcement officers known as Transit Enforcement Officers, as part of the TTC's Transit Enforcement Unit. The Enforcement Officers now deal primarily with fare evasion and trespassing infractions. Officers are both plain clothes and in uniform and drive in unmarked white Ford Crown Victoria vehicles.
OneStop media system
The TTC, in partnership with OneStop Media Group, have rolled out large LCD television screens in major stations throughout the system. The new media system replaced the old "Subway Online" system, which has been decommissioned.
The signs feature advertising, news headlines and weather information from CP24, as well as TTC-specific information regarding service changes, service delays and information pertaining to using the system.
On June 12, 2007, the TTC, in partnership with the Toronto Crime Stoppers and OneStop, launched the Underground Alert system at the Toronto Police Headquarters. The new Underground Alert system allows authorities to post pictures and details of wanted suspects on the screens throughout the subway system. Subway passengers will be encouraged to call police if they have any information.
The system can also be used when an Amber Alert is issued which also may include announcements via the P.A. system. In addition, the "Amber Alert" signs may also appear on many TTC buses.
In September 2008, Dundas Station was the first to feature a “Next Train” announcement integrated into the signage. The system has been expanded to numerous other stations since its initial roll out. Since mid-July 2009, the majority of stations have been equipped with this service.
The TTC uses several types of voice and data communications. There are three main systems. The first is the system used by Operations, Security and Maintenance. This system operates on five UHF conventional frequencies. Channels 1, 3, 4 and 5 are used for day to day operations, while Channel 2 is reserved for the Wheel-Trans service.
Buses and streetcars use the CIS (Communications and Information System). This system is spread out city wide with transmit facilities throughout the city. Each bus and streetcar has a Transit Radio Unified Microprocessor (TRUMP) set on board. This is attached to a transponder receiver which allows CIS operators to track the location of the vehicle using an older computational system known as dead reckoning. The TRUMP also allows the operators and CIS operators to send and receive text messages for such things as short turns and route adjustments. There is also the option of voice communications between the operator and the CIS operator. The CIS was conceived in the late 1970s and was fully implemented in 1991. With the introduction of the NextBus GPS technology, the CIS positioning system is now using a combination of GPS data as well as the old dead reckoning sign-post system.
The third system is used by the subway system. This is called the Wayside system. Replacing the old devices which communicated by the third rail are new UHF MPT-1327 Trunking radio sets. The Subway system is divided into 3 separate systems, each representing its respective subway line. This new trunking system allows Transit Control to communicate directly with a single train, a zone encompassing several trains, or the entire line. The Scarborough RT is not included in this system. They continue to use a single channel UHF system, much the same as the system used by operations staff.
All of these systems can be monitored by a scanner capable of the UHF Low band (406–430 MHz). Numeric codes — often referring to people or positions (299 Bloor - Subway Line mechanic at Bloor) are also announced through the radio and/or the overhead paging system. The TTC also has Several "Plans" ('Plan A' through 'Plan G') that are used in emergencies but are not announced on the P.A. system and only referred to on the radio.
The TTC day to day operations are managed by the Chief Executive Officer and was formerly managed by the Chief General Manager (CGM). The executive of the TTC is led by the Chair of the TTC Board.
A list of CGM and CEO of the TTC:
- Herbert Henry Couzens, General Manager (GM) 1921–1924
- David William Harvey, GM 1924–1938
- Henry C. Patten, GM 1938–1952
- W. E. P. Duncan, GM 1952–1959
- John G. Inglis, General Manager - Operations (GMO) 1959–1968
- James H. Kearns, GMO 1968–1975
- R. Michael Warren, Chief General Manager (CGM) 1975–1981
- Alf Savage, CGM 1981–1987
- Al Leach, CGM 1987–1995
- David L. Gunn, CGM 1995–1999
- Rick Ducharme, CGM 1999–2006
- Gary Webster, CGM 2006–2012
- Andy Byford, acting CGM and Chief Executive Officer 2012–
In 2013, the TTC assigned station managers on the most subway and RT routes:
- Broadview to Kennedy subway stations and Kennedy to McCowan RT stations
- Castle Frank to Spadina
- Bathurst to Kipling
- Finch to St. Clair
- St. Andrew to Summerhill
- Downsview to Osgoode
There is no manager role for the Sheppard subway line.
The TTC has a team of over 12,000 employees. Most are operators, however the Commission also employs supervisors, custodians and a wide range of skilled trades people who work on vehicles and critical subway and surface infrastructure.
Unionized workers of the TTC workers have performed strike actions eight times since 1952:
- 1952 - On strike for 19 days.
- 1970 - On strike for 12 days.
- 1974 - On strike for 23 days in August; service resumed when back-to-work legislation was passed by the province, which marked the first time the province was involved in a TTC strike.
- 1978 - On strike for 8 days; service resumed by order of back-to-work legislation.
- 1991 - On strike for 8 days in September.
- 1999 - On strike for 2 days in April; service resumed by order of back-to-work legislation.
- 2006 - On strike for 1 day on May 29.
- 2008 - On strike for 2 days on April 26 at 12:01 a.m.
Although it is a generally safe system, the TTC has experienced several major accidents and incidents since 1954:
- On 27 March 1963, a six-car subway train was completely destroyed by fire. This occurred on a spare track near Union station, after the few remaining passengers were evacuated.
- On 12 December 1975, a TTC bus travelling east on St. Clair Avenue collided with a westbound GO Transit train at the level crossing on Warden Avenue, on the north side of, just east of Warden Station. Nine people were killed and 20 others injured. This was the worst accident in terms of loss of life in the history of the TTC and GO Transit systems. The level crossing was replaced by an overpass a few years later.
- On 15 October 1976, an arson destroyed a train and caused significant damage to Christie station. There is evidence today with the odd-coloured trim tiles on the station walls on the centre of the platforms. A section of the line was closed for two days.
- On 11 August 1995, the Russell Hill subway accident resulted in the deaths of 3 passengers and injuries to 30 others. There were an additional 100 passengers who filed injury-related claims from the accident.
- In late 1995, TTC employee Jimmy Trajceski was killed during a robbery at Victoria Park station. Adrian Kinkead was arrested 4 months later for the crime and was found to be responsible for two other murders. He was convicted of all three crimes and sentenced to life in prison.
- On 27 September 1997, 23-year-old Charlene Minkowski was killed when she was pushed in front of a southbound train at Dundas Station. Herbert Cheong, a diagnosed schizophrenic, was convicted of second-degree murder and sentenced to 15 years in prison.
- Between 2 and 4 January 1999, an exceptionally large snowstorm paralyzed parts of Central Ontario and the Eastern United States. As a result, the city and the transit system ground to a halt. In the following days, major interruptions and delays were incurred and policies to handle snow at the Commission were changed.
- On 8 December 2000, a garbage train caught fire while en route through Old Mill station. The train was completely destroyed and the station remained closed for two days. Since the incident, the TTC has stopped the practice of using garbage trains and maintains a fleet of surface garbage trucks to collect refuse.
- On 14 August 2003, at around 4:15 p.m. EDT, the Northeast Blackout affected parts of Canada and the northeastern United States. The city of Toronto, like many other cities involved, effectively ground to a halt. Subway service was suspended and 18 trains sat stuck in tunnels between stations, unable to move with no power. (All other trains were able to coast without power to the nearest station to be evacuated). Streetcars remained stationary where they were, and buses fought to get through gridlocked traffic, hampered by the lack of traffic signals. The subway did not reopen until August 18. This was the longest complete interruption in subway service in the history of the TTC. The incident led to an extensive review of TTC emergency procedures.
- On 23 April 2007, a TTC asbestos removal crew employee, Tony Almeida, was killed and several others were injured at the end of a night shift when the work car they were operating snagged on some cabling and dislodged a work platform. The TTC was fined $250,000 for violating the Occupational Health and Safety Act. It was later found that Almeida was under the influence of cannabis.
- On May 13, 2011, two TTC buses collided head-on at a ramp on the lower bus level at Wilson subway station.
- On 30 August 2011, a woman was killed when a TTC bus rear-ended a flatbed truck carrying a crane at around 2:30pm on Lawrence Ave between Victoria Park to Don Mills. At least 13 other people were injured in the crash. The bus driver has been charged with criminal negligence causing death and possession of cannabis, as the drug was found in his belongings at the time of the accident.
- On 22 July 2012, two people were injured when a bus crashed into a building on Queen St. West at Peter Street. The bus hit a car and then a cab before slamming into a building.
- On 14 September 2012, before the start of service TTC employee, Peter Pavlovski was killed and another TTC employee was seriously injured after being struck by a subway maintenance train north of Yorkdale Station. Subway service was affected for the morning rush hour during the investigation due to the fact the incident left many trains stranded in the Wilson Subway Yard.
- On 13 August 2013, a cube truck crashed head-on into an idle TTC bus near Middlefield Ave. and Steeles Ave. E. at 11:30 AM. The accident killed 1 person and injured 12 people. 
The TTC has long maintained a policy of not releasing suicide information and statistics to the public or the media for fear of the possibility of "copycat suicides". In 2008, the Toronto Sun launched a year-long appeal before Ontario’s Information and Privacy Commissioner to have the TTC release information relating to the number of suicides and attempts between 1998 and 2007. The Information and Privacy Commissioner subsequently ordered the statistics be made available and they were released to the public on 26 November 2009.
From 1998 to 2007, 150 people died committing suicide by coming into contact with a TTC subway train. Since 1954, when the Yonge subway line first opened, there have been more than 1,200 incidents on the TTC (including both fatalities and attempts).
After being forced to make the information public the TTC ensured that they also released information demonstrating the efforts being taken to intervene and prevent such incidents in the future. The TTC's "Gatekeeper Program" is an internal course available for front line staff to learn and identify the warning signs of someone who may be suicidal and help them or at least try and prevent them from doing so on the transit system. The TTC also has partnerships with St. Michael's Hospital and other institutions to assist with both prevention programs and counselling programs for staff who have witnessed such incidents. The TTC maintains that it will continue its policy of not reporting suicides and suicide related statistics in years to come, however in February 2010, statistics from 2008 and 2009 were released in a public report to the Commission regarding suicide and suicide prevention.
In June 2011, the TTC announced a new suicide prevention program called "Crisis Link" aimed at people who are in a station and in immediate danger of performing self-harm. Special speed dial buttons have been installed on pay phones in station Designated Waiting Areas that "link" the caller to a 24-hour crisis councillor service provided by Distress Centres of Toronto. Signage has also been placed in high risk areas of the station platform directing those at risk to utilize the service. The program includes 141 speed dial buttons on the system's payphones and 200 posters placed on station platforms.
The below statistics are the subway suicide incidents and attempts from 1998 through 2009:
|2008||N/A ♦||N/A ♦||19|
|2009||N/A ♦||N/A ♦||18|
♦ Data obtained from Toronto Transit Commission Report that does not specify between attempted and completed suicides.
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