Tosontsengel, Zavkhan

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Tosontsengel District
Тосонцэнгэл сум
ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨᠴᠡᠩᠭᠡᠯᠰᠤᠮᠤ
District
View of the Tosontsengel sum centre
View of the Tosontsengel sum centre
Tosontsengel District is located in Mongolia
Tosontsengel District
Tosontsengel District
Coordinates: 48°45′23″N 98°16′17″E / 48.75639°N 98.27139°E / 48.75639; 98.27139Coordinates: 48°45′23″N 98°16′17″E / 48.75639°N 98.27139°E / 48.75639; 98.27139
Country Mongolia
Province Zavkhan Province
Time zone UTC + 8 (UTC+8)

Tosontsengel (Mongolian: Тосонцэнгэл, meaning Oil happiness) is a sum of Zavkhan Province (aimag) in western Mongolia. It is the largest sum and sum centre in Zavkhan aimag after its capital.

Geography[edit]

Tosontsengel sum is located in the northeast part of Zavkhan Aimag. The Ider river divides the sum's territory into two parts. The smaller northern part is formed by the southern slopes of the Bulnain Nuruu range, which forms the border with Zavkhan and Khövsgöl aimags. The highest point is Bayartyn Ereen Uul mount, at 2,593 metres (8,507 ft).

The center of the sum is on the left (northern) coast of the Ideriin Gol (Ider) river. A concrete bridge (the only one in the sum) is at the southwest edge of the sum center town. The lowest point of the Tosontsengel sum, at 1,624 metres (5,328 ft), is at the eastern boundary of the sum with Ikh-Uul sum, where the Ider river leaves the sum.

The larger southern part of the sum lies on the southern slopes of the Tarvagatain Nuruu range (a part of the Khangai mountains). These territories are mostly covered with larch taiga forests on permafrost ground. The highest parts of the range are mostly alpine tundra and are in the Tarvagatai Nuruu National Park. Marz Uul, at 3,205 metres (10,515 ft), is the highest peak in Tosontsengel sum. The Tarvagatain Nuruu range forms the boundary between the Zavkhan and Arkhangai aimags.

Climate[edit]

Tosontsengel has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwc) with mild summers and bitterly cold winters. The average minimum temperature in January is −37.0 °C (−34.6 °F), and temperatures as low as −52.9 °C (−63.2 °F) have been recorded. Most precipitation falls in the summer as rain, with some snow in the adjacent months of May and September. Winters are very dry.

Barometric Pressure Record[edit]

The highest barometric pressure ever recorded on Earth was 1,085.7 hectopascals (32.06 inHg), measured in Tonsontsengel, Mongolia on 19 December 2001.[1]

Climate data for Tosontsengel
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
5.2
(41.4)
6.8
(44.2)
22.5
(72.5)
27.5
(81.5)
31.5
(88.7)
31.8
(89.2)
33.0
(91.4)
26.3
(79.3)
21.2
(70.2)
7.9
(46.2)
4.7
(40.5)
33
(91.4)
Average high °C (°F) −25.4
(−13.7)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−8.8
(16.2)
5.1
(41.2)
15.5
(59.9)
20.5
(68.9)
21.2
(70.2)
19.6
(67.3)
14.3
(57.7)
4.3
(39.7)
−11.5
(11.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
1.06
(33.92)
Daily mean °C (°F) −31.9
(−25.4)
−29.1
(−20.4)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
7.0
(44.6)
12.6
(54.7)
13.8
(56.8)
11.7
(53.1)
5.6
(42.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−28.2
(−18.8)
−6.84
(19.67)
Average low °C (°F) −37.0
(−34.6)
−35.3
(−31.5)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−9.3
(15.3)
−1.1
(30)
4.6
(40.3)
7.2
(45)
4.7
(40.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
−10.4
(13.3)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−33.0
(−27.4)
−13.47
(7.78)
Record low °C (°F) −52.9
(−63.2)
−50.9
(−59.6)
−49.5
(−57.1)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−15.2
(4.6)
−8.0
(17.6)
−1.9
(28.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
−14.2
(6.4)
−32.2
(−26)
−40.7
(−41.3)
−51.6
(−60.9)
−52.9
(−63.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.9
(0.114)
2.2
(0.087)
4.3
(0.169)
8.3
(0.327)
12.5
(0.492)
41.7
(1.642)
60.8
(2.394)
46.6
(1.835)
16.3
(0.642)
10.1
(0.398)
7.1
(0.28)
6.0
(0.236)
218.8
(8.616)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.2 0.7 1.1 1.9 3.3 7.0 10.5 9.0 4.6 3.1 2.0 1.5 45.9
Source: NOAA (1973-1990)[2]

Population[edit]

The population of Tosontsengel sum is about 9,000. The population of the sum center is about 920 families in winter (about 5,000 population) and about 680 in summer. There is a ten-year school and a hospital in the sum centre.

Economy[edit]

In the socialist period Tosontsengel was one of the largest industrial centres in Mongolia for timber processing. A new[when?] small hydropower station was built at Ider river close to the sum centre.

Transportation[edit]

Tosontsengel sum has relatively good road connection to Uliastai city (181 kilometres (112 mi)), Mörön city (213 kilometres (132 mi)), Tsetserleg city (361 kilometres (224 mi)), Ulaangom city (573 kilometres (356 mi)); to the Russian border crossing (307 kilometres (191 mi)) and next to the Russian cities Kyzyl (Tyva respublic) and Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsk Krai).

There is a small airport called Tosontsengel Airport in the sum centre. It is located on right bank of the Ider river.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Highest Sea Lvl Air Pressure Above 750m". Wmo.asu.edu. 2001-12-19. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  2. ^ "Tosontsengel Climate Normals 1973-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 13, 2013. 

External links[edit]