Torricelli's law, also known as Torricelli's theorem, is a theorem in fluid dynamics relating the speed of fluid flowing out of an opening to the height of fluid above the opening.
Torricelli's law states that the speed of efflux, v, of a fluid through a sharp-edged hole at the bottom of a tank filled to a depth h is the same as the speed that a body (in this case a drop of water) would acquire in falling freely from a height h, i.e. , where g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.81 N/kg). This last expression comes from equating the kinetic energy gained, , with the potential energy lost, mgh , and solving for v.
Bernoulli's principle states that:
where v is fluid speed, g is the gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s^2), z is the fluid's height above a reference point, p is pressure, and ρ is density. Define the opening to be at z=Ø. At the top of the tank, p is equal to the atmospheric pressure. v can be considered 0 because the fluid surface drops in height extremely slowly compared to the speed at which fluid exits the tank. At the opening, z=Ø and p is again atmospheric pressure. Eliminating the constant and solving gives:
z is equivalent to the h in the first paragraph of this article, so:
Torricelli's law can be demonstrated in the spouting can experiment, which is designed to show that in a liquid with an open surface, pressure increases with depth. It consists of a tube with three separate holes and an open surface. The three holes are blocked, then the tube is filled with water. When it is full, the holes are unblocked. The lower a jet is on the tube, the more powerful it is. The fluid's exit velocity is greater further down the tube.
Ignoring viscosity and other losses, if the nozzles point vertically upward then each jet will reach the height of the surface of the liquid in the container.
Application for time to empty the container
Consider a container containing water to height h is being emptied through a tube freely. Let h be the height of water at any time. Let the velocity of efflux be
Now, A dh= a dx where, A and a are the cross sections of container and tube respectively. dh is the height of liquid in container corresponding to dx in tube which decreases in same time dt.
- is the time required to empty the water from height h1 to h2 in the container.
- T. E. Faber (1995). Fluid Dynamics for Physicists. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42969-2.
- Stanley Middleman, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics: Principles of Analysis and Design (John Wiley & Sons, 1997) ISBN 978-0-471-18209-2
- Dennis G. Zill, A First Course in Differential Equations (2005)
- Pascal's law
- Fluid dynamics
- Darcy's law
- Dynamic pressure
- Fluid statics
- Hagen–Poiseuille equation
- Helmholtz's theorems
- Kirchhoff equations
- Knudsen equation
- Manning equation
- Mild-slope equation
- Morison equation
- Navier–Stokes equations
- Oseen flow
- Pascal's law
- Poiseuille's law
- Potential flow
- Static pressure
- Pressure head
- Relativistic Euler equations
- Reynolds decomposition
- Stokes flow
- Stokes stream function
- Stream function
- Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines
- Bernoulli's principle
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Torricelli's Law.|