|Birth name||Torrie Anne Wilson|
July 24, 1975 |
|Resides||Los Angeles, California|
|Spouse(s)||Billy Kidman (m. 2003; div. 2008)|
|Professional wrestling career|
|Billed height||5 ft 7 in (1.70 m)|
|Billed weight||133 lb (60 kg)|
|Billed from||Boise, Idaho|
|Trained by||Dave Finlay
Torrie Anne Wilson (born July 24, 1975) is an American model, fitness competitor, actress and retired professional wrestler. She is best known for her time in World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE).
As a fitness competitor, Wilson won the Miss Galaxy competition in 1999. Shortly after, she was signed by World Championship Wrestling, where she stayed from 1999 until 2001 (when it was purchased by WWE). In 2001, she began appearing on World Wrestling Federation (WWF) television as part of The Invasion (of WCW, by the [then-] WWF) storyline. Her most high profile storyline took place in 2003 when she feuded with Dawn Marie. Wilson has also been a part of the all-female stable (i.e., a group of storyline-associated characters), known as Vince's Devils, which ended its run in 2006.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Professional wrestling career
- 2.1 World Championship Wrestling (1999–2001)
- 2.2 World Wrestling Entertainment (2001–2008)
- 3 Other media
- 4 Personal life
- 5 In wrestling
- 6 Championships and accomplishments
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Wilson was born in Boise, Idaho. She claims that while growing up she was painfully shy as a child. Wilson found her niche in many school activities, including cheerleading, dance, and was very competitive in track and field.
During her sophomore year of high school, after Wilson's interest in modeling grew more serious, her mother urged her to pursue it. They visited an agency and were informed that Wilson would have to lose weight to be considered for jobs. In the process of losing weight, she began a bout with anorexia nervosa and then bulimia that lasted from ages 14-to-20.
After recovering from the disorder, Wilson became involved in fitness. She began eating six meals a day and working out. She placed third in her first competition, and she later won the Miss Galaxy competition in 1998. She then spent some time on the Extreme Fitness Team. As part of the Women's Tri-Fitness Championships in 1998, Wilson won first place in the Grace and Physique round.
Professional wrestling career
World Championship Wrestling (1999–2001)
Wilson's start in wrestling came when she attended a World Championship Wrestling (WCW) show with her boyfriend in 1999. After going backstage, she was asked to walk out to the ring with Scott Steiner. Later, Kevin Nash expressed an interest in doing a storyline with her. She debuted as "Samantha", who was brought in by the New World Order (nWo) to seduce David Flair into turning against his father, Ric Flair. They appeared together on February 21 at Superbrawl when Wilson slapped Ric, and David zapped him with a taser. After Ric Flair won the WCW World Heavyweight Championship from Hollywood Hogan at Uncensored inside a Barbed Wire Steel Cage match, David and Torrie took some time off from WCW television in April before returning in May to accompany David to the ring for matches. At the 1999 Bash at the Beach, Wilson acted as a valet for Flair as he successfully defended the WCW United States Heavyweight Championship against Dean Malenko.
She continued to accompany David to the ring until September when David was on the telephone with Torrie and later found out that Torrie was in the Filthy Animals' locker room flirting with Billy Kidman, this resulted in a feud between Flair and Kidman on the October 18, 1999 episode of Nitro when Torrie turned on him, resulting in Flair losing the match and the Animals beating on him, after the Animals stopped assaulting David, Torrie left with the Animals, It was around this time that Wilson began managing Billy Kidman and his Filthy Animals teammates. As a result, she found herself involved in the Animals continuing feud with The Revolution. On the November 22, 1999 episode of Nitro, during a tag team match between Billy Kidman and Konnan facing Creative Control for the WCW World Tag Team Championship, Billy Kidman looked up at the Turnertron and saw that Torrie Wilson and Eddie Guerrero were shown flirting inside his locker room on the "Kidcam", a hidden camera segment, which led to a storyline feud between Kidman and Guerrero. Following this, Wilson once again disappeared from television. Wilson however returned on the January 19, 2000 episode of Thunder managing Billy Kidman, and in April 2000, Kidman and Wilson joined a stable known as the New Blood, making them both villainous characters. As part of their newest storyline, Kidman became jealous of the attention Wilson began to give to fellow New Blood member Horace Hogan. In June, Wilson gave Kidman a hit at the Great American Bash, causing him to lose to Horace's uncle, Hulk Hogan.
Wilson was taken off of television following the encounter, reappearing at July's Bash at the Beach during a match between Shane Douglas and Buff Bagwell. After the match, Wilson and Douglas left together, which led to a feud between Kidman and Douglas. At September's Fall Brawl, Wilson and Douglas defeated Kidman and Madusa in a mixed tag team match with scaffolding erected above the ring. Wilson was released from WCW in December 2000. Although she would make one more appearance on the March 19, 2001 episode of Nitro being held hostage by Shane Douglas.
World Wrestling Entertainment (2001–2008)
The Invasion (2001)
Wilson made her television debut as a villainess on the June 28, 2001 episode of SmackDown! as part of The Alliance during the Invasion angle in 2001. In her first storyline with the company, she portrayed Vince McMahon's latest affair. She also regularly teamed with fellow WCW performer Stacy Keibler. The duo made their wrestling debuts in a Bra and Panties match against Lita and Trish Stratus at the InVasion pay-per-view, which Stratus and Lita won by stripping their opponents to their underwear. The following night on Raw, Wilson defeated Stratus in a Paddle on a Pole match. Despite her relative lack of in-ring experience, Wilson, alongside Keibler and Ivory, regularly feuded with the Divas, as well as interfering in matches on behalf of other wrestlers in The Alliance.
She became a fan favorite during the Invasion storyline when her character began an on-screen romance with Tajiri. This new romance caused Keibler to turn against Wilson, and as a result of this, Wilson defected to the company. Wilson defeated Keibler in a lingerie match at No Mercy finishing her opponent with a low blow while dressed in lingerie.
Relationship and feud with Tajiri; feud with Dawn Marie (2002–2003)
When the first ever brand separation of the company roster took place in April 2002, Wilson was drafted to SmackDown!. Shortly after this, as part of the storyline, Tajiri soon became jealous over the increased attention that Wilson received from other men, so he forced her to wear a geisha outfit, and he also appeared to mistreat her in matches. Wilson finally grew tired of this, and during Tajiri's match against The Hurricane, she got on top of the announcer's table and stripped off her clothing. The distraction allowed The Hurricane to pick up the win. At Rebellion 2002, Torrie and her real life boyfriend at the time Billy Kidman defeated John Cena and Dawn Marie in an intergender tag team match. After the match Torrie and Kidman kissed.
Wilson's most high profile storyline during her first few years with the company was in 2002 and 2003 when she feuded with Dawn Marie. On the October 17 episode of Smackdown!, Torrie teamed up with Rikishi in losing effort to the team of Dawn Marie and Matt Hardy In the angle, Dawn Marie attempted to marry Wilson's real-life father Al Wilson. Dawn also revealed that she had developed feelings for Torrie, and the two shared an on-screen kiss. Dawn even offered to cancel the wedding if Torrie would go to a hotel with her for the night. Despite this, as part of the storyline, Dawn developed feelings for Al and the two got married on an episode of SmackDown! in their underwear. Al then, in storyline, died from a heart attack after having rigorous sex numerous times in succession on their honeymoon. In response, Wilson defeated Dawn at No Mercy in October. She defeated Dawn Marie again at the Royal Rumble in what was billed as a Stepmother vs. Stepdaughter match. The feud lasted approximately nine months.
Later, Wilson began a second feud with Marie. As part of the feud, the two had a match with Torrie's career on the line when the SmackDown! General Manager at the time, Kurt Angle, made the stipulation for the match at Judgment Day, which Torrie defeated Dawn to keep her career.
Playboy and various feuds (2003–2005)
In May 2003, Wilson appeared in a pictorial and on the cover of Playboy magazine. A few months earlier, when her pictorial was announced, a short storyline feud with Nidia developed, with the latter being jealous of the fact that Wilson was chosen for the cover and spread in the magazine. In weekly vignettes aired on SmackDown!, both Nidia and her on-screen boyfriend Jamie Noble made trips to The Playboy Mansion to complain to Hugh Hefner over his choice.
Soon after, on an April 2003 episode of SmackDown! during a segment labeled as Torrie's Playboy Coming Out Party former Diva and Playboy covergirl Sable made her return to WWE after a four-year absence. This began a storyline between the two women where for weeks, Sable played mind games with Wilson, being friendly one moment and unfriendly the next. This all led up to a bikini contest between the two at Judgment Day, which Wilson won. After the contest, Wilson kissed the former Women's Champion Sable on the lips, showing her that there was "no hard feelings" due to Wilson's win over the WWE veteran. Torrie then got her first WWE Women's Championship match on Smackdown! after Women's Champion Molly Holly invaded the show interrupting Torrie's photoshoot and challenging her to a match in which Torrie was unsuccessful in winning.
Continuing her feud with Noble and Nidia from earlier in the year, Wilson managed Billy Gunn upon his WWE return in the summer of 2003. The feud came to an end after Nidia and Noble both became fan favorites and sided with Gunn and Wilson. After the formation of this alliance, Wilson, Nidia, and Dawn Marie feuded with Shaniqua for a short period of time, which led to Shaniqua physically dominating Wilson and Nidia in a handicap match.
Wilson teamed with Sable in March 2004 to feud with Raw Divas Stacy Keibler and Miss Jackie. The feud's storyline centered on the latter duo's jealousy of Wilson and Sable as Playboy cover girls, as well as their recently being named cover girls yet again, as the two Divas were announced to be featured together in an upcoming Playboy March 2004 issue. After weeks of rivalry, Wilson and Sable defeated Keibler and Miss Jackie in a Playboy Evening Gown match at WrestleMania XX by stripping their opponents of their evening gowns. Later in the year, Wilson engaged in a short feud with Sable, who defeated her at the Great American Bash.
In November 2004, Wilson began feuding with Hiroko. On the December 2 episode of SmackDown!, Wilson teamed up with Rey Mysterio and Rob Van Dam in winning effort against Hiroko, Kenzo Suzuki and Rene Dupree. On February 10, 2005 on a special episode of SmackDown! (recorded on February 4 in Saitama, Japan), Torrie defeated Hiroko in a kimono match by removing her kimono first.
Raw and Vince's Devils (2005–2006)
It was revealed on August 22, 2005 that Wilson and Candice Michelle had been moved to the Raw brand. On that night, Wilson and Candice became villains by attacking Ashley Massaro. Her and Candice's storyline feud with Massaro continued over the next couple weeks, as the duo, along with their enforcer Victoria (dubbed as the "Skankateers" by commentator Jim Ross), made things difficult for Massaro. On the September 5 episode of Raw, the villainous Wilson defeated Massaro after interference from Victoria and Candice. Massaro evened the score on the September 12, 2005 episode of Raw when she brought out the returning Trish Stratus, and the duo proceeded to attack the villains. On the September 18 episode of Raw, Wilson teamed up with Victoria in losing effort to Trish Stratus and Ashley. This led to a tag team match at Unforgiven, where the team of Stratus and Massaro defeated Wilson and Victoria. The following night on Raw, Wilson was defeated by Stratus after the match Wilson, Victoria and Candice attacked Ashley and Trish. The feud continued into WWE Homecoming, where Stratus and Massaro defeated Wilson, Candice, and Victoria in the first ever three on two Bra and Panties match by stripping all three of their opponents.
Wilson was absent from WWE television for quite some time after this, leading to rumors and false reports that she had been released from WWE. In actuality, she had taken a leave of absence to tend to some "personal issues". Wilson was surprised by the rumors after some media personnel offered to help her find work. WWE issued a statement on their website, in which Wilson also commented, denouncing the rumors. In the statement she joked she had to "call the WWE office and ask them if they forgot to fire me".
On October 17, Wilson made her return to Raw, where she, Candice and Victoria faced off against the team of Stratus, Massaro, and their new ally Mickie James in a winning effort after Wilson pinned James. On November 28 episode of Raw, Wilson teamed up with Victoria and Candice Michelle in losing effort to Trish, Ashley and James. On the February 13 episode of Raw, Wilson was accompied by Michelle in losing effort to Ashley. Vince's Devils was a short-lived alliance. Wilson soon became a fan favorite after Candice and Victoria both turned against her. On the March 13 episode of Raw, Torrie helped Trish retain the Women's Championship against Victoria whom was accompied by Candice Michelle. The following week on Raw, Torrie teamed up with Trish to defeat Victoria and Candice. The storyline feud between Candice and Wilson led to a match where Wilson faced Playboy's newest cover girl, Candice, at WrestleMania 22 in a Playboy Pillow Fight. Wilson won the match, but the feud still continued on-and-off for some time. On the June 12, 2006 episode of Raw, Wilson defeated Candice in the first ever "Wet and Wild match", a wrestling match involving water balloons and squirt guns, in which the winner of the match would be on the cover of the WWE 2006 Summer Special magazine.
Various storylines and departure (2006–2008)
Wilson also made a special appearance on WWE's ECW brand on August 22, 2006 representing Raw in a bikini contest against ECW Diva Kelly Kelly. A winner was not decided, however, and a six-person mixed tag match began pitting Wilson, Tommy Dreamer, and The Sandman against the team of Kelly Kelly, Mike Knox, and Test. Wilson's team was victorious.
In the final months of 2006, Wilson entered into an on-screen relationship with Carlito. On the November 27 RAW, Torrie Wilson participated in a #1 Contenders Diva Battle Royal that was won by Victoria. On the December 11 RAW, Torrie was defeated by Victoria and after the match Chris Masters proceeded to put Torrie in a Masterlock until she was saved by Carlito. During this time, Ric Flair took an interest in Carlito, and Wilson accompanied the duo in a series of tag matches. On March 12 episode of Raw!, Torrie was defeated by then Women's Champion Melina, after the match Melina attacked Wilson but was stopped by Mickie James, who was then stopped by Victoria, Melina then attempted to escape but was stopped by Ashley Massaro. In May 2007, however, Carlito turned against Flair and dumped Wilson when he became a heel. The storyline came to a halt when on the June 11 episode of Raw, when Wilson was drafted from Raw to SmackDown! as part of the 2007 WWE Draft.
At the Summerslam pay-per-view, Torrie participated in a number one contenders Battle Royal which was won by Beth Phoenix. On the September 21 episode of SmackDown! Torrie was one of the bridesmaids at the Theodore Long-Kristal Marshall wedding. On the September 28 episode of SmackDown!, she was attacked in the ring by the debuting villainess Krissy Vaine, but the feud was prematurely dropped when Vaine left the company. On the October 29 episode of Raw! Torrie competed in the Halloween Divas Battle Royal eliminating Victoria before being last eliminated by Kelly Kelly, who defeated her with a strike to the groin. On the November 16 episode of SmackDown!, Torrie teamed up with Mickie James in a losing effort to Beth Phoenix and Victoria. She was on Mickie's team at Survivor Series, which was victorious over Beth Phoenix's. Torrie's last appearance was on the November 23 episode of SmackDown!, defeating long-time rival Victoria. In November, Wilson took time off from wrestling to undergo physical therapy in relation to a previous back injury. On May 8, 2008, Wilson was released from her WWE contract.
Wilson was also number forty-three on FHM's 100 Sexiest Women in the World list in 2007. She has also been on AskMen.com's list of the Most Desirable Women in the World twice: she was number twenty-two in 2006 and number sixty-five in 2007.
Wilson, along with several other Divas, filmed Timbaland's music video "Throw It On Me" in April 2007. Also in 2007, Wilson made a special appearance, along with Mick Foley, at the Special Olympics World Games in Shanghai. She appeared on the February 6, 2008 episode of Project Runway where the contestants designed wrestling attire for several of the Divas.
In April 2009, Wilson signed on to appear in the NBC reality show, I'm a Celebrity...Get Me out of Here!, which premiered in June. On the show's season finale, Wilson was named the runner-up to winner Lou Diamond Phillips.
While working for WWE, Wilson was on the road up to 300 days per year. She has a Maltese named Chloe, who traveled with her. While on the road, Wilson worked out at least four days a week. Usually, her workout consisted of an hour of cardiovascular workouts and a half-hour of lifting weights.
After dating for four years, Wilson married Peter Gruner (known on-screen as Billy Kidman) on July 11, 2003. They lived in Tampa, Florida, when not traveling. The couple legally divorced in 2008.
In September 2007, Wilson launched her clothing line, "Officially Jaded", alongside Nick Mitchell, a former WWE wrestler who was known as "Mitch" of the Spirit Squad. The couple began dating in mid-2006. She opened a store in The Woodlands, Texas, at the upscale Market Street district. On September 14, 2008, Torrie made an appearance at the inaugural Wrestler's Rescue event held in Piscataway, New Jersey, an event to create awareness and to help raise money to support the health care needs of retired professional wrestlers.
- Finishing moves
- Signature moves
- Wrestlers managed
- Entrance themes
Championships and accomplishments
- World Wrestling Entertainment
- Golden Thong Award (2002)
- "Model of the Week: Torrie Wilson". askmen.com. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- "Torrie Wilson's Profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
- "Torrie Wilson (Bio)". World Wrestling Entertainment. Retrieved 2012-03-13.
- Milner, John M. (2005-05-29). "Torrie Wilson Bio". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- "Most Desirable Women 2007: Torrie Wilson". askmen.com. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Matt Berkowitz (June 2003). "The wiles of Wilson". Wrestling Digest. Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Ken Wiebe (2004-04-17). "Tough Torrie". Winnipeg Sun. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Gary Schultz (2004-05-14). "Miss Torrie Wilson". Film Monthly. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Jon Robinson (2006-06-16). "Torrie Wilson Interview: Divas, posing nude, and slaps to the face". IGN Sports. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Jim Varsallone (February 2003). "Victoria's secret: the WWE women's champion credits her competitive fitness background for her quick rise to wrestling stardom". Wrestling Digest. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2007-07-04.
- Janis Holland. "WTF & WWF (Women's Tri-Fitness & World Wrestling Alliance)". Women's Tri-Fitness. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
- Paul Turenne (2005-05-28). "Torrie toughs it out on WWE circuit". Winnipeg Sun. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Ric Flair (2005). Ric Flair: To Be The Man. Simon and Schuster. p. 386. ISBN 0-7434-9181-5.
- Baer, Randy, and R.D. Reynolds (2003). Wrestlecrap: The Very Worst of Pro Wrestling. ECW Press. p. 228. ISBN 1-55022-584-7.
- Ian Hamilton. Wrestling's Sinking Ship: What Happens to an Industry Without Competition (p.16)
- Ian Hamilton. Wrestling's Sinking Ship: What Happens to an Industry Without Competition (p.26)
- Michael McAvennie (2003). "WWE The Yearbook: 2003 Edition". Pocket Books. p. 102.
- Michael McAvennie (2003). "WWE The Yearbook: 2003 Edition". Pocket Books. pp. 110–113.
- Michael McAvennie (2003). "WWE The Yearbook: 2003 Edition". Pocket Books. p. 132.
- "Online World of Wrestling profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
- Michael McAvennie (2003). "WWE The Yearbook: 2003 Edition". Pocket Books. p. 329.
- Rob McNichol (2007-10-01). "Long History of Failed Nuptials". London: The Sun. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Clint Willis and Nate Hardcastle (2006). The I Hate the 21st Century Reader: The Awful, the Annoying, and the Absurd. Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 295. ISBN 1-56025-718-0.
- Ian Hamilton. Wrestling's Sinking Ship: What Happens to an Industry Without Competition (p.62)
- Michael McAvennie (2003). WWE The Yearbook: 2003 Edition. Pocket Books. p. 278.
- Bob Kapur (2004-05-17). "J-Day for Guerrero". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved 2008-01-20.[dead link]
- "Nidia's Profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
- "Torrie Wilson's Profile". Lethalwow.com. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
- "Judgment Day 2003: Results". WWE. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "Results: Judgment Day 2003". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
- Ian Hamilton. Wrestling's Sinking Ship: What Happens to an Industry Without Competition (p.89)
- "SmackDown Results: February 10, 2005". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
- "Candice & Torrie traded to RAW". WWE. 2005-08-21. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- "Advantage Angle". WWE. 2005-09-12. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- "Unforgiven 2005: Results". WWE. Retrieved 5 January 2007.
- "A Stunning Homecoming". WWE. 2005-10-03. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- "Torrie Wilson Comments On Her Absence From Taboo Tuesday". Rajah.com. 2005-11-01. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- "Most Desirable Women 2006: Torrie Wilson". askmen.com. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- "Time to take out the trash". WWE. 2005-11-28. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Ian Hamilton. Wrestling's Sinking Ship: What Happens to an Industry Without Competition (p.226)
- Hunt, Jen (2006-08-22). "Sabu snaps". WWE. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Bryan Robinson (2007-05-24). "Why Carlito has lost his cool". WWE. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Mike McAvennie (2007-06-11). "One wild night". WWE. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Lennie Difino (2007-09-28). "All things big and small". WWE. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Chris Schramm (2007-10-13). "Vaine and O'Reilly discuss their surprising WWE departure". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Torrie Wilson (2007-11-30). "New Blog from Torrie". t-wilson.org. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
- "Torrie Wilson released". WWE. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
- The Lilsboys (2007-11-05). "Weekly Diva: Torrie Wilson". London: The Sun. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- "Sexiest Women 2007: Torrie Wilson". FHM Online. Archived from the original on 2007-11-03. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Kara A. Medalis (2007-04-20). "The Sexiest Women in L.A.". WWE. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
- Tim Baines (2007-10-13). "Torrie touched by special appearance". Ottawa Sun. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Kara A. Medalis with Zack Zeigler (2008-01-25). "Diva Dish: 'Runway' Divas". WWE. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- "I'm a Celebrity Cast Announced; Blagojevich Inexplicably Still Involved". TVGuide.com. Retrieved 2009-04-24.
- Garcia, Lilian. "Lilian Garcia "U Drive Me Loca" Official Music Video". Lilian Garcia. Lilian Garcia and Youtube. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
- Errol Leigh Farrell (2007-02-27). "Billy Kidman Talks About Divorcing From Torrie Wilson, Working Against Hogan, His New Gimmick, Sleeping With Married Women And More". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-22. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Caged Animal TWHS graduate hopes to make big impact on MMA stage". hcnonline.com. 2009-01-28. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
- "Official Jaded". Officiallyjaded.com. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- "Wrestler's Rescue". Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Hutchinson, Bill (2011-12-29). "A-Rod linked to ex-wrestling diva". Daily News (New York).
- Boardman, Madeline (February 4, 2015). "Alex Rodriguez, Torrie Wilson Split After Three Years Together: Detail". US Weekly.
- Martin, Adam. "Smackdown Results - 11/23/07 - Tampa, FL (Edge & Vickie Guerrero)". http://www.wrestleview.com/. Wrestleview. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- "The Chamber awaits". World Wrestling Entertainment. January 2, 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
- "WWE Anthology review at Allmusic".
- WWE The Music, Vol. 7 (CD). World Wrestling Entertainment. 2007.
- "Tracks". WWE.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- Ian Hamilton (2006). Wrestling's Sinking Ship: What Happens to an Industry Without Competition. Lulu.com. ISBN 1-4116-1210-8.
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