A torus interconnect is a network topology for connecting processing nodes in a parallel computer system. It can be visualized as a mesh interconnect with nodes arranged in a rectilinear array of N = 2, 3, or more dimensions, with processors connected to their nearest neighbors, and corresponding processors on opposite edges of the array connected. The lattice has the topology of an N dimensional torus and each node has 2N connections.
A number of supercomputers on the TOP500 list use three-dimensional torus networks, e.g. IBM's Blue Gene/L and Blue Gene/P, and the Cray XT3. IBM's Blue Gene/Q uses a five-dimensional torus network. Fujitsu's K computer and the PRIMEHPC FX10 use a proprietary six-dimensional torus interconnect called Tofu.
- In a two-dimensional torus interconnect, the nodes are imagined laid out in a two-dimensional rectangular lattice of rows and columns, with each node connected to its 4 nearest neighbors, and corresponding nodes on opposite edges connected. The connection of opposite edges can be visualized by rolling the rectangular array into a "tube" to connect two opposite edges and then bending the "tube" into a torus to connect the other two.
- In a three-dimensional torus interconnect the nodes are imagined in a three-dimensional lattice in the shape of a rectangular prism, with each node connected with its 6 neighbors, with corresponding nodes on opposing faces of the array connected.
Higher-dimensional arrays can't be directly visualized, but each higher dimension adds another pair of nearest neighbor connections to each node.
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