2009 Tour de France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Tour de France 2009)
Jump to: navigation, search
2009 Tour de France
2009 UCI World Ranking, race 17 of 24
Route of the 2009 Tour de France.png
Route of the 2009 Tour de France
Race details
Dates 4–26 July
Stages 21
Distance 3,459.5 km (2,150 mi)
Winning time 85h 48' 35" (40.31 km/h or 25.05 mph)
Palmares
Winner  Alberto Contador (ESP) (Astana)
Second  Andy Schleck (LUX) (Team Saxo Bank)
Third  Bradley Wiggins (GBR) (Garmin-Slipstream)

Points  Thor Hushovd (NOR) (Cervélo TestTeam)
Mountains None
Youth  Andy Schleck (LUX) (Team Saxo Bank)
Team Astana
2008
2010

The 2009 Tour de France was the 96th edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It started on 4 July in the principality of Monaco with a 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) individual time trial which included a section of the Circuit de Monaco. The race visited six countries: Monaco, France, Spain, Andorra, Switzerland and Italy, and finished on 26 July on the Champs-Élysées in Paris.

The total length was 3,445 kilometres (2,141 mi),[1] including 93 kilometres (58 mi) in time-trials. There were seven mountain stages, three of which had mountaintop finishes, and one medium-mountain stage.[2] The race had a team time trial for the first time since 2005, the shortest distance in individual time trials since 1967, and the first penultimate-day mountain stage in the Tour's history.

2007 winner Alberto Contador won the race by a margin of 4′11″, having won both a mountain and time trial stage. His Astana team also took the team classification.[3] and supplied the initial third-place finisher, Lance Armstrong. Armstrong's achievement was later voided by the UCI in October 2012 following his non-dispute of a doping accusation by USADA, and fourth place Bradley Wiggins was promoted to the podium.[4][5] Andy Schleck, second overall, won the young riders' competition as he had the previous year. Franco Pellizotti originally won the polka dot jersey as the King of the Mountains, but had that result (along with all his 2009 results) stripped by the Court of Arbitration for Sport in 2011 due to his irregular values in the UCI's biological passport program detected in May 2010.[6] Mark Cavendish won six stages, including the final stage on the Champs-Élysées, but was beaten in the points classification by Thor Hushovd, who consequently won the green jersey.[7]

Race overview[edit]

The race started in Monaco with a 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) individual time trial, won by Olympic time trial champion Fabian Cancellara, who retained the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification throughout the first week, which was dominated by stages suited primarily to sprinters, with Mark Cavendish establishing himself as the strongest finisher. The significant action of the first week in relation to the overall classification was restricted to a split in the field on stage 3, and a team time trial the following day.

The second weekend saw the Tour in the Pyrenees, and the first attack on the field by eventual winner Alberto Contador, while the leadership was taken over by Rinaldo Nocentini. Thor Hushovd showed an ability to take points in stages that did not include flat sprint finishes that would be key to the contest for the points classification, and the main contenders for the mountains classification emerged. The journey towards the Alps the following week had a second pair of successive stage wins for Cavendish and a series of wins from riders in breakaways that held no threat to the general classification. An infringement in the sprint finish to stage 14 saw Cavendish relegated in finishing position, and Hushovd gaining the upper hand in the points classification.

A man in yellow clothes. In the background people are watching.
Contador wearing the yellow jersey during the 17th stage of the 2010 Tour de France.

The first alpine stage was the occasion of Contador's assumption of the race leadership, and the emergence of Andy Schleck as the only rider likely to challenge him in the mountains, and as the top young rider, giving Schleck the right to wear the white jersey. Franco Pellizotti focussed on collecting points on the climbs early in stages to overhaul Egoi Martínez in the race for the mountains classification, without threatening the race leaders. By the end of the three stages in the Alps, and after Contador's victory in the final time trial, it was only the minor placings that were realistically under question in the last mountain stage, held for the first time on the penultimate day of the tour on Mont Ventoux.

The UCI introduced a ban on radio communication between team management and riders on stage 10, but the riders responded with a conservative style of racing for most of the stage and the intended repetition of the experiment on stage 13 was abandoned.[8]

At the victory ceremony, the national anthem of Denmark was mistakenly played instead of that of Spain.[9] Contador described the incident as an "enormous blunder" at a post-Tour press conference in Madrid. At the victory ceremony for teams, the anthem of Spain was yet played, because Contador was part of the winning team, Astana.

Teams[edit]

20 teams were invited to take part in the race. They include 17 of the 18 UCI ProTour teams (all except for Fuji-Servetto) and three other teams: Skil-Shimano, Cervélo TestTeam and Agritubel. Each team started with 9 riders, making a total of 180 participants, of whom 156 finished.

The 20 teams invited to the race were:[10]

Riders[edit]

Favorites for the race included 2008 winner Carlos Sastre, 2007 winner Alberto Contador, 2009 Giro d'Italia winner Denis Menchov and two time runner-up Cadel Evans.[11] Lance Armstrong came out of retirement and competed in the race on the same team as Contador. Menchov and Evans performed far below the levels expected of them, finishing 51st and 30th respectively, and Sastre only showed briefly among the leaders on the mountain stages that would have provided his best chance of making a bid for victory, coming 17th overall.

Alejandro Valverde, the team leader of Caisse d'Epargne, was not selected by his team for the Tour de France, because the race travelled through Italy on stage 16 and he had received a ban in May 2009 from the Italian Olympic Committee, prohibiting him from competing in Italy. He had finished in the top ten of the general classification of the Tour in the two previous years and was considered one of the favourites for overall victory.

News about a positive retest of a 2007 out-of-competition control concerning Thomas Dekker broke three days before the start; his team Silence-Lotto immediately withdrew him from the starting list.

Stages[edit]

Stage results[12][13]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
1 4 July Monaco 15.5 km (10 mi) History.gif Individual Time Trial  Fabian Cancellara (SUI)
2 5 July Monaco to Brignoles 187 km (116 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
3 6 July Marseille to La Grande-Motte 196.5 km (122 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
4 7 July Montpellier 39 km (24 mi) History.gif Team Time Trial Astana
5 8 July Cap d'Agde to Perpignan 196.5 km (122 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Thomas Voeckler (FRA)
6 9 July Girona, Spain to Barcelona, Spain 181.5 km (113 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Thor Hushovd (NOR)
7 10 July Barcelona to Andorra-Arcalis, Andorra 224 km (139 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain Stage  Brice Feillu (FRA)
8 11 July Andorra la Vella to Saint-Girons 176.5 km (110 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain Stage  Luis León Sánchez (ESP)
9 12 July Saint-Gaudens to Tarbes 160.5 km (100 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain Stage  Pierrick Fédrigo (FRA)
13 July Rest day
10 14 July Limoges to Issoudun 194.5 km (121 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
11 15 July Vatan to Saint-Fargeau 192 km (119 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
12 16 July Tonnerre to Vittel 211.5 km (131 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Nicki Sørensen (DEN)
13 17 July Vittel to Colmar 200 km (124 mi) Mediummountainstage.svg Medium mountain stage  Heinrich Haussler (GER)
14 18 July Colmar to Besançon 199 km (124 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Sergei Ivanov (RUS)
15 19 July Pontarlier to Verbier, Switzerland 207.5 km (129 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain Stage  Alberto Contador (ESP)
20 July Rest day
16 21 July Martigny, Switzerland to Bourg-Saint-Maurice 159 km (99 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain Stage  Sandy Casar (FRA)
17 22 July Bourg-Saint-Maurice to Le Grand-Bornand 169.5 km (105 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain Stage  Fränk Schleck (LUX)
18 23 July Annecy 40.5 km (25 mi) History.gif Individual Time Trial  Alberto Contador (ESP)
19 24 July Bourgoin-Jallieu to Aubenas 178 km (111 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
20 25 July Montélimar to Mont Ventoux 167 km (104 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain Stage  Juan Manuel Gárate (ESP)
21 26 July Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris (Champs-Élysées) 164 km (102 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat Stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
TOTAL 3,459.5 km (2,150 mi)

Classification leadership[edit]

Stage Winner General classification
Yellow jersey
Points classification
Green jersey
Mountains classification
Polkadot jersey
Young rider classification
White jersey
Team classification
Jersey with yellow number
Combativity award
Jersey with red number
1 Fabian Cancellara Fabian Cancellara Fabian Cancellara Alberto Contador Roman Kreuziger Astana no award
2 Mark Cavendish Mark Cavendish Jussi Veikkanen Stef Clement
3 Mark Cavendish Tony Martin Samuel Dumoulin
4 Astana no award
5 Thomas Voeckler Mikhail Ignatiev
6 Thor Hushovd Stéphane Augé David Millar
7 Brice Feillu Rinaldo Nocentini Brice Feillu Christophe Riblon
8 Luis León Sánchez Thor Hushovd Christophe Kern Ag2r-La Mondiale Sandy Casar
9 Pierrick Fédrigo Egoi Martínez Franco Pellizotti
10 Mark Cavendish Thierry Hupond
11 Mark Cavendish Mark Cavendish Johan Van Summeren
12 Nicki Sørensen Team Saxo Bank Nicki Sørensen
13 Heinrich Haussler Thor Hushovd Franco Pellizotti Heinrich Haussler
14 Sergei Ivanov Ag2r-La Mondiale Martijn Maaskant
15 Alberto Contador Alberto Contador Andy Schleck Astana Simon Špilak
16 Sandy Casar* Franco Pellizotti
17 Fränk Schleck Thor Hushovd
18 Alberto Contador no award
19 Mark Cavendish Leonardo Duque
20 Juan Manuel Gárate Tony Martin
21 Mark Cavendish Fumiyuki Beppu
Final Alberto Contador Thor Hushovd Franco Pellizotti Andy Schleck Astana Franco Pellizotti

After stage 1, Fabian Cancellara was leading both the general and the points classifications. In stage 2, he wore the yellow jersey. Alberto Contador was placed second at the time in the green jersey points classification, but was the leader in the king of the mountains classification, and so forfeited the right to wear the green jersey. As a result, the third placed rider in the opening time trial, Bradley Wiggins wore the green jersey on stage 2.[14]

* Stage 16 was originally won by Mikel Astarloza, who was found after the Tour to have tested positive for EPO before the race had started.[15] The organisers have stripped him of the stage win, and former number two Sandy Casar became the official winner.[16]

Final standings[edit]

Legend
  Yellow jersey   Denotes the leader of the General classification   Polka dot jersey   Denotes the leader of the Mountains classification
  Green jersey   Denotes the leader of the Points classification   White jersey   Denotes the leader of the Young rider classification
  Jersey with a yellow background on the number bib.   Denotes the leader of the Team classification

General classification[edit]

Final general classification (1–10)[12]
Rank Name Team Time
1  Alberto Contador (ESP) Contador was awarded the final yellow jersey as general classification winner Astana riders were awarded the final yellow numbers as team classification winners Astana 85h 48' 35"
2  Andy Schleck (LUX) Team Saxo Bank +4' 11"
DSQ  Lance Armstrong (USA) Astana +5' 24"
3  Bradley Wiggins (GBR) Garmin +6' 01"
4  Fränk Schleck (LUX) Team Saxo Bank +6' 04"
5  Andreas Klöden (GER) Astana +6' 42"
6  Vincenzo Nibali (ITA) Liquigas +7' 35"
7  Christian Vande Velde (USA) Garmin +12' 04"
8  Roman Kreuziger (CZE) Liquigas +14' 16"
9  Christophe Le Mével (FRA) Française des Jeux +14' 25"
10  Sandy Casar (FRA) Française des Jeux +17' 19"

Mountains classification[edit]

Final mountains classification[17]
Rider Team Points
DSQ  Franco Pellizotti (ITA) Liquigas 210
2  Egoi Martínez (ESP) Euskaltel-Euskadi 135
3  Alberto Contador (ESP) Contador was awarded the final yellow jersey as general classification winner Astana riders were awarded the final yellow numbers as team classification winners Astana 126
4  Andy Schleck (LUX) Schleck was awarded the final white jersey as best young rider winner Team Saxo Bank 111
5  Pierrick Fédrigo (FRA) Bbox Bouygues Telecom 99
6  Christophe Kern (FRA) Cofidis 89
7  Fränk Schleck (LUX) Team Saxo Bank 88
DSQ  Mikel Astarloza (ESP) Euskaltel-Euskadi 86
9  Juan Manuel Gárate (ESP) Rabobank 86
10  Sandy Casar (FRA) Française des Jeux 84

Points classification[edit]

Rider Team Points
1  Thor Hushovd (NOR) Hushovd was awarded the final green jersey as points classification winner Cervélo TestTeam 280
2  Mark Cavendish (GBR) Team Columbia-HTC 270
3  Gerald Ciolek (GER) Team Milram 148
4  José Joaquín Rojas (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne 126
5  Nicolas Roche (IRL) Ag2r-La Mondiale 122
6  Óscar Freire (ESP) Rabobank 119
7  Tyler Farrar (USA) Garmin-Slipstream 110
DSQ  Franco Pellizotti (ITA) Liquigas 104
9  Alberto Contador (ESP) Contador was awarded the final yellow jersey as general classification winner Astana riders were awarded the final yellow numbers as team classification winners Astana 101
10  Andreas Klöden (GER) Astana riders were awarded the final yellow numbers as team classification winners Astana 89

Young riders classification[edit]

Rider Team Time
1  Andy Schleck (LUX) Schleck was awarded the final white jersey as highest placed young rider winner Team Saxo Bank 85h 52′ 46″
2  Vincenzo Nibali (ITA) Liquigas + 3′ 24″
3  Roman Kreuziger (CZE) Liquigas + 10′ 05″
4  Pierre Rolland (FRA) Bbox Bouygues Telecom + 33′ 33″
5  Nicolas Roche (IRL) Ag2r-La Mondiale + 34′ 09″
6  Brice Feillu (FRA) Agritubel + 37′ 03″
7  Peter Velits (SVK) Team Milram + 42′ 24″
8  Chris Anker Sørensen (DEN) Team Saxo Bank + 45′ 36″
9  Tony Martin (GER) Team Columbia-HTC + 50′ 53″
10  Yury Trofimov (RUS) Bbox Bouygues Telecom + 1h 04′ 50″

Team classification[edit]

Pos. Team Time
1 Astana Astana riders were awarded the final yellow numbers as team classification winners 243h 56′ 04″
2 Garmin-Slipstream + 22′ 35″
3 Team Saxo Bank + 28′ 34″
4 Ag2r-La Mondiale + 31′ 47″
5 Liquigas + 43′ 31″
6 Euskaltel-Euskadi + 58′ 05″
7 Française des Jeux + 1h 01′ 48″
8 Cofidis + 1h 05′ 34″
9 Team Katusha + 1h 13′ 57″
10 Agritubel + 1h 20′ 38″

Money classification[edit]

[18]

Pos. Team Earnings
1 Astana €697,050
2 Team Saxo Bank €362,850
3 Liquigas €156,360
4 Garmin-Slipstream €151,870
5 Team Columbia-High Road €102,300
6 Cervélo TestTeam €86,710
7 Bbox Bouygues Telecom €63,470
8 Ag2r-La Mondiale €54,730
9 Euskaltel-Euskadi €49,820
10 Cofidis €40,690

World Rankings points[edit]

The following points were earned in the Tour towards the 2009 UCI World Ranking.

Rider Team Nationality Stage Overall Total
Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador Astana  Spain 64 200 264
Schleck, AndyAndy Schleck Team Saxo Bank  Luxembourg 22 150 172
Cavendish, MarkMark Cavendish Team Columbia-HTC  United Kingdom 126 126
Armstrong, LanceLance Armstrong Astana  USA 4 120 124
Schleck, FränkFränk Schleck Team Saxo Bank  Luxembourg 24 100 124
Wiggins, BradleyBradley Wiggins Garmin-Slipstream  United Kingdom 8 110 118
Klöden, AndreasAndreas Klöden Astana  Germany 4 90 94
Nibali, VincenzoVincenzo Nibali Liquigas  Italy 10 80 90
Vande Velde, ChristianChristian Vande Velde Garmin-Slipstream  USA 70 70
Astarloza, MikelMikel Astarloza Euskaltel-Euskadi  Spain 26 40 66
Kreuziger, RomanRoman Kreuziger Liquigas  Czech Republic 60 60
Hushovd, ThorThor Hushovd Cervélo TestTeam  Norway 56 56
Casar, SandySandy Casar Française des Jeux  France 20 30 50
Le Mével, ChristopheChristophe Le Mével Française des Jeux  France 50 50
Farrar, TylerTyler Farrar Garmin-Slipstream  USA 36 36
Cancellara, FabianFabian Cancellara Team Saxo Bank   Switzerland 30 30
FedrigoPierrick Fédrigo Bbox Bouygues Telecom  France 26 26
Feillu, BriceBrice Feillu Agritubel  France 26 26
Ivanov, SergueiSerguei Ivanov Team Katusha  Russia 24 24
Karpets, VladimirVladimir Karpets Team Katusha  Russia 24 24
Nocentini, RinaldoRinaldo Nocentini Ag2r-La Mondiale  Italy 4 20 24
Freire, ÓscarÓscar Freire Rabobank  Spain 22 22
GarateJuan Manuel Gárate Rabobank  Spain 20 20
Haussler, HeinrichHeinrich Haussler Cervélo TestTeam  Germany 20 20
SanchezLuis León Sánchez Caisse d'Epargne  Spain 20 20
Sorensen NNicki Sørensen Team Saxo Bank  Denmark 20 20
Voeckler, ThomasThomas Voeckler Bbox Bouygues Telecom  France 20 20
Pellizotti, FrancoFranco Pellizotti Liquigas  Italy 18 18
Van Den Broeck, JurgenJurgen Van Den Broeck Silence-Lotto  Belgium 2 16 18
Ciolek, GeraldGerald Ciolek Team Milram  Germany 16 16
Ignatiev, MikhailMikhail Ignatiev Team Katusha  Russia 16 16
Roche, NicolasNicolas Roche Ag2r-La Mondiale  Ireland 14 14
Goubert, StéphaneStéphane Goubert Ag2r-La Mondiale  France 12 12
Kern, ChristopheChristophe Kern Cofidis  France 10 10
Lefèvre, LaurentLaurent Lefèvre Bbox Bouygues Telecom  France 10 10
Martin, TonyTony Martin Team Columbia-HTC  Germany 10 10
Renshaw, MarkMark Renshaw Team Columbia-HTC  Australia 10 10
Rojas, José JoaquínJosé Joaquín Rojas Caisse d'Epargne  Spain 10 10
Sastre, CarlosCarlos Sastre Cervélo TestTeam  Spain 10 10
Txurruka, AmetsAmets Txurruka Euskaltel-Euskadi  Spain 10 10
Botcharov, AlexandreAlexandre Botcharov Team Katusha  Russia 8 8
Chavanel, SylvainSylvain Chavanel Quick Step  France 4 4 8
Hutarovich, YauheniYauheni Hutarovich Française des Jeux  Belarus 8 8
Feillu, RomainRomain Feillu Agritubel  France 6 6
Fröhlinger, JohannesJohannes Fröhlinger Team Milram  Germany 6 6
Hincapie, GeorgeGeorge Hincapie Team Columbia-HTC  USA 6 6
Lemoine, CyrilCyril Lemoine Skil-Shimano  France 6 6
Roulston, HaydenHayden Roulston Cervélo TestTeam  New Zealand 6 6
Dumoulin, SamuelSamuel Dumoulin Cofidis  France 4 4
Duque, LeonardoLeonardo Duque Cofidis  Colombia 4 4
Efimkin, VladimirVladimir Efimkin Ag2r-La Mondiale  Russia 4 4
Fothen, MarkusMarkus Fothen Team Milram  Germany 4 4
Larsson, GustavGustav Larsson Team Saxo Bank  Sweden 4 4
Maaskant, MartijnMartijn Maaskant Garmin-Slipstream  Netherlands 4 4
Martínez, EgoiEgoi Martínez Euskaltel-Euskadi  Spain 4 4
Van Avermaet, GregGreg Van Avermaet Silence-Lotto  Belgium 4 4
Velits, PeterPeter Velits Team Milram  Slovakia 4 4
Arashiro, YukiyaYukiya Arashiro Bbox Bouygues Telecom  Japan 2 2
Evans, CadelCadel Evans Silence-Lotto  Australia 2 2
Millar, DavidDavid Millar Garmin-Slipstream  United Kingdom 2 2
Minard, SébastienSébastien Minard Cofidis  France 2 2
Pineau, JérômeJérôme Pineau Quick Step  France 2 2

Doping[edit]

In the 2009 Tour, Doping controls were conducted by the UCI, with the French body AFLD shadowing the process. Officials targeted top riders like Lance Armstrong and Alberto Contador with an unprecedented amount of tests.[19] While the Armstrong-Contador conflict ruled the headlines, reporting on doping rather took a back seat during the race. The news that Giro runner-up Danilo Di Luca had a positive A probe in the Giro did not change that.[20] Five days after the race finished the UCI announced that that initial Stage 16 winner Mikel Astarloza tested positive for EPO in an out-of-competition test on 26 June, eight days before the race started.[21] Later, Astarloza was removed from the results, and the stage win transferred to Sandy Casar.[16]

Just days before the 2010 Giro d'Italia, 2009 Giro podium finisher and King of the Mountains winner in this Tour Franco Pellizotti was announced by the UCI as a rider of interest in their biological passport program. He was sidelined by his team, and did not race again in 2010. The case was not fully resolved until March 2011, at which time the Court of Arbitration for Sport ordered Pellizotti banned for two years, to pay a fine and court costs, and have all his 2009 results vacated.[6]

In October 2012, Lance Armstrong had all his results post 1998, including the 2009 Tour, voided by the UCI following the USADA investigation into systematic doping.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  2. ^ "The Tour 2009". LeTour.fr. Archived from the original on 25 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  3. ^ "Contador seals 2009 Tour victory". BBC Sport. 26 July 2009. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009. 
  4. ^ "Wiggins 3e en 2009" (in French). L'Equipe. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  5. ^ "Wiggins handed 3rd place on 2009 Tour". Wide World of Sports. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  6. ^ a b "Italian cyclist Franco Pellizotti found guilty of doping by Court of Arbitration for Sport - ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. 2011-03-08. Retrieved 2012-07-10. 
  7. ^ "How the 2009 Tour was won". BBC Sport. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009. 
  8. ^ "Cycling-UCI lift earpieces ban for Tour 13th stage". yahoo.com. 18 June 2009. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  9. ^ "Contador unfazed by anthem mishap at Tour ceremony". Retrieved 26 July 2009. [dead link]
  10. ^ "The 20 teams selected". LeTour.fr. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2009. 
  11. ^ Daniel Benson. "The Tour de France Ladder". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 2013-07-09. 
  12. ^ a b "96ème Tour de France 2009" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  13. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 15 Aug 2011. 
  14. ^ "Tour de France 2009 Regulations". LeTour.fr. Retrieved 6 July 2009. 
  15. ^ "Astarloza tests positive for EPO, UCI says". Velo News. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009. 
  16. ^ a b Augendre, Jacques (2010). "Guide Historique, Part 4" (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2010. 
  17. ^ a b "Tour de France – 2009". Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  18. ^ "Bijna 700 000 euro voor Astana" (in Dutch). Tourdefrance.nl. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  19. ^ "Armstrong on doping: 'I think I've answered the question'". CNN. Retrieved 27 July 2009. 
  20. ^ "Italian Di Luca fails doping test". BBC. 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  21. ^ "Astarloza tests positive for EPO, UCI says". Velo News. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  22. ^ "Lance Armstrong: Governing body strips American of Tour wins". BBC News. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 

External links[edit]