|— City —|
|City of Torrance|
|Palos Verdes in the background|
|Nickname(s): T Town|
|Motto: A Balanced City|
|Country||United States of America|
|Incorporated||May 12, 1921|
|• City Council||Mayor Frank Scotto
|• City Treasurer||Dana Cortez|
|• City Clerk||Sue Herbers|
|• Total||20.553 sq mi (53.233 km2)|
|• Land||20.478 sq mi (53.038 km2)|
|• Water||0.075 sq mi (0.195 km2) 0.37%|
|Elevation||89 ft (27 m)|
|• Rank||8th in Los Angeles County
36th in California
166th in the United States
|• Density||7,100/sq mi ( 2,700/km2)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC−7)|
|GNIS feature ID||1652802|
Torrance is a city incorporated in 1921 and located in the South Bay (southwestern) region of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Torrance has 1.5 miles (2.4 km) of shore-front beaches on the Pacific Ocean, quieter and less well known by tourists than others on the Santa Monica Bay, such as those of neighboring Redondo Beach and Manhattan Beach. Torrance enjoys a moderate year-round climate with warm temperatures, sea breezes, low humidity and an average rainfall of 12.55 inches per year.
The population of Torrance was 145,438 at the 2010 census. This residential and light high-tech industries city has 90,000 street trees and 30 city parks. Known for its low crime rates, the city consistently ranks among the safest cities in Los Angeles County. Torrance is the birthplace of the AYSO – American Youth Soccer Organization. In addition, the city of Torrance has the second highest percentage of Japanese in North America. (8.88%)
Torrance was originally part of the Tongva Native American homeland for thousands of years. In 1784 the Spanish land grant for Rancho San Pedro, in the upper Las Californias Province of New Spain and encompassing present day Torrance, was issued to Juan Jose Dominguez by King Carlos III—the Spanish Empire. It was later divided in 1846 with Governor Pío Pico granting Rancho de los Palos Verdes to José Loreto and Juan Capistrano Sepulveda, in the Alta California territory of independent Mexico.
In the early 1900s, real estate developer Jared Sidney Torrance and other investors saw the value of creating a mixed industrial-residential community south of Los Angeles. They purchased part of an old Spanish land grant and hired landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. to design a new planned community. The resulting town was founded in October 1912 and named after Torrance. The city of Torrance was formally incorporated in May 1921. The first residential avenue created in Torrance was Gramercy and the second avenue was Andreo. Many of the houses on these avenues turn 100 years of age in 2012. Both avenues are located in the area referred to as Old Town Torrance. This section of Torrance is under review to be classified as a historical district. Some of the early civic and residential buildings were designed by the renowned and innovative Southern California architect Irving Gill, in his distinctive combining of Mission Revival and early Modernist architecture.
Historically the El Nido neighborhood was home to many European immigrants, such as originally Dutch, German, Greek, Italian and Portuguese people; soon joined by Mexican-American and Hispanic and Latino immigrants; employed in the growing early 20th century agriculture, petroleum, and manufacturing industries, such as the fish canneries.
Rapid new growth in Torrance began after World War II as wartime industries transformed into Post-war Aerospace manufacturers and related technology industries. Large housing developments were built in the 1950s and 1960s to accommodate the new population. Torrance moved on after the closure of some aerospace development and oil refinery plants in the 1990s statewide recession.
Torrance survived the deindustrialization, regional economic slowdowns and national recessions in the 1970s to 2000s. Large-scale Asian immigration in the past couple of decades has transformed Torrance into a diverse and multicultural city.
Torrance is a coastal community in southwestern Los Angeles County, as seen on the map above, sharing the climate and geographical features common to the Greater Los Angeles area. Its boundaries are: Redondo Beach Boulevard and the cities of Lawndale and Gardena to the north; Western Avenue and the Harbor Gateway neighborhood of Los Angeles to the east; the Palos Verdes Hills with the cities of Lomita, Rolling Hills Estates and Palos Verdes Estates on the south; and the Pacific Ocean and city of Redondo Beach to the west.
Torrance Beach lies between Redondo Beach and Malaga Cove on Santa Monica Bay. The southernmost stretch of Torrance Beach, on a cove at the northern end of the Palos Verdes peninsula, is known to locals as "Rat Beach."
One of the country's few urban wetlands, the Madrona Marsh, is found in Torrance to explore. It is a nature preserve, on land once set for oil production and saved development, with restoration projects enhancing the vital habitat for birds, wildlife, and native plants. A Nature center provides activities, information, and classes for school children and visitors of all ages.
Torrance attractions 
The Del Amo Fashion Center, at 2.5 million square feet (232,000 m²), is one of the five largest malls in the United States by gross leasable area. The current mall was created when Del Amo Center, built in 1958, merged with Del Amo Fashion Square, built in 1970. Once located on opposite sides of Carson Street, a gigantic expansion of the mall spanning Carson Street joined the two centers by 1982, making it the longest mall in the world at the time. In 2005, the east end of the original mall north of Carson Street was demolished to make way for a new open-air shopping center, opened in mid-September, 2006. The new center features upscale clothiers Anthropologie, Coach, H&M and Urban Outfitters as well as the restaurant P.F. Chang's. The housewares retail giant Crate & Barrel opened in what was once a section of the mall parking lot in Spring 2007. Torrance also borders the South Bay Galleria, which resides in Redondo Beach.
The Armed Forces Day Parade in Torrance, which was first produced in 1960, is the longest running military parade sponsored by a city. It is held annually on Armed Forces Day, and runs down Torrance Boulevard. The parade features military vehicles, school bands, and prominent community members.
The Torrance Cultural Arts Center hosts cultural events year-round. Regular performances are provided by the groups belonging to the Torrance Performing Arts Consortium, including The Aerospace Players, Los Cancioneros Master Chorale, South Bay Ballet, South Bay Conservatory, and The Torrance Symphony.
Torrance is also home to the Southern California Live Steamers Miniature Railroad. located at the Southeast corner of Charles H. Wilson Park. Free train rides on actual miniature live steam trains are given on the first Sunday and third Saturday of each month and the 4th of July. SCLS was one of the first live steam clubs in California started in 1946 with original members like Walt Disney, Olie Johnston and Ward Kimball all of Disney fame. The club moved to Torrance in 1986 after leaving the Lomita Railway Museum property.
City parks 
- Wilson Park, the focal point 44 acres (0.18 km2) park, which has extensive picnic and sports facilities, including a modern gymnasium, skatepark, and roller-hockey rink. Wilson Park also hosts the Torrance Farmers Market on Tuesdays and Saturdays, and was the site of the city's annual Fourth of July fireworks display through 2010, as it was canceled in 2011 due to budget cuts.
- Madrona Marsh Wildlife Preserve & Nature Center is a rare Southern California wetlands habitat with higher Coastal sage community native plants areas, wildlife and birdwatching, and a Nature center with natural gardens classes – located centrally in the city.
- Columbia Park the large recreational urban regional park, with numerous picnic areas, field sports facilities, walking paths, jogging trails, and a competitive cross country running racecourse. The city's Cherry blossom tree grove, part of Living Tree Dedication program, is in Columbia Park.
- Torrance Smart Gardening Center: Columbia Park features a Community Garden providing planting beds and 'community' for residents. It is one of twelve county-operated Smart Gardening Centers around the region. Columbia Park additionally serves as home to the Home Garden Learning Center, and is a backyard composting demonstration center provided by Los Angeles County.
- Living Tribute Trees park program: The Torrance Parks Living Dedication Tree Program is coordinated and by the City, so that families, individuals, and groups can sponsor the planting of a new tree in the park to honor a person or commemorate an event with a living tribute Tree Dedication.
- Torrance Beach Park and Rat beach, The Strand, a paved bicycle path that runs mostly along the Pacific Ocean shoreline in Los Angeles County, ends here.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The period of November through March is somewhat rainy, as shown in the table to left.
The Los Angeles area is also subject to the phenomenon typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18°F (10°C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile (1.6 km) from the coast inland. California has also a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom or May Gray", which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning on the coast, followed by sunny skies by noon during late spring and early summer.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Torrance had a population of 145,438. The population density was 7,076.1 people per square mile (2,732.1/km²). The racial makeup of Torrance was 74,333 (51.1%) White, 50,240 (34.5%) Asian, 3,955 (2.7%) African American, 554 (0.4%) Native American, 530 (0.4%) Pacific Islander, 7,808 (5.4%) from other races, and 8,018 (5.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23,440 persons (16.1%), while non-Hispanic whites formed 42.3% of the population.
The Census reported that 144,292 people (99.2% of the population) lived in households, 506 (0.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 640 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 56,001 households, out of which 18,558 (33.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 29,754 (53.1%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,148 (11.0%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,510 (4.5%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,152 (3.8%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 309 (0.6%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 14,472 households (25.8%) were made up of individuals and 5,611 (10.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58. There were 38,412 families (68.6% of all households); the average family size was 3.14.
The population was spread out with 31,831 people (21.9%) under the age of 18, 10,875 people (7.5%) aged 18 to 24, 38,296 people (26.3%) aged 25 to 44, 42,710 people (29.4%) aged 45 to 64, and 21,726 people (14.9%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.3 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males.
There were 58,377 housing units at an average density of 2,840.3 per square mile (1,096.6/km²), of which 31,621 (56.5%) were owner-occupied, and 24,380 (43.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.3%. 85,308 people (58.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 58,984 people (40.6%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there were 137,946 people, 54,542 households, and 36,270 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,715.7 inhabitants per square mile (2,593.1/km²). There were 55,967 housing units at an average density of 2,724.7 per square mile (1,052.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.16% White, 28.61% Asian, 2.19% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.35% Pacific Islander, 4.57% from other races, and 4.72% from two or more races. 12.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 54,542 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.5% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.10.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 32.4% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city in 2008 was $76,312, and the median income for a family was $93,473. Males had a median income of $50,606 versus $36,334 for females. The per capita income for the city was $39,118. About 4.7% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.
Torrance is home to the U.S. headquarters of two of the three largest Japanese automakers, Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. (overseas office of Toyota), and American Honda Motor Company. Robinson Helicopters are designed and built in Torrance as are Honeywell's Garrett turbochargers, used on automobile engines worldwide. Alcoa Fastening Systems is Headquartered in Torrance as well, producing aerospace fasteners. Pacific Sales, PC Mall and Pelican Products are among the other companies based in Torrance.
According to the City’s 2009-10 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s top 10 employers (and # of employees) are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1.||Toyota Motor Sales||3,372|
|5.||Hi Shear Corporation||1,000|
|6.||Alcoa Fastening Systems||902|
|7.||L-3 Communications Electron Tech, Inc.||673|
As a major oil-producing region, Torrance was once dotted with thousands of oil wells and oil derricks. Though the oil wells are not as common as they once were, the ExxonMobil refinery in the north end of the city is responsible for much of Southern California's gasoline supply. Torrance was also an important hub and shop site of the Pacific Electric Railway.
Torrance has a busy general aviation airport, originally named simply "Torrance Airport" and since renamed Zamperini Field after local track star, World War II hero and Torrance High graduate Louis Zamperini. The airport handles approximately 175,000 annual take-offs and landings (473 per day ), down from the 1974 record of 428,000 operations. Airport noise abatement is a major local issue. In 2007 the Western Museum of Flight moved to Zamperini Field.
Operations of foreign companies 
All Nippon Airways operates its United States headquarters, a customer relations and services office, in Torrance. Aurora Publishing, American subsidiary of Japanese publisher Ohzora Publishing, is headquartered in Torrance.
Government and infrastructure 
Local government 
The City of Torrance is a Charter city. The original Torrance City Charter was voted on and ratified by the qualified electors at an election held August 20, 1946, and filed with the Secretary of State January 7, 1947. The elective officers of the City are the Mayor, six members of the City Council, five members of the Board of Education, the City Clerk and the City Treasurer.
Using the Council/Manager form of government, the City Council, as the elected body, adopts legislation, sets policy, adjudicates issues, and establishes the budget of the City. The municipality is supported by a general fund budget of about $160 million. The City Council appoints the City Manager and the City Attorney.
According to the city’s 2007-8 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $192.7 million in Revenues, $167.3 million in expenditures, $179.1 million in total assets, $56.1 million in total liabilities, and $140.2 million in cash in investments.
The city also has twelve appointed commissions to advise the council on matters of concern to local residents such as issues with the city airport, arts, parks, libraries, and so on.
Postal Service 
The United States Postal Service operates the Torrance Post Office at 2510 Monterey Street, the Marcelina Post Office at 1433 Marcelina Avenue, the Walteria Post Office at 4216 Pacific Coast Highway, the North Torrance Post Office at 18080 Crenshaw Boulevard, and the Del Amo Post Office at 291 Del Amo Fashion Square.
- There are two major hospitals in Torrance: Torrance Memorial Medical Center and Little Company of Mary Hospital. A third hospital, Los Angeles County Department of Health Services Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, lies just outside the city limits (in unincorporated West Carson).
HealthCare Partners Medical Group's corporate headquarters is in Torrance on Vermont Ave.
Emergency services 
- Torrance Fire Department staffs five paramedic rescue squads at Fire Station 1 (Headquarters), Fire Station 3, Fire Station 4, A new one at Fire Station 5 as of February, 2008, and Fire Station 6. Torrance Memorial Medical Center, Little Company of Mary Hospital, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Kaiser Hospital-South Bay, and Memorial Hospital of Gardena are receiving hospitals for residents in Torrance who call 911 for medical assistance. Ambulance transportation is provided through Gerber Ambulance Service.
- Torrance Police Department provides twenty-four law enforcement coverage to the city. Unlike most South Bay police departments, Torrance Police are self dispatched from their headquarters located at city hall.
The Chief of Police is John Neu.
Public libraries 
Highways and freeways in the region include I-110, I-405, SR 91, SR 107, and SR 1. Rail transport includes the historic Harbor Subdivision which carries Union Pacific and BNSF lines. The city also has Torrance Transit, LACMTA Metro bus, and LADOT services. Zamperini Field (IATA: TOA ICAO: KTOA) is a general aviation airport and serves no commercial airlines. However, Torrance is within 15 minutes of both Los Angeles International Airport and Long Beach Airport.
In the 2010 Rose Parade, City of Torrance's entry won the top Lathrop K. Leishman trophy for its Garden of Dreams float, judged as the "Most Beautiful Non-Commercial" float.
In the state legislature Torrance is located in the 28th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ted Lieu, and in the 53rd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Betsy Butler. Federally, Torrance is split between California's 43rd congressional district represented by Democrat Maxine Waters and California's 33rd congressional district represented by Henry Waxman.
The city has headquarters of Japanese automakers and offices of other Japanese companies. Because of this many Japanese restaurants and other Japanese cultural offerings are in the city, and Willy Blackmore of L.A. Weekly wrote that Torrance was "essentially Japan's 48th prefecture".
Primary and secondary schools 
Public schools 
Torrance Unified School District (TUSD) was established in 1947 and unified in 1948. The district comprises the City of Torrance, bordered by the Palos Verdes Peninsula on the south, the cities of Redondo Beach and Gardena on the north, the City of Carson on the east and the Pacific Ocean on the west. The district's jurisdiction includes approximately 21 square miles (54 km2), and it operates 17 elementary schools, eight middle schools, five high schools (one of which is a continuation school), three adult education centers, and a child development center.
The Torrance Unified School District's five high schools are:
- Torrance High School
- North High School
- South High School
- West High School
- Kurt Shery High School (continuation)
The Torrance Unified School District's eight Middle Schools are:
- Calle Mayor Middle School
- Casimir Middle School
- Bert Lynn Middle School
- Hull Middle School
- Jefferson Middle School
- Madrona Middle School
- Magruder Middle School
- Richardson Middle School
The Torrance Unified School District's 17 Elementary Schools are:
Area districts have created the Southern California Regional Occupational Center (SCROC) to teach technical classes to their students and to local adults. TUSD is a participant feeder district of the California Academy of Mathematics and Science or CAMS, a mathematics and science magnet high school, administered by the Long Beach Unified School District.
Private schools 
Two private high schools are also located in Torrance:
- Bishop Montgomery High School (administered by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles)
- Pacific Lutheran High School
Eight private elementary/middle schools are in Torrance: Ascension Lutheran School, Riviera Hall Lutheran School, Riviera Methodist School, South Bay Junior Academy, Nativity Catholic School, First Lutheran School, St James Catholic School and St Catherine Laboure Catholic School.
Colleges and universities 
Torrance is in the El Camino Community College District, although the campus of El Camino College is just outside the city limits in unincorporated El Camino Village. El Camino College was founded in 1947, and the campus covers 126 acres. As of 2011, the college enrolls over 25,000 students each semester.
The Los Angeles Times is the metropolitan area newspaper.
The Daily Breeze, a 70,000-circulation daily newspaper, is published in Torrance. It serves the South Bay cities of Los Angeles County. Its slogan is "LAX to LA Harbor". Herald Publications, media group started the Torrance Tribune, a community newspaper, which was started November 2010, it has a distribution of 15,000 newspapers to single-family homes and businesses in the City of Torrance, only.
Sister cities 
In 1973, Torrance established a sister-city relationship with Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan, as part of the Sister Cities International program. Since then, citizens of Torrance have regularly engaged in cultural exchange with Kashiwa through the guidance of the Torrance Sister City Association, which facilitates a Japanese cultural festival, a yearly student exchange program, and contact between officials of the two cities. North High is the official sister high school of Kashiwa Municipal High.
Notable people 
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
- Adán Sánchez – Mexican-American corrido singer
- Alyson & Amanda Michalka (Aly & AJ) – Singers & actresses
- Amy Okuda – actress
- Anderson Silva – Mixed martial arts practitioner and UFC fighter
- Antonio Margarito – Mexican-American professional boxer
- Ben Going – YouTube Celebrity
- Bo Derek – Supermodel/Actress
- Bobby East – NASCAR driver
- Bud Smith – Retired MLB player; threw a no-hitter in his rookie season (2001)
- Brandon Manumaleuna – NFL tight end for Chicago Bears
- Chad Morton – NFL player
- Chauncey Washington – NFL RB for the Dallas Cowboys
- Chris Demaria – Former MLB pitcher for the Royals and Brewers
- Chuck Norris – Karate expert; raised in Torrance; opened his first Dojo in Torrance
- Daewon Song – Professional skateboarder
- Daryl Sabara & Evan Sabara – Actors (Spy Kids and Keeping Up with the Steins)
- Dave Kerman - Drummer
- David Wells – MLB pitcher, formerly with the Los Angeles Dodgers
- Denzel Whitaker – Actor
- Deon Thompson – North Carolina Tar Heels basketball player
- Dirk Diggler - Fictional pornstar and main character in Boogie Nights
- Don Newcombe – Former LA Dodger; only winner of Rookie of the Year, MVP, and Cy Young awards
- Ethan Moreau - Former Los Angeles Kings player
- Francisco Mendoza – MLS player
- Fred Kendall – Former MLB catcher and manager 
- Bart Johnson (baseball) - Retired MLB pitcher
- Gina Hiraizumi – Actress, Recording Artist
- George Nakano – California politician
- Jack Stewart – Soccer player, currently with the Carolina RailHawks in the USL-1
- Jason "Wee-Man" Acuña – American TV host and actor
- Jason Kendall – Former MLB catcher
- Jennifer Kita – Angel/Lil Angel of The Harajuku Girls
- Joe Stevenson – Mixed martial arts practitioner and UFC fighter
- John Butler – Leader of the John Butler Trio
- Jimmy Briggs – Stand Up Comic
- John Chiang – California State Controller
- Johnnie Morton – NFL player
- Jonathan Bornstein – soccer left back/midfielder (UANL & national team)
- Justin Shenkarow – Actor
- Justin Miller – MLB pitcher 
- Kevin Kim – Professional tennis player
- Kraig Chiles- Professional soccer player for the San Diego Sockers
- Larry Carlton – Guitarist
- Lisa Moretti – WWE's "Ivory"
- Louis Zamperini – 1936 Olympic track star, World War II veteran, author, speaker
- Michael Dudikoff – Film actor
- Michelle Kwan – 5-time World Figure Skating Champion and Olympian
- Parnelli Jones – USAC driver and his son, P. J. Jones – IRL driver
- Paul Moyer – Veteran television news broadcaster
- Paul Westphal – retired NBA player and former head coach
- Quentin Tarantino – Filmmaker
- Roger Clinton – Half-brother of President Bill Clinton
- Rorion Gracie & Royce Gracie – Mixed martial arts practitioners and UFC fighters
- Ryan Wheeler – MLB third baseman for the Arizona Diamondbacks
- Skip Schumaker – MLB outfielder for the St. Louis Cardinals
- Snoop Dogg – Rapper, actor; owns a mansion in the Hollywood Riviera neighborhood
- Steve Sarkisian – Current Head Football Coach at the University of Washington
- Ted Lieu - Democratic Party California State Senator
- Ted Lilly – Starting pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers
- Billy Traber, Major League Baseball pitcher.
- Tony Gonzalez – Tight end for the Atlanta Falcons; 11 time Pro Bowl selection
- Tiffany van Soest - kickboxer
Historic landmarks 
These Torrance landmarks are on the National Register of Historic Places:
- Main Building (Torrance High School) – Mediterranean Revival architecture, 1917 and 1921
- original Science Building—current Home Economics Building (Torrance High School)
- Auditorium (Torrance High School) – Streamline Moderne, 1938
- Torrance Elementary School—current High School Annex – Mediterranean Revival
- Pacific Electric Railroad Bridge – designed by Irving Gill, 1913
See also 
- "U.S. Census".
- City of Torrance Website: About Torrance Retrieved 2009-04-07
- LALife Safety
- The Rancho San Pedro Collection
- Robert Cameron Gillingham, 1961, The Rancho San Pedro, Cole Holinquist
- Ogden Hoffman, 1862, Reports of Land Cases Determined in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, Numa Hubert, San Francisco
- Diseño del Rancho de los Palos Verdes
- http://www.hellotorrance.com/History.Cfm hellotorrance.com
- http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/8762.htm ci.torrance.ca.us
- http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us ci.torrance.ca.us
- http://torrancehistoricalsociety.org/ . accessed 8/28/2010
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Torrance Beach/Haggerty's". Surfline. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-29.
- Peluso, Aaron (2007). "Los Angeles County". Skim Online. Archived from the original on 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2008-03-29.
- http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/Parks/6618.htm Madrona Marsh Wildlife Preserve & Nature Center website
- http://www.insidesocal.com/history/2010/06/madrona-marsh.html History of Madrona Marsh. accessed 8/10/2010
- http://www.friendsofmadronamarsh.com/ Friends of Madrona Marsh Preserve . accessed 8/28/2010
- Garges, Alicia (2006-05-31). "Torrance celebrates Armed Forces Day". Air Force Space Command (US). Retrieved 2008-03-29.
- http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/Parks/4715.htm Torrance City Parks website . accessed 8/28/2010
- http://www.torrnet.com/Parks/7482.htm torrnet.com
- http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/Parks/4727.htm Official Columbia Park website . accessed 8/28/2010
- Miller, Ken (April 16, 2007). "Ferraro left remarkable legacy". Daily Breeze. pp. A10. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- http://dpw.lacounty.gov/epd/sg/index.cfm L.A. County Smart Gardening Centers . accessed 8/28/2010
- Sandell, Scott (February 16, 1995). South Bay. "Highly Cultivated Community gardens tucked away in the landscape yield bushels of produce, offer an oasis from city life and provide fertile ground for social interaction". Los Angeles Times. p. 8. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- Fogel (October 22, 2003). Local. "Torrance". Daily Breeze. pp. A3. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- http://dpw.lacounty.gov/epd/sg/bc.cfm Smart Gardening: Backyard Composting Program . accessed 8/28/2010
- Walton, Stephanie (October 24, 2000). Local. "ASK US Q: Green waste recycling". Daily Breeze. pp. B2. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
- http://dpw.lacounty.gov/epd/sg/map_graph/Columbia-Park-photo-L.jpg Torrance Garden Learning Center – photo . accessed 8/28/2010
- http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/Parks/Documents/Living_Dedication_Tree_Program.pdf . accessed 8/18/2010
- All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-context=st&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S1901&-ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&-CONTEXT=st&-tree_id=307&-redoLog=false&-geo_id=16000US0680000&-format=&-_lang=en factfinder.census.gov
- City of Torrance Finance Department 2007–08 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, p. 170 Retrieved 2009-04-06
- Jim Walker (7 February 2007). Pacific Electric Red Cars. Arcadia Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-7385-4688-9. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Elizabeth "Nani" Nihipali; Lessa Kanani Pelayo; Christian Hanz Lozada; Cheryl Villareal Roberts, Lorelie Santonil Olaes (14 May 2012). Hawaiians in Los Angeles. Arcadia Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-7385-9320-3. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Greimel, Hans. "Dreary HQ city is a handicap in global glitz plan." (Archive) Automotive News. May 6, 2013. Retrieved on May 9, 2013.
- "ANA City Offices/Ticketing Offices North America/Hawaii/Guam." All Nippon Airways. Retrieved on December 22, 2008
- "Contact." Aurora Publishing. Retrieved on February 25, 2009.
- City of Torrance Municipal Code Retrieved 2009-04-04
- City of Torrance 2007–08 CAFR Retrieved 2009-06-07
- City of Torrance Website: Boards and Commissions Retrieved 2009-04-04
- "Post Office Location – TORRANCE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location – MARCELINA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location – WALTERIA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location – NORTH TORRANCE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location – DEL AMO." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Hospitals." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 17, 2010.
- "West Carson CDP, California." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on March 17, 2010.
- "Torrance Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
- http://www.ci.torrance.ca.us/5465.htm ci.torrance.ca.us
- Blackmore, Willy. "Top 10: Japanese Noodles Shops in Torrance." L.A. Weekly. Retrieved on May 10, 2013.
- Torrance Unified School District website – About Torrance High Retrieved 2009-04-08[dead link]
- "Fred Kendall Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Bart Johnson Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Jason Kendall Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Justin Miller Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Billy Traber Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Torrance, California|
- Official Torrance website
- Discover Torrance the Official Visitors Bureau for Torrance, California
- City-Data.com: Torrance information page
- airnav.com: Torrance Airport
- Torrance Historical Society and Museum website
- The South Bay History blog
- Friends of Madrona Marsh Preserve website
- City of Torrance: Quick Reference Guide to all Torrance City Parks
- City of Torrance: Map to the 30 Torrance City Parks