Tourism in Egypt

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Tourists riding a dromedary camel in front of the Pyramid of Khafre. The Pyramids of Giza are one of Egypt's most popular tourist draws.

Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt's economy. More than 12.8 million tourists visited Egypt in 2008, providing revenues of nearly $11 billion. The sector employs about 12% of Egypt's workforce.[1]

Statistics[edit]

Income from tourism (1982–2003)

In 2000, there are about 5.5 million foreign tourist arrivals. In 2010, the number of the foreign tourist arrivals is about 14 million.[2]

On the other hand, in 2013, Egypt is ranking the 85th position of world's best country in terms of tourism and traveling, while in 2011, it was the 75th.[3]

In 2010, the receipts for the international tourism in Egypt is $13,633,000,000. With a great increase, Egypt raised an amount of money that was about $2,942,000,000 in 1998.[2]

Major attractions[edit]

Abu Simbel Temples

The celebrated tourist attractions of Egypt are the millennia-old monuments for which the Nile Valley is world famous. Principal among them are the Pyramids and Great Sphinx at Giza, the Abu Simbel temples south of Aswan and the Karnak Temple Complex and Valley of the Kings near Luxor. Cairo also boasts the Cairo Museum and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha and the coastal areas of Sinai Peninsula are very popular with visitors as well.[4]

  • Giza, 20 km southwest of Cairo, is the site of some of the most impressive and oldest (26th century BC) ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramids of Giza, a number of other large pyramids and temples, and Cairo's modern tower.
  • Saqqara, some 30 km south of Cairo is a vast, ancient burial ground which served as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis. It features numerous pyramids, including the world's oldest standing step pyramid, as well as a number of mastabas.
  • Luxor, about 500 km south of Cairo, is the site of the ancient city of Thebes and has sometimes been called "the world's greatest open air museum". It includes the ruins of the temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor, which stand within the modern city. On the opposite side of the Nile River lie the monuments, temples and tombs on the West Bank Necropolis, which include the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens.
  • Abu Simbel, about 850 km south of Cairo (near the Sudanese border) is an archaeological site comprising two massive rock temples originally carved out of a mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II (13th century BC). The complex was relocated in its entirety in the 1960s to avoid being submerged during the creation of Lake Nasser. They are now situated on an artificial hill made from a domed structure high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir.
  • Alexandria is a main summer resort, due to its beaches, ancient history and Museums, especially the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, a modern project based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria.
  • Sinai Peninsula- Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, and biblical history. Most popular tourist destination in Sinai are Mount Sinai ("Jabal Musa") and Saint Catherine's Monastery, which is considered to be the oldest working Christian monastery in the world, and the beach resorts of Sharm el-Sheikh, Dahab, Nuweiba and Taba.
  • Ain Sukhna, about 110 km east of Cairo has a number of beach resorts.

Like a piece of Heaven between Al-Minia north and Souhag south, Assiut twinkles in the heart of Egypt thanks to its middle location among the Egyptian governorates, and it is about 375 km in south of Cairo, 470 km in west of Red sea, and 305 km in north of Luxor.

Assiut is counted as one of the best touristic destinations in Egypt because it has many amenities and attractions belong to different ages, which has a great importance in the Egyptian history.

Pharos called the city as "Seut" derived from "Sout" which means "Guardian" in Hieroglyphic language, this name was used about 3000 years, and then it was changed many times, until the Arabs named it "Assiut".

Assiut celebrates its national day on the 18th of April every year, when the local residents of Bani Addiat, Manfalout city, struggled against the French Invasion.

Like the best tourism destinations all over the world, Assiut includes monumental heritage from different states; Pharaonic, Roman, Coptic, Islamic, and Modern age.

Also Assiut has Nile, mountains, a desert, a Natural Parks, a seed for an international hospital, fascinating rural lives, gardens, high-level shops, luxury restaurants, and an excellent transport net to be a perfect tourism destination in Egypt.

Tasa civilization represents the life of the Nile valley residents and their agricultural activities in Assiut in the beginning of the Modern Stone Age. As it seems from the inscriptions, their pottery was relatively better than the other pottery concerning shapes and ornaments.

On the East bank of the Nile stands one of the important cities of Assiut, it is Al-Badary city. It is one of the richest Egyptian civilizations in the Stone Age, which includes some of the important daily aspects such as the agriculture, the ornament, and the furniture …etc. and it considered as the first step for Nakada civilization Ι and ΙΙ.

In the west of Meir village, Alqussia city, and 65 km in the northwest of Assiut there are 9 tombs have been carved in the stone and were dedicated as cemeteries to the rulers and princes of the 14th dynasty. The inscriptions of their walls have very similarity to the daily life activities of the ancients Egyptians.

The tombs are carved in the Western Mountain, Al-Qussia city, dating back to the era of the 6th dynasty till the 12th dynasty. Despite their small walls, these tombs are considered as ones of the most beautiful and eminent monumental tombs, as their whole walls are covered by the daily life scenes and religious rituals. They represent the first step for the carving art.

They are located at a distance of 50 km southeast of Assiut, Al-Hammamiya village, in the south of Al-Badary city. These tombs were dedicated as cemeteries to the rulers and the princes of the 10th Nome of the Upper Egypt "Wagt", and they return back to the end of the 4th dynasty and the beginning of the 5th dynasty.

In Yousouf village, Al-Badary, there are a cluster of tombs date back to the Middle State with a unique architecture due to its semi-circular entrances, and its outer courtyard which includes a couple of terraces found on its both sides and accessed through a side stairs. There are also group of small tombs date back to the Late Era and decorated with vegetal ornaments in shining colors representing some crops such as grapes.

In the 13th Nome, during the Old and Middle states, many tombs are carved in the western mountain, in the west of Assiut city. This Nome was the main center for worship of "Oub Wawat" mortuary guide and spirit leader during its sacred journey to "Anubis"god "Deity of Mortuary". This area is very rich in monumental tombs whether discovered or not yet.

In the village of Deir Al-Gabrawy, Abnoob city, and about 20 km northeast of Assiut city, have been founded Deir al-Gabrawy tombs consisting of a group of tombs carved in the Eastern Mountain for the rulers and the princes of the 12th Nome "Berranti" within the ancient and middle states. These tombs are distinguished by its Egyptian beautiful paintings and ornaments drawn on a surface of soft mortar, which is still keeping their status, in many parts, until now.

A group of tombs carved in the mountain dating back to the Old Dynasty and covered by scenes represent the owners of these tombs and illustrate their daily activities and political authority.

On the top of the Western Hills, in the west of Assiut city, 7 stony tombs are carved in the Mountain for the nobles and the princes of "Shes-Hoteb", the capital of the 11th Nome.

It was a city for the livings who carved their tombs in the Western Mountain of Rifa monastery and Assiut Western Mountain, now it became dusty hill where the current Shotb city built on.

This monastery was built in the 4th century at the foot of the western mountain. Among 26 places the Holy Family resorted to, Al-Mouharraq Monastery has a great importance as the Holy Family stayed in for 185 days which considered the longest period the Holy Family stayed in Egypt. It was a desert except for an abandoned home, instead of its place was launched the oldest monumental church in the Christian world holding a shrine and a cubed stony altar topped by a rounded marble roof with a Greek inscribed text dating back to 746 AD, also the area includes San-George church (1898AD) and the Holy Virgin Mary church (1960AD). With the same style of the forts built by the King "Zinon", there is a monumental-three-floor fort dates back to the end of the 6th century and the beginning of the 7th century.

On a height of 100 m and about 7 km southwest of Assiut city, the Virgin Mary monastery stands in the Western Mountain. it contains a monumental cave dates back to 2500 B.C, and inside there is a church probably built on the same spot where the Holy Family reposed for a few days prior to their returning back to "Beit-Lahm" in Palestine. Every year, there is a festival in the monastery starting from 7th to 21 August receiving great numbers of the Egyptians and the foreigners.

In Al-Ghanayem province 25 km south west of Assiut city, the monastery is embedded in a large cave at the foot of the western mountain, 2 km in the west of Deir El-Ganadla village. Its monuments are represented in number of old caves and the monumental Roman well dates back to the 1st century AD.

In the end of the 4th century AD, in Abnoob city, the Hanging Abbey was built on the Eastern Mountain in Al-Ma'abda village, 35 km northeast of Assiut city. It is a large cave in the mountain contains an altar carved in the stone, and outside the cave there is another church named after the Holy Virgin Mary and The Angel Meichel; the two churches are carved between two eminent hills on a height of 170 m.

The monastery is 80 km northwest of Assiut, and it is very important because the Holy Family shadowed by a tree over there and the tree is still bearing the name of the Holy Virgin Mary in the Monastery.

In a fascinating area, in Mohammad Mahmoud St, Al Qessaria previously-Assiut city, full of the Islamic monuments and Masjids, such as Galal Al-Deen Al-Siuty and Al-Mojahideen Masjid, the Ottoman agencies stand still to be an evidence of the great role of Assiut in the Egyptian commerce. This area includes many commercial shops for trade, haberdashery, copper artifacts, and hand-made textiles;which makes the area looks like Khan Al-Khalily and Al-Azhar quarters in Cairo. Thabet, Shalaby, And Lofty are three Ottoman agencies, each one centralized by a rectangular courtyard and roofed by a ceiling with a big window for lighting and ventilation. In general, each agency is comprised of 2 floors; the lower is dedicated to goods and animals, and the upper to the merchants who are coming from outside Assiut.

Dating back to the Ottoman Era, Thabet Bath is located in Mohammad Mahmoud St. with a unique architectural model reflects the common style in that time. In the past, the Bath had been used by the outsider merchants besides the local residents for washing and cure, and then it was used by the local residents for the general daily uses until short time ago.

It is considered as one of the important monumental aquatic constructions in Assiut city, the Barrage has been established since 1251 H with three holes for the running water, in the time of Mohammad Ali - the ruler of Egypt.

In the Ottoman Era(1120 H-1706 AD), Mohammad Bey-The prince of the sultan brigade- has established one of the oldest Masjids in Mohammad Mahmoud St-Assiut city, it is Al Mojahideen Masjid.The Masjid is considered one of the hanging Masjids and includes most of the famous Islamic architectural elements in that time.

In Abou Teeg city - 27 km south of Assiut city - and in a matchless scene, Al-Farghal Masjid stands still with two high minarets to be one of the famous religious destinations in Assiut city. It includes the grave of Mohammad Al-Farghal -whose origin returns back to Al_Hassan and Al_Hussein- the grandsons of the Prophet Mohammad.

The Masjid of Abo_Alouyon was established With a wonderful geometric design, and it consists of two main buildings; one is a Masjid and the other is a grave for its owner- Ibraheem Abo_Alouyon(died on the 28th of November 1940 AD), and he is a grandson of the Moroccan Noble Ibraheem Abo_Alouyon -whose origin dates back to Al_Hassan the son of Al_Imam Ali (The Accompanier). The Masjid is surrounded by a fence with an Islamic style and a very high minaret.

In a rare style, Al-Gami' Al-Kabeer was established to be one of the largest and oldest Masjids which returns back to the Umayyad Era, and it had been renovated and developed in the time of the King Fouad the first.

In Manfalout city, The Prince Ali Al-Kashef Jamal Al-Deen founded his masterpiece; a mosque (Masjid) bears his name, in 1176 H (1772 AD) in Al Qessaria St.

On a surface of 4 feddans and 8 karats had been chosen by the King Fouad the first, the Religious Institute was based in 1930 AD and finished in 1934 AD with Islamic style, and inaugurated by Farouk the King of Egypt in 1939 AD to be a lighthouse for the Islamic religious sciences.

"All under one roof" this is the description of Al_Salam School Museum in "War & Peace" square; it includes a huge collection of monumental parts from various eras and areas; Predynasty, Pharaonic, Coptic and Islamic Eras, in addition to Sudanese and Ethiopian monuments.

To provide the enough water for irrigation and agriculture purposes, the government constructed Assiut Barrage in 1902 AD with 111 holes and a length of 880 m. Starting from Assiut Barrage, Al-Ebrahimia canal branches off the Nile and ends in Al-Giza to form the longest artificial canal in the Middle East.

Between the past and present, Assiut University arises to be the first regional university in Egypt and bears witness to the development in the Governorate. The University was inaugurated in 1957 AD; it contains various practical and theoretical faculties, some higher institutes, prepared halls for international conferences, five stars hotel, university accommodation, different researching centers and advanced hospitals serve Middle and Upper Egypt.

To complete the civilized scene, Al-Azhar University came to the presence in 1969 AD; side by side appear the Law and Sharia Faculty, Arabic Language Faculty, Islamic Girls Faculty, science, Medicine, Dentist, Engineering, Pharmacy , Agriculture faculties, Educational Hospital and the University housing.

A place to enjoy, have fun, and buy precious souvenirs, of course the Permanent Exhibition provides all of these as it overlooks the Nile through the Floating Restaurant Anchorage - Al Thawra St, Assiut city - and includes wrought and hand-made traditional products which characterize Assiut such as hand-made carpets, pictures, sculptures, statues, icons, medals and so on.

Three Roman Theaters - overlook the Nile - are dedicated to folkloric and cultural shows and a harbor with a capacity of 3 floating hotels, it is the welfare provided by Horus Anchorage (built in 1986 AD) to serve the Tourism and Nile Cruises in Assiut.

For the same purpose, Assiut Touristic Anchorage was built in Al-Thawra St. with a length of 305 m to receive 5 floating hotels simultaneously and catering the cruises between Cairo and Aswan and vice versa.

Al-Ferdous Park is a nice place to have a nice time whether alone or with the family, it lies in Al-Thawra St, beside Fouad 1st Institute on a surface of 3 feddans overlooking the Nile and it is considered a public garden for the visitors and the people of Assiut. It also contains Roman Theatre for cultural and artistic presentations.

Beneath Faisal Bridge and with a high-level coffee to serve the colleges and the visitors, Al-Azhar Park looks over Al-Ebrahimia canal in one of the most beautiful scenes in the entrance of Assiut city.

In an endless series of the touristic achievements, Al-Khaldeen Park was established in 2007 AD in the entrance of Assiut city on the bank of Al-Ebrahimia Canal. The Park includes several means of entertainment and Roman Theatre for different cultural and folkloric shows.

The Olympic Village - Assiut University, The Sport City - Assiut Cement Factory, The Tennis Courts - Assiut Sport Club, Mubarak Stadium - Mubarak Quarter, The Covered Hall and The Bowling Hall - Mankabad; Assiut has all of these and much more which gives The Governorate the chance to organize and host the national and international tournaments in the different sport fields.

The Magic River adds its value in Assiut also; with a length of 160 Km the Nile flows from Dierout north to Sedfa south forming a marvelous natural scene with the various lives on its sides. Just enjoy the fascinating views through one of the many luxury floating hotels and restaurants which serve on the Nile.

In a Governorate full of the convention abilities like Assiut,

With an Airport, a Train, Three Highways, and a Railroad serve The Governorate on a daily basis; it is so easy and enjoyable to visit Assiut from all over the world. [5]

Pharaohs[edit]

Giza Pyramids

5,000 years ago, the pharaonic nation was founded in Egypt, and they were a sophisticated and civilized society. This nation left a very large amount of monuments and temples. Most of the reminders of this well known nation is preserved in Egypt. These monuments draw many tourists, who like to watch and appreciate these reminders, to Egypt.

Some of the well-known artefacts of ancient pharaonic civilization are: Pyramids: Perhaps the most known pyramids are the three pyramids of Giza, but there are more than 70 pyramids along the Nile. Beside the giant three pyramids is Sphinx, a lion-bodied guard of the pyramids. The pyramids were built more than 4,000 years ago in the eras of Kings Cheops, Kefren and Mykerinos. These three kings' bodies are buried in these enormous pyramids. The biggest pyramid, Cheops', is known as the Great Pyramid because it measues 145 meters tall. Touristic places beside the pyramids are The Solar Barque Museum, The Sphinx Complex and The Sphinx Sound and Light Show.

Saqqara Complex: The vast necropolis of Saqqara including Memphis is located 24 kilometers south of central Cairo. Memphis was founded in about 3000 BC by Menes, along with 11 other pyramids. Memphis was the administrative capital of ancient Egypt. You will find Zoser's funerary complex, Mereruka's tomb, and Serapeum. Serapeum is a large limestone structure and an amazing collection of mummified Apis bulls in gargantuan granite coffins of various kings such as King Teti

The valley of the Kings

Valley of the Kings in Thebes: The Valley of the Kings covers its secrets well. The grand pyramids of the earlier pharaohs were too tempting to attract stealers, so from the eighteenth to twentieth Dynasties, about 26 pharaohs built their tombs in the valley. Carving them into the eterning mountains, far from any messing hand. Famous tombs there belong to Tutankhamun, Ramses the Great and Tuthmosis III. This valley is located in Luxor.

There are other interesting tombs to see in the Valley of the Queens and nobles

Nile cruises[edit]

Nile Cruise Between Aswan And Esna, Egypt

Nile cruises may vary considerably, but typical Nile cruises are either three, four or seven nights. The shorter tours usually operate between Luxor and Aswan, while the longer cruises travel further north to Dendera, often offering day tours overland to more remote locations.

Old Nile Cruise

The usual cruise is aboard a Nile cruiser, often referred to as a floating hotel. Indeed, the better boats have most of the accommodations of a land based hotel, including small swimming pools, hot tubs, exercise rooms, nightclubs, good restaurants, stores and even small libraries. Many of the boats have dance areas with disco or even live entertainment, and most offer a variety of nightly shows. These might include cocktail parties, Nubian shows, belly dancers and whirling dervish, plays and even dress up parties where guests don traditional apparel.

A much more adventurous style of Nile cruise, very different from the floating hotels can be arranged aboard feluccas, Egypt's traditional Nile sailboat. Most felucca trips are short trips of several hours, but multi-day felucca cruises can be arranged aboard larger vessels traveling between Aswan and Luxor. The accommodations on a felucca are primitive. Tourist sleep in the open on deck and the sailors double as cooks.

Around the middle of April, locks on the Nile river are closed due to water levels, ultimate time for a Nile cruise is between October and mid April, when the weather is fairly cool, but the locks are all open. However, most cruise boats operate all year. If the locks are closed, cruise operators will arrange boats on either side of the locks, and a transfer must be made between boats.

Pricing, as with land hotels will also have a wide range, based on both the boat and the accommodations.

Transportation[edit]

Passports and visas are required of foreign visitors except natives of several Middle Eastern countries. Transit voyagers, however, that travel by ship or plane are not required to obtain visas. Travellers native to most of Africa must have proof of cholera and yellow fever vaccination.[4]

Airports[edit]

There are nine international airports in Egypt that serve all of the county’s major cities, including Cairo International Airport and Taba International Airport.[6]

Cairo International Airport is the main gateway to Egypt and is located about 15 miles northeast of the city in northern Egypt. Cairo’s three terminals receive flights from major world cities including those in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. You can reach central Cairo by bus, while numerous taxis also run to the city and its hotels at a reasonable price. Limousines are also available as a more comfortable alternative.

Located in central Egypt, Luxor International Airport is a popular facility that serves the Nile Valley and it a convenient gateway for people heading to the poplar tourist destinations of the region. Two updated terminals serve international and domestic flights, with a number of Egyptian carriers including Air Cairo and Egypt Air operating from the airport. The airport is located close to the city centre and taxis, limos and regular buses are available for transfers into the city.

Railways[edit]

Misr Train Station in Alexandria

Egyptian Railways is the backbone of passenger transportation in Egypt with 800 million passenger miles annually.[7]

Air-conditioned passenger trains usually have 1st and 2nd class service, while non-airconditioned trains will have 2nd and 3rd class. Most of the network connects the densely populated area of the Nile delta with Cairo and Alexandria as hubs.

The Alexandria-Cairo-Luxor-Aswan link is served daily in both directions by air-conditioned sleeper trains of Abela Egypt. This service is especially attractive to tourists who can spend the night on the train as it covers the stretch between Cairo and Luxor. A luxury express train also connects Cairo with Marsa Matruh towards the Libyan border.

Egyptian currency[edit]

1 Egyptian Pound Obverse
1 Egyptian pound Reverse

The currency in Egypt is the Egyptian pound - usually abbreviated as EGP and sometimes, LE or L.E.. The 1/100th unit of EGP is the Piastre. The approximate exchange rate for 1 USD is 7.0 EGP as of August 2013. The Central Bank of Egypt controls the circulation of currency. As of May 2009, the currency notes in circulation have a denomination of EGP 200, 100, 50, 20, 5, 1 and Piastres 50, 25.[8]

There is no limit on the amount of currency which the visitors may bring to Egypt, however, they must declare the currency and amount upon arrival and departure with bank receipts. If you are carrying Egyptian Currency, it should not exceed EGP 5,000.[9][10]

Climate[edit]

Main article: Climate of Egypt

Peak tourist season in Egypt runs from mid October to May, during winter and spring. From May until October, the temperatures are fairly high, especially in Luxor and the southern parts of the country.

Egypt is one of the hottest and sunniest countries in the world. With the exception of a strip along the Mediterranean coast, Egypt has a desert climate, being entirely within the Sahara. The Mediterranean coastal strip has an average annual rainfall of 100–200 mm. In central and southern Egypt several years may pass without any significant rain.

Winters are generally warm in the south of Egypt, but temperatures fall rather abruptly at night so that desert evenings in winter can be quite chilly. The heat of southern Egypt in summer is fierce, and there is almost no relief from one day to another. The very low humidity, however, makes the heat more bearable.[11]

Safety[edit]

Oceanic Whitetip Shark swims at Elphinstone Reef in Egypt in the Red Sea on November 5, 2003

Impact of Egypt's Revolution on Tourism[edit]

As the 2011 uprisings took place, the national industry of tourism declined. Visitor numbers decreased by some 37% in 2011. The number of visitors was 9 million in 2011 while it was over 14 million in 2010. This has had an influence on all other areas which ranges from travel accommodation to car rental, air transportation, health and wellness and tourist attractions, with value growth rates across the board declining to double digit territory. Tourism operators introduced heavy discounts in order to drain tourists back and prices remained low at the beginning of 2012.[12] Terrorism has affected the industry in recent times. A total of 58 foreign tourists were killed in the 1997 Luxor massacre. The tourist industry sunk even lower with the September 11 attacks in the eastern United States in 2001, the 2004 Sinai bombings, April 2005 terrorist attacks in Cairo, the July 23, 2005 Sharm el-Sheikh attacks, and the 2006 Dahab bombings.

Historically, foreign tourists have been a common target of attacks dating back to the early 1990s. Militants have typically been motivated by a combination of Qutbism and opposition to the Mubarak government, and attacking foreigners including non-Muslims while hurting Egypt's tourist trade was seen as serving both goals.

The 2011 Egyptian revolution has effected tourism negatively, as have attacks on women by groups of men including British Journalist Natasha Smith and Lara Logan in Cairo’s Tahrir Square.

The U.S. Department of State warns U.S. citizens to defer travel to Egypt and U.S. citizens living in Egypt to depart at this time because of the continuing political and social unrest. On June 28, a U.S. citizen was killed during a demonstration in Alexandria. On May 9, a private U.S. citizen was attacked with a knife outside of the U.S. Embassy after being asked whether he was an American. Additionally, Westerners and U.S. citizens have occasionally been caught in the middle of clashes and demonstrations. The route and location of protests can change with little warning. You should avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings. If you become aware of any nearby protests, leave the area immediately. There is also a high threat from terrorism. Although security is tight throughout the country, especially in resort areas, there remains a high risk of attacks which could be indiscriminate, including in public places frequented by foreigners.[13]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Egypt tourism numbers to fall less than feared", Reuters Africa, October 21, 2009
  2. ^ a b "Egypt - international tourism". Retrieved March 21. 
  3. ^ "Table 1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2013 and 2011 comparison". Retrieved March 21. 
  4. ^ a b "Egypt: Tourism, travel, and recreation". Nations Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  5. ^ http://www.assiut.gov.eg
  6. ^ Aircraft Charter World: Airports in Egypt
  7. ^ Egypt National Railways
  8. ^ Central Bank of Egypt
  9. ^ Consulate General of Egypt
  10. ^ Consulate General of Egypt - Visa Application Instructions/Customs Declarations
  11. ^ BBC Weather Guide
  12. ^ "Travel and Tourism in Egypt,Travel and Tourism". Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  13. ^ https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice/egypt UK government Egypt travel warning. It should be noted that a strict curfew is in effect throughout most of Egypt. People have been shot at and killed by the Egyptian military for violating the curfew, including journalists, and before asking questions. Most western countries have warned their citizens against travel to all of Egypt, including resort areas, and have asked their citizens to depart immediately.

External links[edit]