|Nickname(s): City of the Pianos|
Location of Cochabamba Department in Bolivia
|Settled||24 June 1876|
|Incorporated (city)||27 October 1894|
|Named for||Tjutura, now-extinct aquatic plant from the area|
|• Type||Mayor–council government|
|• Mayor||Edmundo Novillo (MAS-IPSP)|
|• Total||42 km2 (16 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,805 m (9,203 ft)|
|• Density||46/km2 (120/sq mi)|
|Time zone||BOT (UTC-4:00)|
|Country code||+591 4|
Totora (//) is a city in Bolivia. It is the capitol and most-populous city of the municipality of Totora, which is located in the province of Carrasco, which is located in the department of Cochabamba. As of the 2012 census, the population is 1,925. Named after an aquatic plant that used to grow in the area, tjutura, the first settlers of the town were Inca Indians. The town was officially settled in 1876, and declared a city by the Government of Bolivia in 1894.
Totora was named after tjutura, an aquatic plant that used to grow in the area. The first settlers of the city were from the Inca Empire. From 1530 until 1722, the land Totora occupied was in control of Spaniards who mainly used the land for cocoa production. The first mention of the city was 1639, when a landowner named Don Fernando García Murillo had established a chaplaincy. The city was officially settled on 24 June 1876 after the Mizque Municipality split into two—Mizque and Totora Municipality. It was officially declared a city by the Bolivian Government on 27 October 1894. Totora's first residence were of wealthy landowners, traders, and textile artisans. It was also a trading stop between west and east of Bolivia.
On 22 May 1998, a 6.8 MW earthquake hit the Totora and Aiquile area. There were four foreshocks—ranging from 2.7 to 5.8—and consistent aftershocks until 27 May. 105 people were killed, and it was considered a "national tragedy" by then-President Hugo Banzer.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Using the reference point of Totora and Mizque, the city has a subhumid climate, according to the AMDECO. In consideration of other towns in the area, Totora is the driest, with more sparse vegetation. The average low for the year is 0.3 °C (32.5 °F), and the average high is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F). The hottest month is November, with an average high of 21 °C (70 °F), and the coldest months are June and July, with an average low of −7 °C (19 °F). On average, Totora receives 348 millimetres (13.7 in) of precipitation per year, with the most wet month of January.
According to the 2012 Bolivian census, the population of Totora was 1,925, an annual increase of 1.71% from 2001. The increase was unexpected, as the Association of Municipality of Cochabamba (AMDECO) projected the population to drop to 1,469. There were 892 (46.33%) men and 1,033 (53.66%) women, for a ratio of 1.15 women to men. In 2012, there were 1,069 homes, and 457 families, for an average household of 1.80 persons. Throughout history, the highest population of the city was 3,501 in 1992; the lowest population was 1,000 in 1845. With an estimated area of 42 km2 (16 sq mi), Totora has a population density of 46 people/km2.
According to World Population Review, Totora is the 107th largest city in Bolivia by population. As a city in its municipality, Totora is the most-populous city, with 13.1% of the total population and, as of 2012, is the only city in its municipality with a population over 1,000. As of 2001, the racial makeup of the town was 88.6% Quechua, 2.2% Aymara, 1.4% Guaraní, 0.3% Chiquitano, and 7.3% from other races. As for languages, a majority of the population (65.4%) speak either Spanish or Quechua. As of 2005, 98% of the population are of the Catholic religion and 2% are Evangelical.
Totora is noted for having colonial-style building and architecture. Because of the town's topography, the streets have an atypical distribution. The most common style of house includes adobe walls, land floors, and cement roofing. From 1999 to 2005, 44.2% of the households use firewood to power their house, 55.1% use gas power, and 0.6% use other means. In 2011, solar panels were introduced in the city to power its schools, with the help of the European Union.
The protected Carrasco National Park is to the Northeast of Totora. Created in 1991, the park has an area of 6,226 km2 (2,404 sq mi) and is ranges in altitude from 300 and 4,700 m (980 and 15,420 ft). There are an estimated 3,000 plant species, estimated 700 species of bird, and 382 confirmed type of wildlife located in the park. The main tourist attractions are The House of Culture, which used to be a mansion but is now a museum; the colonial bridges; the plaza; The Pajcha, a 30 m (98 ft) waterfall; Julpe, a place that holds cave paintings.
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In 2013, a deal was made with the Local Committee for the Productive Development of Wheat and Potato Township Totora to have around 300 families in Totora produce wheat for five cereal companies in Cochabamba.
Law and government
There are two schools located in Totora: Jose Carrasco Torrico College, named after ex-Vice President José Carrasco Torrico, and Rodeo Grande Middle School. As of 2004, the college has 320 students. The middle school was constructed in 2013 and cost Bs.2,000,000 ($289436) . It holds 11 classrooms and supports up to 250 students. As of 2001, the literacy rate in Totora is 82.4%, lower than the country average of 86.7%.
The main two ways to reach Totora by road are from Route 7, if coming from Cochabamba, and Route 5, if coming from Sucre. The Bolivian Department of Education is in the process of making a road from Tarata to Totora, since both are historic cities.
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