Tourism in Belize

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Great Blue Hole is a prime ecotourism destination. A World Heritage Site, ranked among the top 10 nominees for the world's New 7 Wonders of Nature.[1]
Thousand Foot Falls actually stand at about 1,600 feet high. It is the highest waterfall in Central America.[1]

Tourism in Belize has grown considerably recently, and it is now the second largest industry in the nation. Belizean Prime Minister Dean Barrow has stated his intention to use tourism to combat poverty throughout the country.[2] The growth in tourism has positively affected the agricultural, commercial, and finance industries, as well as the construction industry. The results for Belize's tourism-driven economy have been significant, with the nation welcoming almost one million tourists in a calendar year for the first time in its history in 2012.[3]

History[edit]

Prior to its independence in 1981, Belize was not regarded as a place to travel due to lack of infrastructure to cater to large-scale tourism. However, rapid expansion of the tourist industry over the last decade has made it the nation's second largest industry.

Tourism[edit]

Belize has large array of diverse tourists, adventure tourists and eco-tourist attractions. The Belize Barrier Reef (second largest in the world), over 450 offshore Cayes (islands), excellent fishing, safe waters for windsurfing, swimming, cave rafting, boating, paddleboarding, scuba diving, and snorkelling, numerous rivers for rafting, and kayaking, various jungle and wildlife reserves of fauna and flora, for hiking, bird watching, and helicopter touring, as well as many Maya ruins—support the thriving tourism and ecotourism industry. Of the hundreds of cave systems, Belize also holds the largest cave system in Central America, 544 species of birds, and well-preserved natural beauty. Despite all this, it is still among the least visited country in the region.[4]

Development costs are high, but the Government of Belize has designated tourism as its second development priority after agriculture. In 2012, tourist arrivals totalled 917,869 (with about 584,683 from the U.S.) and tourist receipts amounted to over $1.3 billion.[3]

Tourism is the domain of the Ministry of Tourism, within which the Belize Tourism Board works as a link between the private and public sector.[5]

The tourism industry is an important part of the economy of Belize, in 2007 contributing to over 25% of all jobs, and making up over 18% of the GDP.[6] This constituted 590 million BZD (295 million USD), according to the Belize government, up 90 million BZD (45 million USD) from the year before.[6] Important tourist attractions in Belize include the natural attractions of land and sea, making the areas important in Ecotourism, as well as the historic ruins of Belize's Pre-Columbian Maya civilization.

Popular tourist destinations include San Pedro Town and Caye Caulker, both located about 70 km and 40 km east off the coast of Belize, both situation only a few miles from the Barrier Reef at any point. They have been regarded as a "tropical paradises" by the Los Angeles Times.[7] Cruise ships have been docking in Belize City, and average 850,000 tourists alone every year, some who partake in tours to nearby districts as well as the colonial city.[8]

Almond Beach, Hopkins
Maya Beach, Placencia
Half Moon Caye

Mainland Beaches[edit]

Popular Cayes[edit]

Main article: Islands of Belize

Rural and community-based tourism[edit]

Many privately run companies have cooperatives in Southern Belize that manage a rural and community-based tourism project, which has been developed with support from the UNESCO. Tourism allows otherwise marginalized minorities such as the Maya and the Garifuna people to receive new opportunities in alternative markets, harvest crops, preserve and involve foreigners in their culture and diversify their income.[9] Many companies offer visitors the opportunity to visit a cacao, cashew farm, learn about Maya, Kriol or Garifuna craftsmanship, and even to stay overnight on a Maya, Kriol or Garifuna village and explore with a community guide.

Ecological tourism[edit]

Biodiversity is an asset for ecotourism. Shown a notable bird species, the Red-lored Amazon

Eco-tourism aims to be ecologically and socially conscious, it focuses on local culture, wilderness, and adventure. Belize's eco-tourism is growing with every passing year,[10] it boasts a number of eco-tourist tours and energy efficient hotels, with environmentally-conscious and renewable resources.[11]

Waterfalls[edit]

Archaeological reserves[edit]

Overlooking the Caracol ruins, the most extensive archaeological site in the country.[12]
Further information: Maya ruins of Belize

Before the arrival of Europeans in America, Belize lay in the heartland of the Maya civilisation, and consequently contains some of the earliest and most important Maya ruins.[13] Archaeological findings at Caracol, in the southern end of the country, have suggested that it formed the centre of political struggles in the southern Maya lowlands.[13] The complex covered an area much larger than present-day Belize City and supported more than twice the modern city's population.[12] Meanwhile, Lamanai, in the north, is known for being the longest continually-occupied site in Mesoamerica, settled during the early Preclassic era and continuously occupied up to and during the area's colonisation.[13]

While the majority of reserves under this category are related to the pre-colonial era, Serpon Sugar Mill and Yarborough Cemetery, both designated in 2009, only date from the 19th century and are alternatively described as historical reserves.[14]

The country's 15 archaeological sites are managed by the Institute of Archaeology, a branch of the National Institute of Culture and History (NICH),[15] which comes under the authority of the Ministry of Tourism, Civil Aviation and Culture.[16] This type of protected area was gazetted under the Ancient Monuments and Antiquities Act, 1 May 1972.[15][17] All of the following reserves are open to the public. Many other sites, such as Cuello and Uxbenka, are located on private land and can only be visited if prior permission is obtained from the landowner.[13]

List of Maya Ruins in Belize[edit]

The following is a list of other archaeological sites located within Belize:

Main natural attractions[edit]

Roughly 26% (2.6 million acres, or 1.22 million hectares) of Belizean land and sea is preserved within a total of 95 reserves, which vary in their purpose and level of protection.[18][19] This network of protected areas exists under a variety of management structures:[20]

National parks[edit]

In Belize, national parks are areas designed for the protection and preservation of natural and aesthetic features of national significance for the benefit and enjoyment of the people. Therefore, they are areas of recreation and tourism, as well as environmental protection. National parks are gazetted under the National Parks System Act of 1981.[21] They are administered by the Forest Department and managed through partnership agreements with community-based non-governmental organisations.

List of national parks
Reserve District Size
(ha)
Size
(acres)
IUCN Co-management Est. Description
Aguas Turbias Orange Walk 3,541 8,750 II [note 1] 1994 [22]
Bacalar Chico Belize 4,510 11,100 V Green Reef Environmental Institute [note 2] 1996 Excludes adjacent marine reserve.[23][24]
Billy Barquedier Stann Creek 663 1,640 II Steadfast Tourism and Conservation Association 2001 [25]
Chiquibul Cayo 106,839 264,000 II Friends for Conservation and Development 1995 Excludes adjacent forest reserve.[26][27]
Five Blues Lake Cayo 1,643 4,060 II Friends of Five Blues Lake National Park 1994 [28]
Gra Gra Lagoon Stann Creek 534 1,320 II Friends of Gra Gra Lagoon 2002 [29]
Guanacaste Cayo 23 57 II Belize Audubon Society 1994 [30][31]
Honey Camp Corozal / Orange Walk 3,145 7,770 II Association of Friends of Freshwater Creek [note 3] 2001 [32]
Laughing Bird Caye Stann Creek 4,095 10,120 II Southern Environmental Association 1996 [33][34]
Mayflower Bocawina Stann Creek 2,868 7,090 II Friends of Mayflower Bocawina National Park 2001 [35][36]
Monkey Bay Belize 859 2,120 II Guardians of the Jewel [note 2] 1994 [37][38]
Nojkaaxmeen Elijio Panti Cayo 5,130 12,700 II Belize Development Foundation [note 4] 2001 [39][40][41]
Payne's Creek Toledo 14,739 36,420 II Toledo Institute for Development and Environment 1994 [42][43]
Peccary Hills Belize 4,260 10,500 II Gracie Rock Reserve for Adventure, Culture and Ecotourism 2007 [44][45]
Río Blanco Toledo 38 94 II Río Blanco Mayan Association 1994 [46]
Sarstoon-Temash Toledo 16,938 41,850 II Sarstoon Temash Institute for Indigenous Management 1994 Ramsar site.[47][48]
St. Herman's Blue Hole Toledo 269 660 II Belize Audubon Society 1986 [49][50]

Natural monuments[edit]

A natural monument is designated for the preservation of unique geographic features of the landscape. The designation is primarily based on a feature's high scenic value, but may also be regarded as a cultural landmark that represents or contributes to a national identity.

Natural monuments are gazetted under the National Parks System Act of 1981;[21] marine-based monuments additionally come under the Fisheries Act. Of the five natural monuments in the country, three are terrestrial, administered by the Forest Department, while the remaining two are marine-based and come under the authority of the Fisheries Department.

List of natural monuments
Image Reserve District Size
(ha)
Size
(acres)
IUCN Co-management Est. Description
Actun tunichil muknal-pottery.jpg Actun Tunichil Muknal Cayo 185 460 Ia Belize Audubon Society; Institute of Archaeology 2004 Terrestrial.[51][52]
Blue Hole coral.jpg Blue Hole Belize 414 1,020 III Belize Audubon Society 1996 Marine.[53][54][55]
BZECAYE.jpg Half Moon Caye Belize 3,954 9,770 II Belize Audubon Society 1982 Marine.[56][57]
1,000 foot water fall at Mountain Pine Ridge in Belize.jpg Thousand Foot Falls Cayo 522 1,290 III [note 5] 2004 Terrestrial.[58]
Victoria-peak-2.jpg Victoria Peak Stann Creek 1,959 4,840 III Belize Audubon Society 1998 Terrestrial.[59][60]

Nature reserves[edit]

Wilderness scene in the Bladen Nature Reserve.

The country's three nature reserves enjoy the highest level of protection within the national protected areas system. The designation was created for the strict protection of biological communities or ecosystems, and the maintenance of natural processes in an undisturbed state. They are typically pristine, wilderness ecosystems.

Nature reserves are legislated under the National Parks System Act of 1981.[21] It is the strictest designation of all categories within the country's national protected areas system, with no extractive use or tourism access permitted. Permits are required to enter the area and are restricted to researchers only. The nature reserves are under the authority of the Forest Department.

The oldest of these, Bladen Nature Reserve, forms the centrepiece of the Maya Mountains biological corridor, and is considered one of the most biodiversity-rich, and topographically unique areas within the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot.

List of nature reserves
Reserve District Size
(ha)
Size
(acres)
IUCN Co-management Est. Description
Bladen Toledo 40,411 99,860 Ia Ya’axché Conservation Trust; Bladen Management Consortium 1990 [61][62]
Burdon Canal Belize 2,126 5,250 Ia [note 6] 1992 [63]
Tapir Mountain Cayo 2,550 6,300 Ia Belize Audubon Society 1994 Formerly known as Society Hall Nature Reserve.[64][65]

Wildlife sanctuaries[edit]

Wildlife sanctuaries are created for the preservation of an important keystone species in the ecosystem. By preserving enough area for them to live in, many other species receive the protection they need as well.

Wildlife sanctuaries are gazetted under the National Parks System Act of 1981, and are the responsibility of the Forest Department.[21] There are currently seven wildlife sanctuaries, three of which are being managed under co-management partnerships, whilst the other four are managed under informal arrangements. Two of the following wildlife sanctuaries are considered to be marine protected areas, and may also have collaborative agreements with the Fisheries Department in place.

List of wildlife sanctuaries
Reserve District Size
(ha)
Size
(acres)
IUCN Co-management Est. Description
Aguacaliente Toledo 2,213 5,470 IV Aguacaliente Management Team [note 2] 1998 Terrestrial.[66][67]
Cockscomb Basin Stann Creek / Toledo 49,477 122,260 IV Belize Audubon Society 1997 Terrestrial.[68]
Corozal Bay Belize / Corozal 73,049 180,510 IV Sarteneja Alliance for Conservation and Development [note 2] 1998 Marine.[69][70]
Crooked Tree Belize / Orange Walk 15,372 37,990 IV Belize Audubon Society 1984 Ramsar site. Boundaries ill defined. Terrestrial.[71]
Gales Point Belize 3,681 9,100 IV Gales Point Wildlife Sanctuary Community Management Committee [note 2] 1998 Terrestrial.[72][73]
Spanish Creek Belize / Orange Walk 2,428 6,000 IV Rancho Dolores Development Group [note 2] 2002 Terrestrial.[74]
Swallow Caye Belize 3,631 8,970 IV Friends of Swallow Caye 2002 Marine.[75][76]

Forest reserves[edit]

Big Rock Falls in the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve.

Forest reserves, overseen by the Forest Department, are designed for the sustainable extraction of timber without destroying the biodiversity of the location. These are gazetted under the Forests Act of 1927,[77] which allows the department to grant permits to logging companies after extensive review. There are currently 16 forest reserves with a combined acreage of 380,328 hectares (939,810 acres), making up 9.3% of total national territory.[15]

List of forest reserves
Reserve District Size
(ha)
Size
(acres)
IUCN Est. Description
Caye Caulker Belize 38 94 VI 1998 Excludes adjacent marine reserve.[78]
Chiquibul Cayo 59,822 147,820 VI 1995 Excludes adjacent national park.[79]
Columbia River Cayo / Toledo 60,016 148,300 VI 1997 [80]
Deep River Toledo 27,232 67,290 VI [81]
Fresh Water Creek Corozal / Orange Walk 13,513 33,390 VI 1926 [82]
Grants Work Stann Creek 3,199 7,900 VI 1989 [83]
Machaca Toledo 1,253 3,100 VI 1998 [84]
Manatee Belize / Stann Creek 36,621 90,490 VI 1959 [85]
Mango Creek Stann Creek / Toledo 12,090 29,900 VI 1989 Comprises two separate segments.[86][87]
Monkey Caye Toledo 669 1,650 VI 1996 [88]
Mountain Pine Ridge Cayo 43,372 107,170 VI 1944 [89][90]
Maya Mountain Stann Creek 16,887 41,730 VI 1997 [91]
Sibun Cayo 32,849 81,170 VI 1959 [92][90]
Sittee River Stann Creek 37,360 92,300 VI [93]
Swasey Bladen Toledo 5,980 14,800 VI 1989 [94]
Vaca Cayo 14,118 34,890 VI 1991 [95]

Marine reserves[edit]

Coral patch in the Hol Chan Marine Reserve.

Marine reserves are designed for the conservation of aquatic ecosystems, including marine wildlife and its environment. The majority of these reserves contribute to the conservation of Belize's Barrier Reef, which provides a protective shelter for pristine atolls, seagrass meadows and rich marine life. The preservation of the Barrier Reef system has been recognised as a global interest through the collective designation of seven protected areas, including four of the following marine reserves, as a World Heritage Site.

Marine reserves are legislated under the Fisheries Act, and are administered by the Fisheries Department. One of the department's key responsibilities is to ensure the sustainable extraction of marine resources. There are currently eight marine reserves, management of which is either direct, by the department, or in partnership with non-governmental agencies.

List of marine reserves
Reserve District Size
(ha)
Size
(acres)
IUCN Co-management Est. Description
Bacalar Chico Belize 6,391 15,790 IV Green Reef Environmental Institute [note 2] 1996 Excludes adjacent national park. Divided into two zones: a conservation zone,[96] and a general use zone.[97][24]
Caye Caulker Belize 3,913 9,670 VI Forest & Marine Reserves Association of Caye Caulker 1998 Excludes adjacent forest reserve.[98]
Gladden Spit and Silk Cayes Stann Creek 10,514 25,980 IV Southern Environmental Association 2000 Divided into two zones: a general use zone,[99] and a conservation zone.[100][101][102]
Glover's Reef Belize 86,653 214,120 IV 1993 In 2001, the reserve was divided into four zones: a general use zone,[103] a conservation zone,[104] a seasonal closure zone,[105] and a wilderness zone.[106] A spawning aggregation zone was broken off in 2003 and comes under separate management (see below).
Hol Chan Belize 1,444 3,570 II Hol Chan Trust Fund 1987 Divided into four zones: Mangrove,[107] Seagrass,[108] Shark Ray Alley,[109] and Coral Reef.[110][111]
Port Honduras Toledo 40,470 100,000 IV Toledo Institute for Development and Environment 2000 Divided into two zones: a general use zone,[112] and a conservation zone.[113]
Sapodilla Cayes Toledo 15,618 38,590 IV Southern Environmental Association 1996 [114]
South Water Caye Stann Creek 47,702 117,870 IV 1996 [115][116]

Gallery[edit]

Attractions By District[edit]

Belize District

Stann Creek District

Orange Walk District

Cayo District

Toledo District

Corozal District

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There is no current co-management partner, nor on-site presence, though the area has been included in past conservation planning under Programme for Belize.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Prospective co-management organisation. No formal co-management agreements are currently being made, but these organisations have informal co-management authority.
  3. ^ No longer active.
  4. ^ Until 2010, co-management was held by the Itzamna Society.
  5. ^ Managed directly by the Forest Department as part of the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve.
  6. ^ Currently has no co-management partner and is managed directly by the Forest Department, though with no on-site presence. It is considered a paper park.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "THE TOP 77". New7Wonders. Retrieved 2009-07-10.  This is the list of the Top 77 nominees eligible for consideration by the Panel of Experts, that by July 21, 2009 will select the 28 Official Finalist Candidates.
  2. ^ Cuellar, Marleni (2013-03-01). "Foreign direct investments and tourism up". Channel 5 Belize (Belize). Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  3. ^ a b 2012: A Remarkable Year for Belize’s Tourism Industry. San Pedro Sun Newspaper. Retrieved on 6 March 2013.
  4. ^ "Nicaragua Travel Guide". Travelotica. Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  5. ^ "Mission Statement". Belize Tourism Board. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  6. ^ a b Barrow, Dean (2008-05-15). "Key Note Address by Prime Minister, Hon. Dean Barrow to the 10th Annual Industry Presentation". belizemediacenter.org. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  7. ^ Wedner, Diane (2007-04-06). "Nicaragua's Corn Islands, an unspoiled Paradise". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  8. ^ "Belize update: More tourists & greater". Escape Artist. Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  9. ^ Butler, Felicity. "Rural and community-based tourism harvests greater yields". Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  10. ^ Jennings, Trent. "Luxury Ecotourism in Belize". usatoday.com (USA Today). Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  11. ^ "Ecotourism in Belize - Overview". Earth.com. Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  12. ^ a b Caracol Archaeological Project (2011). "Site Overview". Caracol.org. University of Central Florida, College of Sciences. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c d Association for Belizean Archaeology (2008). "Maya Archaeological Sites in Belize". Maya Sites in Belize. Cubola Productions, Casado Internet Group. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  14. ^ Institute of Archaeology 2011, Serpon Sugar Mill
  15. ^ a b c Meerman J.C. (August 2005). "Protected Area Categories". National Protected Area System Analysis. 
  16. ^ National Institute of Culture and History. "About NICH". Government of Belize, Ministry of Tourism, Civil Aviation and Culture. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  17. ^ The Laws of Belize 2000, Chpt. 330
  18. ^ Ramos, Adele (2 July 2010). "Belize protected areas 26% - not 40-odd percent". Amandala News Online. Retrieved 2011-04-27. 
  19. ^ Meerman, Jan (2005). "National Protected Areas Analysis". National Protected Areas Policy & Systems Plan. Government of Belize, Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment. Retrieved 2011-04-27. 
  20. ^ Biodiversity & Environmental Resource Data System. "Protected Areas". Belize Tropical Forest Studies. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  21. ^ a b c d The Laws of Belize 2000, Chpt. 215
  22. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 64.
  23. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 67.
  24. ^ a b Green Reef Environmental Institute. "The World Heritage Site". Greenreef Belize. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  25. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 13.
  26. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 85.
  27. ^ Friends for Conservation and Development (2011). "Index". FCD Belize. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  28. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 95.
  29. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 102.
  30. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 104.
  31. ^ Belize Audubon Society 2008, Guanacaste National Park.
  32. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107.
  33. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 109.
  34. ^ Naturalight Productions Ltd. (2011). "Laughing Bird Caye National Park". SEA Belize. Southern Environmental Association. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  35. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 115.
  36. ^ Salam, T. "Friends of Mayflower-Bocawina National Park". APAMO. Association of Protected Areas Management Organisations. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  37. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 116.
  38. ^ Guardians of the Jewel (2011). "Projects". Google. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  39. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 122.
  40. ^ Garcia, M. (2002). "Noj Kaax Meen Elijio Panti National Park". Elijio Panti National Park. Itzamna Society. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  41. ^ Belize Development Foundation (2011). "Noj K’a’ax Meen Elijio Panti National Park". Elijio Panti National Park Official Website. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  42. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 124.
  43. ^ Toledo Institute for Development and Environment. "Payne's Creek National Park". Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  44. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107637.
  45. ^ Gracie Rock Reserve for Adventure, Culture and Ecotourism. "GRACE Initiative". Rainforest Carbon Remove Society. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  46. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 126.
  47. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 134.
  48. ^ Gomez, L. "About SATIIM". Sarstoon Temash Institute for Indigenous Management. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  49. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 75.
  50. ^ Belize Audubon Society 2008, St. Hermans Blue Hole National Park.
  51. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 1981.
  52. ^ Belize Audubon Society 2008, Actun Tunichil Muknal Natural Monument.
  53. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 73.
  54. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 74.
  55. ^ Belize Audubon Society 2008, Blue Hole Natural Monument.
  56. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 105.
  57. ^ Belize Audubon Society 2008, Half Moon Caye Natural Monument.
  58. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 150.
  59. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 152.
  60. ^ Belize Audubon Society 2008, Victoria Peak Natural Monument.
  61. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 71.
  62. ^ Ya’axché Conservation Trust. "Bladen Nature Reserve". Yaaxche.org. Ya’axché Conservation Trust. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  63. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 77.
  64. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 149.
  65. ^ Belize Audubon Society 2008, Tapir Mountain Nature Reserve.
  66. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 62.
  67. ^ Pop, F. "Aguacaliente Management Team". APAMO. Association of Protected Areas Management Organisations. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  68. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 86.
  69. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 89.
  70. ^ Verde, J. (2011). "Corozal Bay Wildlife Sanctuary". Sarteneja Alliance for Conservation and Development. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  71. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 90.
  72. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 97.
  73. ^ Gales Point Wildlife Sanctuary Community Management Committee (2009). "The Sanctuary". Gales Point. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  74. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 145.
  75. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 146.
  76. ^ Friends of Swallow Caye (2006). "Friends of Swallow Caye News". Belize Manatees. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  77. ^ The Laws of Belize 2000, Chpt. 213
  78. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 81.
  79. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 84.
  80. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 87.
  81. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 91.
  82. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 96.
  83. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 103.
  84. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 111.
  85. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 154.
  86. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 112.
  87. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 113.
  88. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 118.
  89. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 119.
  90. ^ a b "Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve". Belize National Parks, Natural Reserves, & Wildlife Sanctuaries. Casado Internet Group. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  91. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 114.
  92. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 138.
  93. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 140.
  94. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 147.
  95. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 151.
  96. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107651.
  97. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 66.
  98. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 82.
  99. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 98.
  100. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107652.
  101. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 139.
  102. ^ "Gladen Split/Silk Cayes". SEA Belize. Southern Environmental Association. Retrieved 12 October 2011. 
  103. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 100.
  104. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107653.
  105. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107655.
  106. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107654.
  107. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107656.
  108. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 106.
  109. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107658.
  110. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107657.
  111. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107659.
  112. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 125.
  113. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 107660.
  114. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 133.
  115. ^ Belize Tropical Forest Studies 2010, p. 144.
  116. ^ South Water Caye Marine Reserve. "Welcome". Government of Belize, Fisheries Department. Retrieved 5 September 2011.