Total S.A.

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Total S.A.
Type Société Anonyme
Traded as EuronextFP
NYSETOT
Industry Oil and gas
Founded 1924
Founder(s) Ernest Mercier
Headquarters Tour Total, Paris, France
Area served Worldwide
Key people Christophe de Margerie
(Chairman and CEO)
Patrick de la Chevardière (CFO)
Products Oil and gas exploration and production, natural gas and LNG trading and transportation, oil refining, chemicals
Services Fuel stations
Revenue 171.65 billion (2013)[1]
Operating income €17.81 billion (2013)[1]
Profit €8.44 billion (2013)[1]
Total assets €173.49 billion (2013)[1]
Total equity €72.62 billion (2013)[1]
Employees 97,126 (2013)[1]
Website www.total.com

Total S.A. (French pronunciation: ​[tɔtal]; English /tˈtæl/ or /tˈtɑːl/) is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the six "Supermajor" oil companies in the world. Its businesses cover the entire oil and gas chain, from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, transportation, refining, petroleum product marketing, and international crude oil and product trading. Total is also a large-scale chemicals manufacturer. The company has its head office in the Tour Total in the La Défense district in Courbevoie, West of Paris.

History[edit]

Total Plaza, the headquarters of the subsidiary Total Petrochemicals USA, in Downtown Houston

Compagnie française des pétroles (CFP) : 1924 – 1985[edit]

The company was founded after World War I, when the then French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré rejected the idea of forming a partnership with Royal Dutch Shell in favour of creating an entirely French oil company. At Poincaré's behest, Col. Ernest Mercier with the support of ninety banks and companies founded Total on 28 March 1924, as the Compagnie française des pétroles (CFP), literally the "French Petroleum Company". Petroleum was seen as vital in the case of a new war with Germany. As per the agreement reached during the San Remo conference of 1920, the French state received the 25% share held by Deutsche Bank in the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC) as part of the compensation for war damages caused by Germany during World War I. The French government's stake in TPC was transferred to CFP,[2] and the Red Line agreement in 1928 rearranged the shareholding of CPF in TPC (later renamed the Iraq Petroleum Company in 1929) to 23.75%.[3] The company from the start was regarded as a private sector company in view of its listing on the Paris Stock Exchange in 1929.

The company during the 1930s was engaged in exploration and production, primarily from the Middle East. Its first refinery began operating in Normandy in 1933. After World War II, CFP engaged in oil exploration in Venezuela, Canada, and Africa while pursuing energy sources within France. Exploration in Algeria, then a French colony, began in 1946, with Algeria becoming a leading source of oil in the 1950s.[4] In 1954, CFP introduced its downstream product – 'Total' brand of gasoline in the African continent and Europe.[4][5]

Total CFP and re branding to Total : 1985 – 2003[edit]

The company renamed itself Total CFP in 1985, to build on the popularity of its gasoline brand.[5] Later in 1991, the name was changed to Total, when it became a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. The French government, who used to control more than 30 percent of the company’s stock in 1991, reduced its stake in the firm to less than 1 percent by 1996[5][6] In the time period between 1990 and 1994, foreign ownership of the firm increased from 23 per cent to 44 per cent.

After Total's takeover of Petrofina of Belgium in 1999, it became known as Total Fina. Afterwards it also acquired Elf Aquitaine. First named TotalFinaElf after the merger in 2000, it was later renamed back to Total in 6 May 2003. During that rebranding, the current globe logo was unveiled.[7]

Chart of the major energy companies dubbed "Big Oil" sorted by latest published revenue

Total : 2003 – present[edit]

In 2003, Total signed for a 30% stake in the gas exploration venture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) – South Rub' al-Khali joint venture along with Royal Dutch Shell and Saudi Aramco.[8] The stake was later bought out by its partners.

In May 2006, Saudi Aramco and TOTAL signed a MOU to develop the Jubail Refinery and Petrochemical project in Saudi Arabia which targeted 400,000 barrels per day (bpd). On 21 September 2008, the two companies officially established a joint venture called SAUDI ARAMCO TOTAL Refining and Petrochemical Company (SATORP)- in which a 62.5% stake was held by Saudi Aramco and the balance 37.5% held by TOTAL.[9][10]

During the 2009-2010 Iraqi oil services contracts tender, a consortium led by CNPC (37.5%), which also included TOTAL (18.75%) and Petronas (18.75%) was awarded a production contract for the "Halfaya field" in the south of Iraq, which contains an estimated 4.1 billion barrels (650,000,000 m3) of oil.[11][12]

As of 2010, Total is one of the world’s major oil companies, with over 96,000 employees and operates in more than 130 countries[13]

In November 2012, Total announced it was selling its 20% stake and operating mandate in its Nigerian offshore project to a unit of China Petrochemical Corp for $2.5 billion.[14]

In 2013, Total started the operation at Kashagan with North Caspian Operating Company.[15] It is the biggest discovery of oil reserves since 1968.

In 2013 Total increased its stake in Novotek to 16.96%.[16][17]

In September 2013, Total and its joint venture partner agreed to buy Chevron Corporation’s retail distribution business in Pakistan for an undisclosed amount.[18]

In January 2014, Total became the first major oil and gas firm to acquire exploration rights for shale gas in the UK after it bought a 40 percent interest in two licences in the Gainsborough Trough area of northern England for $48 million.[19]

In July 2014 the company disclosed it was in exclusive talks to sell its LPG distribution business in France to Pennsylvania-based UGI Corporation for €450 million ($615 million).[20]

Organization[edit]

Head office[edit]

A total filling station in Wetherby, West Yorkshire.

The company has its head office in the Tour Total in the La Défense district in Courbevoie, France, near Paris.[21][22] The building was originally constructed between 1983 and 1985 for Elf Aquitaine; Total SA acquired the building after its merger with Elf in 2000.[22]

Senior management[edit]

Christophe de Margerie has been chief executive since 14 February 2007. His total annual compensation for this role is €2,746,335, consisting of a €1,250,000 salary and €1,496,335 bonus.[23][24]

Business segments[edit]

Upstream[edit]

  • Exploration and production:
    • LNG : Total is involved in LNG projects in Indonesia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Nigeria, Norway, Russia, Yemen, Angola and Australia.
  • Gas and Power
  • Solar

Supply and marketing[edit]

Refining and Chemicals[edit]

  • Refining
  • Petrochemicals
  • Trading & shipping
  • Resins, adhesives and electroplating
  • Elastomer Processing

Renewable and nuclear power[edit]

Total announced in 2007 that they are exploring the possibilities of entering the nuclear power sector. Although they already own one per cent of Areva, the largest nuclear business in the world,[25] Total does not currently have extensive involvement in nuclear power. In the 2013 annual report this stake was listed under "Financial assets available for sale", with a carrying value of 37M€ and an unrealised gain of 32M€.


However, in January 2008 Total announced that they were to sign an agreement with Suez and Areva to submit a nuclear power plant project to the authorities in the United Arab Emirates.[26]

Operations[edit]

In May 2014, the company shelved its Joslyn north oil sands project in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada indefinitely, citing concerns about operating costs. An estimated $11 billion has been spent on the project, in which Total is the largest shareholder with 38.5%. Suncor Energy holds 36.75%, Occidental Petroleum owns 15% and Japan's Inpex has a 10% interest.[27]

Acquisitions[edit]

On 29 April 2011, Total agreed to buy 60% of photovoltaics company SunPower for US$1.38 billion.[28] By the 2013 annual reporting date Total owned 64.65%.

Environmental record[edit]

In 1998 the Total SA company was fined €375,000 for an oil spill that stretched 400 kilometers from La Rochelle to the western tip of Brittany. The company was only fined that amount because they were only partially liable because Total SA did not own the ship. The plaintiffs had sought more than $1.5 billion in damages. More than 100 groups and local governments joined in the suit. The Total company was fined just over $298,000. The majority of the money will go to the French government, several environmental groups, and various regional governments. The Total SA company was also fined $550,000 for the amount of marine pollution that came from it. After the oil spill they tried to restore their image and have opened a sea turtle conservation project in Masirah in recent years.

Prior to the verdict in which Total was found guilty one of the counterparts in the incident, Malta Maritime Authority (MMA), was not to be tried for having any hand in the incident. In 2005 Total submitted a report to the Paris courts which stated that Total had gotten a group of experts that stated the tanker had corrosion on it and that Total was responsible for it. The courts sought a second expert reviewing of this information which was turned down.[29]

The AZF chemical plant which exploded in 2001 in Toulouse, France, belonged to the Grande Paroisse branch of Total.

On 13 August 2007, Total announced a lower fuel emission, lower emissions and cost-efficient petroleum product, named Evolution. Evolution is designed to let its user use less fuel and get further than other fuels. The product was developed exclusively for Total because of the demand for more energy efficient products. This fuel can be used with any engine that runs on unleaded.[30]

On 16 January 2008, Total was required to compensate all of the victims of the pollution caused by the sinking of the ship Erika. They are required to compensate the victims in the amount of €192 million. This is in addition to the €200 million that Total spent to help clean up the spill. The company feels that the verdict is unfair because it wasn't their fault the ship sank. They will be appealing the verdict because it forced the users of the ship to also be the inspectors and not the people that made the ship.[31]

Controversies[edit]

Malta[edit]

Total is being implicated in a bribe commission scandal which is currently emerging in Malta. It has emerged that Total had told Maltese agents that it would not be interested in doing business with them unless their team included George Farrugia, who is under investigation in the procurement scandal. George Farrugia has recently been given a presidential pardon in exchange of informations about this scandal. Enemalta, Malta's energy supplier, swiftly barred Total and its agents, Trafigura from bidding and tenders. An investigation is currently underway and three people have been arraigned.

Myanmar investments[edit]

Despite the European Union's sanctions against the military dictatorship Myanmar, Total is able to operate the Yadana natural gas pipeline from Burma to Thailand. Total is currently the subject of a lawsuit in French and Belgian courts for the condoning and use of the country's civilian slavery to construct the pipeline. The documentary 'Total Denial' shows the background of this project.[32] The NGO Burma Campaign UK is currently[when?] campaigning against this project.

Italian bribes[edit]

On 16 December 2008, the managing director of the Italian division of Total, Lionel Levha, and ten other executives were arrested by the Public Prosecutor’s Office of Potenza, Italy, for a corruption charge of €15 million to undertake the oilfield in Basilicata on contract. Also arrested was the local deputy of Partito Democratico Salvatore Margiotta and an Italian entrepreneur.[33][34]

UN Oil-for-Food Programme for Iraq[edit]

In April 2010, Total was accused of bribing Iraqi officials during former dictator Saddam Hussein's regime to secure oil supplies. A United Nations report later revealed that Iraqi officials had received bribes from oil companies to secure contracts worth over $10bn (£6.5bn).[35]

Investments in Iran[edit]

Total has been a significant investor in the Iranian energy sector since 1990.[36] Total is suspected of concealing the source of its oil imports from Iran.[37] On 28 June 2010 Total announced that it would cease shipments of oil products to Iran following adoption by the United States of economic sanctions against the country.[38]

Bribery in Iran[edit]

In 2013, a case was settled that concerned charges that Total bribed an Iranian official with $60 million, which they documented as a "consulting charge," and which unfairly gave them access to Iran's Sirri A and Sirri E oil and gas fields. The bribery gave them a competitive advantage, earning them an estimated $150 million in profits. The Securities Exchange Commission and the Department of Justice settled the charges, expecting Total to pay $398 million.[39]

Western Sahara oil exploration[edit]

In October 2001, Total signed a contract for oil-reconnaissance in areas offshore Western Sahara (near Dakhla), with the "Moroccan Office National de Recherches et d’Exploitations Petrolières" (ONAREP). In January 2002, Hans Corell (the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs) stated in a letter to the President of the Security Council that whenever the contracts are only for exploration they're not illegal, but if further exploration or exploitation are against the interests and wishes of the people of Western Sahara, they would be in violation of the principles of international law.[40] Finally, Total decided to not renew their license off Western Sahara.[41]

Offshore Production in Thailand[edit]

In April 2012 Total announced its initiation of offshore production in the Greater Bongkot South (GBS) gas and condensate field in the Gulf of Thailand's blocks B16 and B17. The new development is operated by the Bangkot Joint Venture. The new field in GBS is expected to increase production capacity by 50% in Thailand.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Annual Report 2013". Total. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  2. ^ "MILESTONES: 1921–1936, the 1928 Red Line Agreement". US Department of State. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "An Administrative/Biographical History of Iraq Petroleum Company". Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Compagnie Française des Pétroles and Its Contribution to the Re-establishment of France’s Position among the Oil Countries after the Second World War". Retrieved 18 June 2012.  by Mohamed Sassi, Research associate at Université de Paris-IV (Sorbonne)
  5. ^ a b c "Total company info on Britannica". Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  6. ^ "Chapter 2". Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  7. ^ Spaeth, Tony. "Review of Total logo". Identityworks. Retrieved 4 May 2012. 
  8. ^ Shell and Total sign natural gas agreement – South Rub Al-Khali
  9. ^ "SAUDI ARAMCO TOTAL Refining and Petrochemical Company (SATORP) completes US$8.5 Billion project financing for Jubail Refinery". Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  10. ^ "History of SAUDI ARAMCO TOTAL Refining and Petrochemical Company (SATORP)". Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "Shell walks away with Majnoon". upstreamonline.com. 11 December 2009. 
  12. ^ "Halfaya trio sign on dotted line". upstreamonline.com. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  13. ^ "Total.com – Businesses of the Total Group". Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  14. ^ Total Sells Stake in Nigerian Project to Sinopec for $2.5 Billion, United States: Wall Street Journal, 2012 
  15. ^ http://investkz.com/en/journals/79/663.html
  16. ^ http://www.novatek.ru/en/press/releases/index.php?id_4=762
  17. ^ Registration Document 2013
  18. ^ Louise Heavens (18 September 2013). "France's Total snaps up Chevron's Pakistan retail network". Reuters. 
  19. ^ Total deal speeds up UK shale gas race, International: Reuters, 2014 
  20. ^ "Total to sell LPG distribution business in France to UGI Corp unit for 450mn euros". Pennsylvania Sun. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  21. ^ "Total: Main indicators". Reuters. 15 October 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2009. 
  22. ^ a b ""Total: l'héritage de la fusion". Le Journal du Net. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  23. ^ "Christophe de Margerie: Executive Profile & Biography". BusinessWeek. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  24. ^ "Christophe de Margerie Profile". Forbes. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  25. ^ "Total to enter nuclear industry". World Nuclear News. 5 February 2007. 
  26. ^ "French energy consortium to offer nuclear plant to UAE". World Nuclear News. 15 January 2008. 
  27. ^ "Cost escalation leads Total to put Joslyn oil sands project on hold". Business Sun. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  28. ^ Herndon, Andrew; Martin, Christopher; Goossen, Ehren (29 April 2011). "Total Agrees to Buy SunPower for $1.38 Billion in Renewable-Energy Push". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 April 2011. 
  29. ^ "pursues Erika case against Total, MMA not to be tried"
  30. ^ "Total announces new fuel"
  31. ^ "REG-TOTAL S.A. Erika : Total Compensates Third-Parties"
  32. ^ "totaldenialfilm.com". totaldenialfilm.com. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  33. ^ "Tangenti per il petrolio in Basilicata: arrestati l'ad Total e un deputato del Pd". il Giornale (in Italian). 16 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2008. 
  34. ^ "Tangenti, arrrestato l'amministratore delegato di Total Italia" (in Italian). La7. 16 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2008. 
  35. ^ "Total faces corruption investigation". 7 April 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
  36. ^ "GAO-10-515R Iran’s Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical Sectors" (PDF). United States Government Accountability Office. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  37. ^ Stecklow, Steve; Swartz, Spencer; Coker, Margaret (20 May 2010). "Oil Trade With Iran Thrives, Discreetly". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  38. ^ "businessweek.com". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  39. ^ June, Daniel, "Total to Pay $398 Million for Corrupt Practices"
  40. ^ "Letter dated 29 January 2002 from the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs, the Legal Counsel, addressed to the President of the Security Council". UN. 12 February 2002. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  41. ^ "Upstream Online: Total turns its back on Dakhla block, 2004". Western Sahara Resource Watch. 3 December 2004. Retrieved 2 September 2010. unreliable?
  42. ^ "Total Announces Offshore production in Thailand. [http://www.brightwire.com/company/5625-total-s-a]". BrightWire. 

External links[edit]