Torwali ( , or Urdu: ) توروالی Turvali, is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan and Swat districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The language is indigenous to the Torwali people who live in scattered hamlets in the mountainous upper reaches of the Swat valley, above the Pashto-speaking town of Madyan up to the Gawri-speaking town of Kalam. There are two main dialects of Torwali: Bahrain and Chail.
Phonology [ edit ]
Although descriptions of Torwali phonology have appeared in the literature, some questions still remain unanswered.
[2 ] [3 ]
Edelman's analysis, which was based on Grierson and Morgenstierne, shows nasal counterparts to at least /e o a/ and also found a series of central (reduced?) vowels, transcribed as: <ä>, <ü>, <ö>.
Lunsford had some difficulty determining vowel phonemes and suggested there may be retracted vowels with limited distribution--/ɨ (which may be i̙) e̙ ə̙/.
Retracted or retroflex vowels are also found in [3 ] Kalash-mondr. [4 ]
Consonants [ edit ]
The phonemic status of the breathy voiced series is debatable.
References [ edit ]
^ Torwali reference at (17th ed., 2013) Ethnologue
^ a b c Edelman, D. I. (1983). The Dardic and Nuristani Languages. Moscow: (Institut vostokovedenii︠a︡ (Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR). p. 226.
^ a b c Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan", M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington: 26-30
^ Kochetov, Alexei; Arsenault, Paul (2008), , NELS Retroflex harmony in Kalasha: Agreement or spreading? 39, Cornell University | page= 4
Bibliography [ edit ]
Biddulph, John (1880). "Tribes of the Hindukush".
Grierson, George (1929). "Torwali: An account of a Dardic language of the Swat Kohistan".
Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan", M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington Ullah, Inam (2004).
"Lexical database of the Torwali Dictionary", paper presented at the Asia Lexicography Conference, Chiangmai, Thailand, May 24–26.
External links [ edit ]