Tourism in Burma

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Tourism in Burma (Myanmar) is a slowly developing sector. Although Burma possesses great tourist potential and attractions in many fields, much of the industry remains to be developed. Also, the number of visitors to Burma is comparatively small compared to her neighbours - even outpaced by Laos. This is primarily due to its current political situation. However, after the junta transferred power to the civilian government, the tourism sector saw an increase in tourism arrivals and in 2012, tourist arrivals surpassed the one million mark for the first time. In 2013, the Tourism Master Plan was created, targeting 7.5 million arrivals by 2020. [1]

Tourism in Burma has been developed mainly by the government, but many private enterprises do exist, catering to a wide range of tourists.

Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country.

  • In 2010, 791,505 foreign tourists visited Myanmar, with 295,174 foreign tourists entering the country via Yangon International Airport.[2]
  • In 2012, more than 1 million foreign tourists visited Myanmar and that figure is expected to rise to around 1.5 million in 2013.
  • In 2013, the number of foreign arrivals reached more than 2.04 million , counting both air and overland arrivals.[1]

Tourism has been promoted by advocacy groups as a method of providing economic benefit to Burmese civilians, and to avoid isolating the country from the rest of the world. Voices for Burma, a pro-democracy advocate group, states, "We believe that small-scale, responsible tourism can create more benefits than harm. So long as tourists are fully aware of the situation and take steps to maximise their positive impact and minimise the negatives, we feel their visit can be beneficial overall. Responsible tourists can help Burma primarily by bringing money to local communities and small businesses, and by raising awareness of the situation worldwide."[3]

Regardless, a majority of advocacy groups discourage tourism. The junta's forced labour programmes were focused around tourist destinations which have been heavily criticised for their human rights records. A former Burmese tourism minister estimated that 12% of the government revenues are derived from tourism, with the tourism industry contributing $182 million USD (2007) to the government's annual budget.[4]

Statistics[edit]

In the 2010-2011 fiscal year, tourists comprised 73.84% (313,127 arrivals) of overseas visitors, primarily entering the country by air, representing 69.26% of arrivals, followed by land and sea, which represented 29.97% and 0.77% of arrivals respectively.[5] An additional 110,914 visitors arrived through other visa types AND represented an additional 26.16% of the total.[5] In 2012, revenues from tourism jumped to over $534 million in 2012, up from $315 million in 2011. [6]

General trends[edit]

Year Tourist arrivals [7]
2013 2,044,307
2012 1,058,995
2011 816,369
2010 791,505
2009 762,547
Fiscal Year Tourist arrivals  % change
2010-2011 313127 Increase 4.88%
2009-2010 298556 Increase 16.95%
2008-2009 255288 Decrease -11.60%
2007-2008 288776 Decrease -22.16%
2006-2007 370974 -

Tourists by nationality[edit]

The governmental statistics body, the Central Statistical Organization, reported more than 1,000,000 travelers flocked to Myanmar in 2012, compared with approximately 816,000 visitors in 2011. Among these, 593,391 tourist arrivals (excluding visitors under special entry visas such as social or business visas) were via Yangon International Airport.[8]

Rank Country number of tourists  % Total
1  Thailand 94,342 15.93%
2  China 70,805 11.93%
3  Japan 47,690 8.04%
4  United States 37,589 6.34%
5  South Korea 34,805 5.87%
6  Malaysia 30,499 5.14%
7  France 30,064 5.07%
8  Singapore 26,296 4.43%
9  United Kingdom 24,296 4.09%
10  Germany 23,063 3.89%
11  Taiwan 22,060 3.72%
12  Australia 18,261 3.08%
13  India 16,868 2.84%
14  Italy 10,830 1.83%
15   Switzerland 8,034 1.35%

The governmental statistics body, the Central Statistical Organization, reported 216,861 tourist arrivals (excluding visitors under special entry visas such as social or business visas) via Yangon International Airport in the fiscal year 2010-2011.[9]

Rank Country Amount  % Total
Male Female Total
1  Thailand 19637 29874 49511 22.83%
2 Other countries1 14425 13313 27738 12.79%
3  China 18986 3885 22871 10.55%
4  France 6783 6701 13484 6.22%
5  South Korea 8189 5272 13461 6.21%
6  Malaysia 7865 5423 13288 6.13%
7  Germany 5315 4647 9962 4.59%
8  Japan 6373 2874 9247 4.26%
9  United States 5024 3717 8741 4.03%
10  Italy 3732 3933 7665 3.53%
11  Taiwan 4740 2612 7352 3.39%
12  Singapore 3361 2309 5670 2.61%
13  United Kingdom 3156 2047 5203 2.40%
14   Switzerland 2155 2183 4338 2.00%
15  Australia 2383 1846 4229 1.95%
16  India 2097 688 2785 1.28%
17  Belgium 1228 1205 2433 1.12%
18  Russia 1137 1221 2358 1.09%
19  Netherlands 1222 1017 2239 1.03%
20  Canada 1073 785 1858 0.86%
21  Israel 548 502 1050 0.48%
22  Bangladesh 821 128 949 0.44%
23  Pakistan 318 111 429 0.20%

1 Including Austria, Brunei, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Spain and Sweden.

Tourist attractions[edit]

The most popular available tourist destinations in Burma include big cities such as Yangon and Mandalay; religious sites in Mon State, Pindaya, Bago and Hpa-An; nature trails in Inle Lake, Kengtung, Putao, Pyin Oo Lwin; ancient cities such as Bagan and Mrauk-U; as well as beaches in Ngapali, Ngwe-Saung, Mergui. [10]

Yangon[edit]

Mandalay[edit]

Mon State[edit]

Rakhine State[edit]

Shan State[edit]

Other beaches[edit]

Ecotourism[edit]

Politics[edit]

Burma's pro-democracy leader, Aung San Suu Kyi has, in the past, asked for tourism to be boycotted. However, she has not asserted this view recently. This might be due to public opinion being in favour of tourism. The majority of democracy advocates demand a complete boycott of tourism to Burma. Other pro-democracy activists, such as Ma Thanegi, advocate small scale tourism, and careful spending.

In May 2011, however, Aung San Suu Kyi and her party National League for Democracy expressed the opinion that responsible tourism to Burma should be encouraged. Tourists are welcome to Burma provided they are "keen to promote the welfare of the common people and the conservation of the environment and to acquire an insight into the cultural, political and social life of the country while enjoying a happy and fulfilling holiday in Burma." [11] [12] In their official statement they request not only the development of the people's livelihood but also the promotion of "self respect and self reliance in the people." [13]

Certain tour books, such as Lonely Planet, cover Burma, stating that it provides balanced information and spending methods to get the money into the hands of the people, while some, such as Rough Guides, refuse to publish on Burma. Most Ministries of Foreign Affairs in the Western world recommend travel agencies and citizens not to engage in tourism activities in Burma. [14]

Research conducted in 2012 cautions against the assumption that more foreign tourism, even in the framework of the government's "Responsible Tourism Policy," [15] would automatically support the people of Burma and lead to a Trickle-down effect.[16] Rather, it concludes, tourism would most likely benefit crony businesses and further entrench human rights violations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Amid Burma Tourism Boom, Calls for Govt to Aid Development". Retrieved 9 January 2014. 
  2. ^ Feng, Yingqiu (1 June 2011). "Myanmar continues efforts in developing tourism". Xinhua. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  3. ^ Voices For Burma's tourism policy http://www.voicesforburma.org/
  4. ^ Report on Tourism in Burma. Info Birmanie. March 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "Table 29.OVERSEAS VISITORS". Central Statistical Organization. Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  6. ^ "Tourist income surges 70% in Myanmar". Investvine.com. 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  7. ^ http://www.panoramaworldwide.com/thai/tvprogramme/vikrom/1363.html
  8. ^ "Table 30.TOURIST ARRIVALS BY NATIONALITY". Central Statistical Organization. Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  9. ^ "Table 30.TOURIST ARRIVALS BY NATIONALITY". Central Statistical Organization. Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  10. ^ "Myanmar Travel Agency". birma.com. p. Tourist Destinations. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Michael Kerr (12 April 2012). "Burma: how can holidaymakers visit ethically?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  12. ^ Charlie Norton (14 August 2009). "Burma opposition leader Suu Kyi: 'Tourism might help'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  13. ^ "NLD statement No 10/05/11 released on 20th May 2011 regarding tourism in Burma". National League for Democracy. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  14. ^ "UK successful in stopping travel to Burma. Information from Burma Campaign UK". www.burmacampaign.org.uk. Mark Farmaner, Media and Campaigns Officer. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "Myanmar Responsible Tourism Policy". Burma Center Prague. Ministry of Hotels and Tourism. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  16. ^ Responsible Tourism in Myanmar: Current Situation and Challenges. Burma Center Prague. November 2012. 

External links[edit]