Torrance, California

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Torrance, California
City
City of Torrance
View of Torrance Beach with neighboring Palos Verdes in the background
View of Torrance Beach with neighboring Palos Verdes in the background
Flag of Torrance, California
Flag
Official seal of Torrance, California
Seal
Motto: "A Balanced City!"
Location of Torrance in the County of Los Angeles
Location of Torrance in the County of Los Angeles
Coordinates: 33°50′5″N 118°20′29″W / 33.83472°N 118.34139°W / 33.83472; -118.34139Coordinates: 33°50′5″N 118°20′29″W / 33.83472°N 118.34139°W / 33.83472; -118.34139
Country  United States of America
State  California
County Los Angeles
Incorporated May 12, 1921[1]
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City Council[2] Mayor Patrick J. Furey
Heidi Ann Ashcraft
Gene Barnett
Tim Goodrich
Mike Griffiths
Geoff Rizzo
Kurt Weideman
 • City Treasurer Dana Cortez
 • City Clerk Rebecca Poirier
Area[3]
 • Total 20.553 sq mi (53.233 km2)
 • Land 20.478 sq mi (53.038 km2)
 • Water 0.075 sq mi (0.195 km2)  0.37%
Elevation[4] 89 ft (27 m)
Population (2012)
 • Total 147,027
 • Rank 8th in Los Angeles County
39th in California
171st in the United States
 • Density 7,200/sq mi (2,800/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP codes 90501-90510
Area code(s) 310/424
FIPS code 06-80000
GNIS feature IDs 1652802, 2412087
Website www.torranceca.gov

Torrance is a city incorporated in 1921 and located in the South Bay (southwestern) region of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Torrance has 1.5 miles (2.4 km) of beaches on the Pacific Ocean, which are quieter and less well known by tourists than others on the Santa Monica Bay, such as those of neighboring Redondo Beach and Manhattan Beach. Torrance enjoys a moderate year-round climate with warm temperatures, sea breezes, low humidity and an average rainfall of 12.55 inches per year.[5]

The population of Torrance was 145,438 at the 2010 census. This residential and light high-tech industries city has 90,000 street trees and 30 city parks.[5] Known for its low crime rates, the city consistently ranks among the safest cities in Los Angeles County.[6] Torrance is the birthplace of the AYSO – American Youth Soccer Organization. In addition, the city of Torrance has the second highest percentage of Japanese in North America. (8.88%)[7]

History[edit]

Torrance was originally part of the Tongva Native American homeland for thousands of years. In 1784 the Spanish land grant for Rancho San Pedro, in the upper Las Californias Province of New Spain and encompassing present day Torrance, was issued to Juan Jose Dominguez by King Carlos III—the Spanish Empire.[8][9] It was later divided in 1846 with Governor Pío Pico granting Rancho de los Palos Verdes to José Loreto and Juan Capistrano Sepulveda, in the Alta California territory of independent Mexico.[10][11]

In the early 1900s, real estate developer Jared Sidney Torrance and other investors saw the value of creating a mixed industrial-residential community south of Los Angeles. They purchased part of an old Spanish land grant and hired landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. to design a new planned community.[12] The resulting town was founded in October 1912 and named after Torrance. The city of Torrance was formally incorporated in May 1921.[13] The first residential avenue created in Torrance was Gramercy and the second avenue was Andreo. Many of the houses on these avenues turned 100 years of age in 2012. Both avenues are located in the area referred to as Old Town Torrance. This section of Torrance is under review to be classified as a historical district.[14] Some of the early civic and residential buildings were designed by the renowned and innovative Southern California architect Irving Gill, in his distinctive combining of Mission Revival and early Modernist architecture.[15]

Historically the El Nido neighborhood was home to many European immigrants, such as originally Dutch, German, Greek, Italian and Portuguese people; soon joined by Mexican-American and Hispanic and Latino immigrants; employed in the growing early 20th century agriculture, petroleum, and manufacturing industries, such as the fish canneries.[citation needed]

Rapid new growth in Torrance began after World War II as wartime industries transformed into Post-war Aerospace manufacturers and related technology industries. Large housing developments were built in the 1950s and 1960s to accommodate the new population. Torrance moved on after the closure of some aerospace development and oil refinery plants in the 1990s statewide recession.[citation needed]

Torrance survived the deindustrialization, regional economic slowdowns and national recessions in the 1970s to 2000s. Large-scale Asian immigration in the past couple of decades has transformed Torrance into a diverse and multicultural city.

Geography[edit]

Torrance Beach lies between the Palos Verdes Peninsula and Redondo beach on the Santa Monica Bay.

Torrance is located at 33°50′5″N 118°20′29″W / 33.83472°N 118.34139°W / 33.83472; -118.34139 (33.834815, −118.341330).[16] The United States Census Bureau boundaries show the city has a total area of 20.5 square miles (53 km2), virtually all land.

Torrance is a coastal community in southwestern Los Angeles County, as seen on the map above, sharing the climate and geographical features common to the Greater Los Angeles area. Its boundaries are: Redondo Beach Boulevard and the cities of Lawndale and Gardena to the north; Western Avenue and the Harbor Gateway neighborhood of Los Angeles to the east; the Palos Verdes Hills with the cities of Lomita, Rolling Hills Estates and Palos Verdes Estates on the south; and the Pacific Ocean and city of Redondo Beach to the west.[17]

Torrance Beach lies between Redondo Beach and Malaga Cove on Santa Monica Bay.[18] The southernmost stretch of Torrance Beach, on a cove at the northern end of the Palos Verdes peninsula, is known to locals as "Rat Beach".

One of the country's few urban wetlands, the Madrona Marsh, is found in Torrance to explore. It is a nature preserve, on land once set for oil production and saved development, with restoration projects enhancing the vital habitat for birds, wildlife, and native plants.[19][20] A Nature center provides activities, information, and classes for school children and visitors of all ages.[21]

Residents of an unincorporated area to the east of Harbor Gateway abutting the city of Carson are allowed to use "Torrance" in their addresses by the United States Postal Service.

Torrance attractions[edit]

The Torrance Armed Forces Day Parade, with a USMC unit.

The Del Amo Fashion Center, at 2.5 million square feet (232,000 m²), is one of the five largest malls in the United States by gross leasable area. The current mall was created when Del Amo Center, built in 1958, merged with Del Amo Fashion Square, built in 1970. Once located on opposite sides of Carson Street, a gigantic expansion of the mall spanning Carson Street joined the two centers by 1982, making it the longest mall in the world at the time. In 2005, the east end of the original mall north of Carson Street was demolished to make way for a new open-air shopping center, opened in mid-September, 2006. The new center features upscale clothiers Anthropologie, Coach, H&M and Urban Outfitters as well as the restaurant P.F. Chang's. The housewares retail giant Crate & Barrel opened in what was once a section of the mall parking lot in Spring 2007. Torrance also borders the South Bay Galleria, which resides in Redondo Beach.

The Armed Forces Day Parade in Torrance, which was first produced in 1960, is the longest running military parade sponsored by a city. It is held annually on Armed Forces Day, and runs down Torrance Boulevard. The parade features military vehicles, school bands, and prominent community members.[22]

The Torrance Cultural Arts Center hosts cultural events year-round. Regular performances are provided by the groups belonging to the Torrance Performing Arts Consortium, including The Aerospace Players, Torrance Art Museum, Los Cancioneros Master Chorale, South Bay Ballet, South Bay Conservatory, and The Torrance Symphony.

Torrance is also home to the Southern California Live Steamers Miniature Railroad. located at the Southeast corner of Charles H. Wilson Park. Free train rides on actual miniature live steam trains are given on the first Sunday and third Saturday of each month and the 4th of July. SCLS was one of the first live steam clubs in California started in 1946 with original members like Walt Disney, Olie Johnston and Ward Kimball all of Disney fame. The club moved to Torrance in 1986 after leaving the Lomita Railway Museum property.

City parks[edit]

Wilson Park, in Torrance at sunset.
Madrona Marsh Park, springtime in Torrance.

The Torrance City Parks Department directs and maintains the thirty varied Torrance City Parks.[23] They include:

Climate[edit]

Torrance
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3.6
 
66
46
 
 
3.2
 
67
48
 
 
2.8
 
68
49
 
 
0.7
 
71
51
 
 
0.3
 
72
55
 
 
0.1
 
75
58
 
 
0
 
78
61
 
 
0.1
 
79
62
 
 
0.2
 
78
61
 
 
0.5
 
75
57
 
 
1.2
 
71
50
 
 
2
 
67
46
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: Weather.com / NWS

Torrance has a Mediterranean climate or Dry-Summer Subtropical (Köppen climate classification Csb on the coast).

The rainy season is November through March, as shown in the table to the left.[34]

The Los Angeles area is also subject to the phenomenon typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F (10 °C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile (1.6 km) from the coast inland. California has also a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom or May Gray", which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning on the coast, followed by sunny skies by noon during late spring and early summer.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1930 7,271
1940 9,950 36.8%
1950 22,241 123.5%
1960 100,991 354.1%
1970 134,968 33.6%
1980 129,881 −3.8%
1990 133,107 2.5%
2000 137,946 3.6%
2010 145,438 5.4%

2010[edit]

The 2010 United States Census[35] reported that Torrance had a population of 145,438. The population density was 7,076.1 people per square mile (2,732.1/km²). The racial makeup of Torrance was 74,333 (51.1%) White, 50,240 (34.5%) Asian, 3,955 (2.7%) African American, 554 (0.4%) Native American, 530 (0.4%) Pacific Islander, 7,808 (5.4%) from other races, and 8,018 (5.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23,440 persons (16.1%), while non-Hispanic whites formed 42.3% of the population.

The Census reported that 144,292 people (99.2% of the population) lived in households, 506 (0.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 640 (0.4%) were institutionalized.

There were 56,001 households, out of which 18,558 (33.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 29,754 (53.1%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,148 (11.0%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,510 (4.5%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,152 (3.8%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 309 (0.6%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 14,472 households (25.8%) were made up of individuals and 5,611 (10.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58. There were 38,412 families (68.6% of all households); the average family size was 3.14.

The population was spread out with 31,831 people (21.9%) under the age of 18, 10,875 people (7.5%) aged 18 to 24, 38,296 people (26.3%) aged 25 to 44, 42,710 people (29.4%) aged 45 to 64, and 21,726 people (14.9%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.3 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males.

There were 58,377 housing units at an average density of 2,840.3 per square mile (1,096.6/km²), of which 31,621 (56.5%) were owner-occupied, and 24,380 (43.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.3%. 85,308 people (58.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 58,984 people (40.6%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Torrance had a median household income of $76,082, with 7.4% of the population living below the federal poverty line.[36]

2000[edit]

As of the census[37] of 2000, there were 137,946 people, 54,542 households, and 36,270 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,715.7 inhabitants per square mile (2,593.1/km²). There were 55,967 housing units at an average density of 2,724.7 per square mile (1,052.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.16% White, 28.61% Asian, 2.19% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.35% Pacific Islander, 4.57% from other races, and 4.72% from two or more races. 12.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 54,542 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.5% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 32.4% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city in 2008 was $76,312, and the median income for a family was $93,473.[38] Males had a median income of $50,606 versus $36,334 for females. The per capita income for the city was $39,118. About 4.7% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

As of 1992 about 60% of the Korean population in the South Bay region lived in Torrance and Gardena.[39] In 1990, 5,888 ethnic Koreans lived in Torrance, a 256% increase from the 1980 figure of 1,652 ethnic Koreans.[40]

Economy[edit]

Torrance is home to the U.S. headquarters of Japanese automaker American Honda Motor Company. Robinson Helicopters are designed and built in Torrance as are Honeywell's Garrett turbochargers, used on automobile engines worldwide. Alcoa Fastening Systems is Headquartered in Torrance as well, producing aerospace fasteners. Pacific Sales, PC Mall, Pelican Products, Verengo Solar, and Rapiscan Systems are among the other companies based in Torrance.

According to the City’s 2012 Major Employers in Torrance Report,[41] the city’s top 10 employers (and # of employees) are:

# Employer # of Employees
1. American Honda Motor Co Inc. 4,001
2. Torrance Memorial Medical Ctr 3,001
3. Honda R&D Americas 2,000
4. Allied Signal Aerospace 1,200
5. Robinson Helicopter Co 1,200
6. Alcoa Fastening System 1,100
7. Conesys Inc. 800
8. Exxon Mobil Refinery 800
9. J-Tech 800
10. Younger Optics 775
Del Amo Fashion Center, one of the largest malls in the United States

As a major oil-producing region, Torrance was once dotted with thousands of oil wells and oil derricks. Though the oil wells are not as common as they once were, the ExxonMobil refinery in the north end of the city is responsible for much of Southern California's gasoline supply. Torrance was also an important hub and shop site of the Pacific Electric Railway.[42]

Torrance has a busy general aviation airport, originally named simply "Torrance Airport" and since renamed Zamperini Field after local track star, World War II hero and Torrance High graduate Louis Zamperini. The airport handles approximately 175,000 annual take-offs and landings (473 per day [43]), down from the 1974 record of 428,000 operations. Airport noise abatement is a major local issue. In 2007 the Western Museum of Flight moved to Zamperini Field.[citation needed]

Torrance is also home to the main bakery facility for King's Hawaiian, the dominant brand of Hawaiian bread in North America.[44] Younger Optics, Torrance's 10 Largest employeer is credited with creating the first seamless or "invisible" bifocal, a precursor to all progressive lenses.

The headquarters of Mitsuwa Marketplace is located in Torrance,[45] as well as simplehuman, the manufacturer of kitchen and bath tools.[46]

Operations of foreign companies[edit]

All Nippon Airways operates its United States headquarters, a customer relations and services office, in Torrance.[47] Aurora Publishing, American subsidiary of Japanese publisher Ohzora Publishing, is headquartered in Torrance.[48]

Toyota opened its first overseas office in Hollywood in 1957, and sold 257 cars in the U.S. It moved operations to Torrance in 1982, because of easy access to port facilities and the LAX airport. In 2013 it sold 2.2 million vehicles in the U.S. In 2014 it announced it would move 3000 of its white collar employees to Plano, Texas, near Dallas, to be closer to its American factories. Numerous other Japanese firms followed Toyota to LA, because of its location and its reputation as the national trendsetter[49]

Government and infrastructure[edit]

Local government[edit]

The City of Torrance is a Charter city. The original Torrance City Charter was voted on and ratified by the qualified electors at an election held August 20, 1946, and filed with the Secretary of State January 7, 1947. The elective officers of the City are the Mayor, six members of the City Council, five members of the Board of Education, the City Clerk and the City Treasurer.[50]

Using the Council/Manager form of government, the City Council, as the elected body, adopts legislation, sets policy, adjudicates issues, and establishes the budget of the City. The municipality is supported by a general fund budget of about $160 million. The City Council appoints the City Manager and the City Attorney.

According to the city’s 2007-8 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $192.7 million in Revenues, $167.3 million in expenditures, $179.1 million in total assets, $56.1 million in total liabilities, and $140.2 million in cash in investments.[51]

The city also has twelve appointed commissions to advise the council on matters of concern to local residents such as issues with the city airport, arts, parks, libraries, and so on.[52]

Postal Service[edit]

The United States Postal Service operates the Torrance Post Office at 2510 Monterey Street,[53] the Marcelina Post Office at 1433 Marcelina Avenue,[54] the Walteria Post Office at 4216 Pacific Coast Highway,[55] the North Torrance Post Office at 18080 Crenshaw Boulevard,[56] and the Del Amo Post Office at 291 Del Amo Fashion Square.[57]

Healthcare[edit]

HealthCare Partners Medical Group's corporate headquarters is in Torrance on Vermont Ave.

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Torrance Health Center in Harbor Gateway, Los Angeles, serving Torrance.[60]

Emergency services[edit]

  • Torrance Fire Department staffs 7 Engine Companies, 5 Paramedic Rescue Squads, and 2 Truck Companies. The department operates out of 6 Fire Stations providing Fire and EMS coverage for the City and Mutual Aid to the surrounding communities. Torrance Memorial Medical Center, Little Company of Mary Hospital, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Kaiser Hospital-South Bay, and Memorial Hospital of Gardena are receiving hospitals for residents in Torrance who call 911 for medical assistance. The department is a Class 1 rated Fire Department, the Fire Chief is William Racowschi. Ambulance transportation is provided through Gerber Ambulance Service.[61]
  • Torrance Police Department provides twenty-four hour law enforcement coverage to the city. The department is broken down into 4 major divisions each with its own subdivisions. The department has one main station located at the civic center near city hall. It houses the administrative offices, they city jail, and the public safety dispatch center. The department works closely with other local law enforcement agency's for training and SWAT operations. The Police Chief is John Neu.[62]
  • Torrance operates its own 911 dispatch center located at the police station and is responsible for all 911 calls originating in Torrance. The communications center answers emergency and non-emergency calls and requests for assistance in addition to dispatching for both the Fire and Police Departments.

Public libraries[edit]

The City of Torrance operates a main library facility (named after former mayor Katy Geissert) in the city Civic Center, plus five branches at locations throughout the city.[63]

Transportation[edit]

Highways and freeways in the region include I-110, I-405, SR 91, SR 107, and SR 1. Rail transport includes the historic Harbor Subdivision which carries Union Pacific and BNSF lines. The city also has Torrance Transit, LACMTA Metro bus, and LADOT services. Zamperini Field (IATA: TOA ICAO: KTOA) is a general aviation airport and serves no commercial airlines. However, Torrance is within 15 minutes of both Los Angeles International Airport and Long Beach Airport.

Activities[edit]

In the 2010 Rose Parade, City of Torrance's entry won the top Lathrop K. Leishman trophy for its Garden of Dreams float, judged as the "Most Beautiful Non-Commercial" float.[citation needed]

State and federal representation[edit]

In the California State Senate, Torrance is split between the 26th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ben Allen, and the 35th Senate District, represented by Democrat Isadore Hall, III.[64] In the California State Assembly, it is in the 66th Assembly District, represented by Republican David Hadley.[65]

In the United States House of Representatives, Torrance is split between California's 33rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Henry Waxman, and California's 43rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Maxine Waters.[66]

Culture[edit]

The city has headquarters of Japanese automakers and offices of other Japanese companies. Toyota moved its U.S. operations to Torrance in 1982 and was followed by many other Japanese companies.[67] Because of this many Japanese restaurants and other Japanese cultural offerings are in the city, and Willy Blackmore of L.A. Weekly wrote that Torrance was "essentially Japan's 48th prefecture".[68]

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Public schools[edit]

Torrance Unified School District (TUSD) was established in 1947 and unified in 1948. The district comprises the City of Torrance, bordered by the Palos Verdes Peninsula on the south, the cities of Redondo Beach and Gardena on the north, the City of Carson on the east and the Pacific Ocean on the west. The district's jurisdiction includes approximately 21 square miles (54 km2), and it operates 17 elementary schools, eight middle schools, five high schools (one of which is a continuation school), three adult education centers, and a child development center.

Torrance High School is one of the oldest high schools in California, having opened in 1917.[69]

The Torrance Unified School District's five high schools are:

The Torrance Unified School District's eight Middle Schools are:

The Torrance Unified School District's 17 Elementary Schools are:

  • Hickory Elementary School
  • John Adams Elementary School
  • Torrance Elementary School
  • Howard Wood Elementary School
  • Anza Elementary School
  • Arlington Elementary School
  • Arnold Elementary School
  • Carr Elementary School
  • Yukon Elementary School
  • Walteria Elementary School
  • Riviera Elementary School
  • Towers Elementary School
  • Fern Elementary School
  • Edison Elementary School
  • Lincoln Elementary School
  • Seaside Elementary School
  • Victor Elementary School

Area districts have created the Southern California Regional Occupational Center (SCROC) to teach technical classes to their students and to local adults. TUSD is a participant feeder district of the California Academy of Mathematics and Science or CAMS, a mathematics and science magnet high school, administered by the Long Beach Unified School District.

Private schools[edit]

Two private high schools are also located in Torrance:

Eight private elementary/middle schools are in Torrance: Ascension Lutheran School, Riviera Hall Lutheran School, Riviera Methodist School, South Bay Junior Academy, Nativity Catholic School, First Lutheran School, St James Catholic School and St Catherine Laboure Catholic School.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Torrance is in the El Camino Community College District, although the campus of El Camino College is just outside the city limits in unincorporated El Camino Village. El Camino College was founded in 1947, and the campus covers 126 acres. As of 2011, the college enrolls over 25,000 students each semester.[70]

Miscellaneous education[edit]

In 1980 Asahi Gakuen, a weekend Japanese-language education institution, began renting space in South Torrance High School.[71] The school continues to use the school for its Torrance Campus (トーランス校 Tōransu-kō).[72]

Media[edit]

The Los Angeles Times is the metropolitan area newspaper.

The Daily Breeze, a 70,000-circulation daily newspaper, is published in Torrance. It serves the South Bay cities of Los Angeles County. Its slogan is "LAX to LA Harbor". Herald Publications, media group started the Torrance Tribune, a community newspaper, which was started November 2010, it has a distribution of 15,000 newspapers to single-family homes and businesses in the City of Torrance, only.

Sister cities[edit]

In 1973, Torrance established a sister-city relationship with Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan, as part of the Sister Cities International program. Since then, citizens of Torrance have regularly engaged in cultural exchange with Kashiwa through the guidance of the Torrance Sister City Association, which facilitates a Japanese cultural festival, a yearly student exchange program, and contact between officials of the two cities. North High is the official sister high school of Kashiwa Municipal High.

Notable people[edit]

Historic landmarks[edit]

These Torrance landmarks are on the National Register of Historic Places:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date" (Word). California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Retrieved August 25, 2014. 
  2. ^ "City Council and Elected Officials". Retrieved November 5, 2014. 
  3. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer File - Places - California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Torrance". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b City of Torrance Website: About Torrance Retrieved 2009-04-07
  6. ^ LALife Safety
  7. ^ http://zipatlas.com/us/city-comparison/percentage-japanese-population.htm
  8. ^ The Rancho San Pedro Collection
  9. ^ Robert Cameron Gillingham, 1961, The Rancho San Pedro, Cole Holinquist
  10. ^ Ogden Hoffman, 1862, Reports of Land Cases Determined in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, Numa Hubert, San Francisco
  11. ^ Diseño del Rancho de los Palos Verdes
  12. ^ http://www.hellotorrance.com/History.Cfm hellotorrance.com
  13. ^ http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/8762.htm ci.torrance.ca.us
  14. ^ http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us ci.torrance.ca.us
  15. ^ http://torrancehistoricalsociety.org/ . accessed 8/28/2010
  16. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  17. ^ "Torrance Beach/Haggerty's". Surfline. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  18. ^ Peluso, Aaron (2007). "Los Angeles County". Skim Online. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  19. ^ a b http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/Parks/6618.htm Madrona Marsh Wildlife Preserve & Nature Center website
  20. ^ http://www.insidesocal.com/history/2010/06/madrona-marsh.html History of Madrona Marsh. accessed 8/10/2010
  21. ^ a b http://www.friendsofmadronamarsh.com/ Friends of Madrona Marsh Preserve . accessed 8/28/2010
  22. ^ Garges, Alicia (2006-05-31). "Torrance celebrates Armed Forces Day". Air Force Space Command (US). Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  23. ^ http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/Parks/4715.htm Torrance City Parks website . accessed 8/28/2010
  24. ^ http://www.torrnet.com/Parks/7482.htm torrnet.com
  25. ^ http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/Parks/4727.htm Official Columbia Park website . accessed 8/28/2010
  26. ^ Miller, Ken (April 16, 2007). "Ferraro left remarkable legacy". Daily Breeze. pp. A10. Retrieved November 11, 2008. 
  27. ^ http://dpw.lacounty.gov/epd/sg/index.cfm L.A. County Smart Gardening Centers . accessed 8/28/2010
  28. ^ Sandell, Scott (February 16, 1995). "Highly Cultivated Community gardens tucked away in the landscape yield bushels of produce, offer an oasis from city life and provide fertile ground for social interaction". Los Angeles Times. p. 8. Retrieved November 11, 2008.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  29. ^ Fogel (October 22, 2003). "Torrance". Daily Breeze. pp. A3. Retrieved November 11, 2008.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  30. ^ http://dpw.lacounty.gov/epd/sg/bc.cfm Smart Gardening: Backyard Composting Program . accessed 8/28/2010
  31. ^ Walton, Stephanie (October 24, 2000). "ASK US Q: Green waste recycling". Daily Breeze. pp. B2. Retrieved November 11, 2008.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  32. ^ http://dpw.lacounty.gov/epd/sg/map_graph/Columbia-Park-photo-L.jpg Torrance Garden Learning Center – photo . accessed 8/28/2010
  33. ^ http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/Parks/Documents/Living_Dedication_Tree_Program.pdf . accessed 8/18/2010
  34. ^ http://www.weather.com
  35. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Torrance city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 
  36. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/0680000.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
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External links[edit]

City park links[edit]