Tourism in Israel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
An aerial view of the Sea of Galilee
Tel Aviv, the second-largest city in Israel

Tourism in Israel is one of Israel's major sources of income, with a record 3.54 million tourist arrivals in 2013.[1][2] Israel offers a plethora of historical and religious sites, beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world.[3] In 2009, the two most visited sites were the Western Wall and the grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai;[4] the most popular paid tourist attraction is Masada.[5] The most visited city is Jerusalem and the most visited site was the Western Wall. The largest percentage of tourists come from the United States accounting for 18% of all tourists, followed by Russia, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Ukraine, Poland, Canada, Netherlands, and Spain.[1][2]

Most-visited cities[edit]

Jerusalem[edit]

Western Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the most-visited city with 3.5 million tourist arrivals annually. One of the oldest cities in the world, it is the proclaimed capital[i]and largest city of Israel, if the area and population of East Jerusalem are included. It is a holy city to the three major Abrahamic religions-Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and hosts a myriad of historical, archaeological, religious and sundry other attractions.[6]

East Jerusalem was captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-day War and considered by the international community as being under Israeli occupation, although it was annexed in 1980 under the Jerusalem Law. It is the location of:

West Jerusalem was built mainly after the creation of Israel in 1948. Selected tourist attractions within this area are:

Tel Aviv[edit]

Safed[edit]

Akko[edit]

Main article: Acre

Haifa[edit]

Main article: Haifa

Tiberias[edit]

Tiberias is one of the four holy cities in Judaism, overlooking the Sea of Galilee.

Nazareth[edit]

  • Nazareth is known as the 'Arab capital of Israel'.
  • Visit Nazareth's old city and historical sites around the city
  • Jesus's hometown and the site of many of his reported acts and miracles.
  • Many churches, including The Church of the Annunciation, the largest Christian church building in the Middle East. In Roman Catholic tradition, it marks the site where the Archangel Gabriel announced the future birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary (Luke 1:26-31).
  • Starting point for the Jesus Trail, a network of hiking routes connecting many sites from Jesus's life and ministry.

Beersheba[edit]

Eilat[edit]

Ashkelon[edit]

Landmarks outside cities[edit]

Sidonian Burial Caves at Beit Guvrin
Byzantine Church ruins at Ashkelon National Park
Rosh HaNikra grottoes near the Israeli-Lebanese border crossing
Solomon pillars at the Timna Valley
Nahal Ayun waterfalls

Masada[edit]

Masada is an ancient fortification in the Southern District of Israel situated on top of an isolated rock plateau (akin to a mesa) on the eastern edge of the Judaean Desert, overlooking the Dead Sea. Herod the Great built palaces for himself on the mountain and fortified Masada between 37 and 31 BCE. According to Josephus, the Siege of Masada by troops of the Roman Empire towards the end of the First Jewish–Roman War ended in the mass suicide of the 960 Jewish rebels and their families hiding there. Masada is located 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of Arad. Masada is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and Israel's most popular tourist attraction only second to Jerusalem.

Caesarea[edit]

Caesarea's ancient city includes Roman and Crusader ruins, such as the amphitheater and hippodrome, where live concerts of classical and popular music are frequently held, as well as the harbor from which St. Paul was taken as a prisoner to Rome. It is one of Israel's biggest archaeological sites.

Beit She'an[edit]

Beit She'an (Scythopolis) was a Roman Decapolis city. One of the largest archaeological sites in the Middle East.

Beit She'arim[edit]

Beit She'arim National Park was an ancient Jewish Necropolis, it is having many tombs of Jews with many significant signs like animals and menorah, it is also includes a Jewish city and an ancient synagogue ruins.

Biblical Tells[edit]

there are around 200 biblical Tells in Israel. Tel is an archaeological site that not created by nature but by ruined human settlements. the biblical tells are from the Bronze Age and located on ancient cities that mentioned in old testament. the chosen cities are Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo and Tel Be'er Sheva which are also UNESCO World Heritage Sites. this tels also have some of the most ancient water systems in the world. the is also of non-world heritage site biblical tells around Israel such as Jerusalem, Tel Arad, Tel Gezer and Tel Lachish

Nahal Me'arot prehistoric caves[edit]

Sites of Human Evolution at Mount Carmel - Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve is a site of human evolution at Mount Carmel in Haifa, Northern Israel. It has four caves such as Me’arat HaTanur (the Oven Cave; also known as Tabun Cave), Me’arat HaGamal (the Camel Cave), Me’arat HaNahal (the Stream Cave) and Me’arat HaGedi (the Young Goat Cave). The site was proclaimed as universal value by UNESCO in 2012.The site indicates the prehistoric man’s settlements and unique evidence of a first burial.

Negev Incense Route[edit]

Incense Route – Desert Cities in the Negev - The Negev incense route located between Jordan's Petra and Palestine's Gaza, the Nabataeans have built many fortresses, caravanserai but especially known for their four important cities of Avdat, Mamshit, Shivta, and Haluza that located on this important trade route, the Negev Incense Route is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Ancient Synagogues[edit]

Israel as the birthplace of Judaism and cradle of Jewish history includes many ancient synagogues from the Second Temple Period and Byzantine-Muslim periods from Northern to Southern Israel. the synagogues are: Capernaum, Magdala, Masada, Anim, Susya, Bar'am, Gush Halav, Beit Alpha, Hukok, Nabratein, Ein Gedi, Herodium, Gamla, Umm el Kanatir, Caesarea, Hamat Tiberias and many more.

Avshalom Cave[edit]

Further information: Avshalom Cave

Avshalom Cave, also known as Soreq Cave or Stalactites Cave, is a 5,000 m2 cave on the western side of Mt.Ye'ela, in the Judean hills, in Israel, unique for its dense concentration of stalactites Some of the stalactites found in the cave are four meters long, and some have been dated as 300,000 years old. Some meet stalagmites to form stone pillars

Mount Karkom[edit]

Further information: Har Karkom

Har Karkom ("Mountain of Saffron", also called Jabal Ideid) is a mountain in the southwest Negev desert in Israel, half way between Petra and Kadesh Barnea. On the basis that the Israelites travelled across the Sinai peninsula towards Petra in a fairly straight line, a number of scholars have contemplated the possibility of Har Karkom being the Biblical Mount Sinai. Following this theory, Emmanuel Anati excavated at the mountain, and discovered that it was a major paleolithic cult centre, with the surrounding plateau covered with shrines, altars, stone circles, stone pillars, and over 40,000 rock engravings.

Although, on the basis of his findings, Anati advocates the identification of Har Karkom with Mount Sinai,[1][2] the peak of religious activity at the site may date to 2350-2000 BC, and the mountain appears to have been abandoned perhaps between 1950-1000 BC; the exodus is sometimes dated between 1600-1200 BC. However, no archaeological evidence has been supported by scholars to maintain a date of 1600-1200 BC. Anati instead places the Exodus, based on other archaeological evidence at around 2300 BC

Tel Ashkelon[edit]

Further information: Ashkelon National Park

Beit Guvrin[edit]

Beit Guvrin-Maresha National Park is a national park in central Israel, 13 kilometers from Kiryat Gat, encompassing the ruins of Maresha, one of the important towns of Judah during the time of the First Temple,[14] and Beit Guvrin, an important town in the Roman era, when it was known as Eleutheropolis.[15] There are many Muslim saints which are buried in the area, the most known of them is Prophet Muhammad's companion Tamim al-Dari

Crusader fortresses[edit]

Israel includes many ruins of Crusader fortresses, the most known of them are Acre, Caesarea, Belvoir Fortress, Montfort Castle, Arsuf, Atlit fortress, Sepphoris, Chateau du roi and more. Arsuf also includes the nearby Sidna Ali Mosque which is still in use, the mosque includes a tomb of relative of Caliph Omar who died at the Battle of Arsuf.

Sea of Galilee[edit]

Further information: Sea of Galilee

Sea of Galilee is home to many Christian and Jewish holy shrines, the Jewish holy shrines are in Tiberias (click for taking a look of the sites), and the Christian sites are outside Tiberias, some of them are archaeological sites, the sites are - Magdala, Capernaum, Tabgha and the Mount of Beatitudes, there are also another archaeological sites such as Kursi, Hippos, Hamat Tiberias, Tel Bet Yerah, Khirbat al-Minya and Chorazin. it is also have a collection of fauna and flora.

Arbel[edit]

Further information: Mount Arbel

Mount Arbel lays near the Sea of Galilee and it is a national park with a fortress and synagogue and cliff hikinh. the fortress was built by Jewish Zealots and then in the Ottoman era by Fakhreddine II on the cliffs of the mountains, the ancient synagogue was built in the 5th century and survived little bit after the Islamic period started. the nearby area is the site of Horns of Hattin famous for his Islamic victory of Saladin at the Battle of Hattin and nearby this is the shrine of prophet shuaib, Maqam al-Nabi Shu'ayb is the holiest shrine for Druze faith, the Druze are making a big Ziyarat every year in April

Rosh Hanikra[edit]

Further information: Rosh HaNikra grottoes

The Rosh HaNikra grottoes are cavernous tunnels formed by sea action on the soft chalk rock. The total length is some 200 metres. They branch off in various directions with some interconnecting segments. In the past, the only access to them was from the sea and experienced divers were the only ones capable of visiting. Today a cable car takes visitors down to see the grottos. A kibbutz, also named Rosh HaNikra, is located nearby. The Israeli city Nahariya is located about 10 km (6 miles) south of Rosh HaNikra. you must take a cable car to get into the grottoes. The Cable car is situated very close to the Lebanese border.

Makhteshim of the Negev desert[edit]

A Makhtesh is a geological landform considered unique to the Negev desert of Israel. A makhtesh has steep walls of resistant rock surrounding a deep closed valley which is usually drained by a single wadi. The valleys have limited vegetation and soil, containing a variety of different colored rocks and diverse fauna and flora. The best known and largest makhtesh is Makhtesh Ramon. another Makhteshim are Makhtesh Gadol, Makhtesh Katan and Mount Arif two small Makhteshim the Makhtesh is also a rare geological area.

Tzippori[edit]

Tzippori or Sepphoris was an ancient Jewish village with synagogue, houses, baths, water tunnels, crusader fortress and more. it was also one of the site of the house of Anne and Joachim.

Timna[edit]

Further information: Timna Valley

Nimrod Fortress[edit]

Further information: Nimrod Fortress

Nimrod Fortress is a big Ayyubid castle, a good example for Ayyubid fortresses from the time of the Crusader wars.

Hula Valley[edit]

Further information: Hula Lake Park

Hula Lake Park, known in Hebrew as Agamon HaHula, is located in the southern part of the Hula Valley, north of the nature reserve. It was established as part of a JNF rehabilitation project.[16] In the early 1990s part of the valley was flooded again in the wake of heavy rains. It was decided to develop the surrounding area and leave the flooded area intact. The new site has become the second home for thousands of migrating birds in the autumn and spring.[17] The lake covers an area of one square kilometer, interspersed with islands that serve as protected bird nesting sites. It has become a major stopover for migrating birds flying from Europe to Africa and back, and also a major birdwatching site. In 2011, Israeli ornithologists confirmed that Lake Hula is the stopover point for tens of thousands of cranes migrating from Finland to Ethiopia every winter. In Israel, farmers set out food for them to keep them from damaging crops near the lake.[18]

Tel Dan[edit]

Further information: Dan (ancient city)
Further information: Tel Dan Stele
Further information: Dan River

Ein Gedi[edit]

Further information: Ein Gedi

Ein Gedi is a special nature reserve, known for its big number of friendly Nubian Ibex and Rock Hyrax, Waterfalls, and there are some archaeological finds on the trail. Ein Gedi is an oasis in the desert which is must see, good for relaxing and for those who want to took refuge from the hot Judean Desert, located near the Dead Sea

Keshet Cave[edit]

a big natural arch in Israel's Upper Galilee which was a cave that destroyed because geological reasons during the years, today only the arch was remained and it using as a popular attraction for professional hiking.

Nahal Ayun[edit]

Further information: Nahal Ayun

Ein Avdat[edit]

Further information: Ein Avdat

National parks and nature reserves[edit]

Israel has 67 national parks and 190 nature reserves. Some of them are located at archaeological sites. Beit Guvrin-Maresha is a large archaeological complex in the Judean Mountains. Tzippori is an ancient Roman town with elaborate mosaics and a historic synagogue. Ein Gedi, a desert spring, is a starting point for tours to Masada and the Dead Sea.

Hiking trails[edit]

Tabgha pool, Jesus Trail

Kibbutzim[edit]

A network of kibbutzim dot the countryside, some offering guesthouses and country lodging. They are undergoing a process of modernization and re-organization. Well known in Israel for great contributions to Israeli history, politics, the army, and Zionism. Long-term visitors, both Jewish and non-Jewish, can volunteer on Kibbutzim in exchange for food and lodging.

Museums[edit]

Tower of David Museum

With over 200 museums, Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world, with millions of visitors annually.[19]

Restaurant culture[edit]

Further information: Israeli cuisine

As part of its hospitality industry, including hotels, restaurants and wineries, one of the most vibrant restaurant cultures in the Mediterranean region has developed in Israel since the 1990s, catering to both tourists and citizens.[21] Professional training for Israeli chefs, hotel owners, sommeliers and vintners is of a high standard, and top hotel chefs have international education and experience.[21]

There are thousands of restaurants, casual eateries, cafés and bars in Israel, offering a wide range of choices in food and culinary styles.[22] In addition to Middle Eastern specialties, there are restaurants offering a wide selection of ethnic food, including Italian, French, Greek, Russian, Ethiopian, Balkan, Thai, Chinese, American and fusion cuisine.[21]

Places to eat out that are typically Israeli include falafel stands or kiosks, which also offer extras like French fries, fried eggplant, salads and pickles with the falafel, and the hummusia, which specializes in hummus, and offers only a limited selection of extras. The Misada Mizrahit (literally, "Eastern restaurant") is an inexpensively priced restaurant that serves a basic selection of meze salads followed by grilled meat with French fries and simple desserts, while Steakiyot are restaurants which serve a meze of salads, followed by skewered grilled meats, particularly shashlik and kebabs.[23]

Cafés are common in urban areas and function as meeting places both for socializing and conducting business. They commonly serve coffee, tea, fruit juice and soft drinks and almost all serve baked goods and sandwiches; many also serve light meals. Most have outdoor seating to take advantage of Israel's temperate weather, and Tel Aviv is particularly well known for its café culture.[23] Tea is also served in cafés, from plain brewed Russian-style with sugar, to tea with lemon or milk, and Middle Eastern-style with mint (nana).[24] There is also a strong coffee drinking culture in Israel and coffee is prepared in many ways, such as instant (nes), iced, latte (hafuḥ), Italian-style espresso, or Turkish coffee.[25][26]

Wineries[edit]

Further information: Israeli wine

Enotourism is a growing part of the tourism sector in Israel. In early 2008, it was announced that a 150-acre (0.61 km2) wine park would be created on the slopes between Zichron Ya'akov and Binyamina in order to promote tourism in the area and enotourism in Israel in general.[27]

Hot springs[edit]

Hamat Gader hot springs

West Bank tourism[edit]

West Bank tourism has been administered by Israel since the beginning of its occupation in 1967.[28] Territory that had been off-limits to Israeli citizens was now made available for tourism, and Israel established numerous amenities in these territories and East Jerusalem to make it more appealing to Israeli and foreign tourists.[29] Despite that, Israeli citizens are generally restricted from traveling to parts of the West Bank under Palestinian Authority control.[30] Today, The Palestinian Authority and Israeli tourism ministries work together on tourism in the Palestinian territories in a Joint Committee on Tourism.[31]

Golan Heights tourism[edit]

The Golan Heights were captured by Israel from Syria in the 1967 Six-Day War and are recognized by the international community as Syrian territory held by Israel under military occupation.[36] In an act ruled null and void by the United Nations Security Council, Israel applied civilian law to the territory in 1981.[37]

For ease of touring, the Golan can be divided into the north with most of its popular destinations and the south where the administrative capital is located. Travel guides recommend renting a car or joining an organized tour. Although it is slower, some travelers chose to hitchhike throughout the region.[38] Accommodations are typically through bed and breakfasts or cabins called zimmers.[39]

The first Israeli ski resort was established in the Golan.[40] Nature trails and other attractions were established by Israel in order to further entrench its presence in the territory and to attract tourists.[29] As much of the Golan's land is not arable, many of the Israeli settlements established focused on tourism as a way of generating income.[41]

Seas and lakes[edit]

Red Sea coral and marine fish in Eilat
Mediterranean coastal strip
  • Sunny beaches and hotel resorts
Dead sea
  • The lowest point on the Earth's surface and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world, famous for its buoyancy and medicinal qualities
Red Sea
  • Sunny beaches and hotel resorts, popular destination for SCUBA diving and water sports
Sea of Galilee
  • Sunny beaches and hotel resorts
  • Important Christian and Jewish holy sites
  • Many archaeological sites.

Dive tourism[edit]

Eilat is located in the Gulf of Aqaba, one of the most popular diving destinations in the world. The coral reefs along Eilat's coast remain relatively pristine and the area is recognized as one of the prime diving locations in the world.[43] About 250,000 dives are performed annually off Eilat's 11 km coastline, and diving represents 10% of the tourism income of this area.[44] In addition, given the proximity of many of these reefs to the shore, non-divers can encounter the Red Sea's reefs with relative ease.[43] Water conditions for SCUBA divers are good all year round, with water temperatures around 21-25 C°, little or no currents and clear waters with an average of 20–30 meters visibility.

Medical tourism[edit]

Israel is emerging as a popular destination for medical tourists.[45] In 2006, 15,000 foreigners travelled to the country for medical procedures, bringing in $40 million of revenue.[45] The advantages of Israel for health tourism include good natural resources; stable, comfortable climate all year round; a progressive medical systems, and scenic locations which have a calming effect on patients.[46] Medical tourists choose Israel for several reasons. Some come from European nations such as Romania where certain procedures are not available. Others come to Israel, most commonly from the United States, because they can receive quality health care at a fraction of the cost it would be at home, for both surgeries and in-vitro fertilization treatments. Other medical tourists come to Israel to visit the Dead Sea, a world-famous therapeutic resort.[45] The Israel Ministry of Tourism and several professional medical services providers have set out to generate awareness of Israel's medical capabilities.[47]

Tourist demographics and economic contribution[edit]

According to the Israeli Ministry of Tourism, in 2009 54% of the 2.7 million visitors to Israel were Christian. Jewish tourists accounted for 39%. Revenue from tourism in 2009 totalled $ 3.3 billion.[48] In 2010, tourism constituted 6.4% of the country's GDP.[49] The World Travel and Tourism Council estimates that real GDP growth for tourism in Israel is expected to average 5.0% per annum over the years 2010-2020. The contribution of tourism to Gross Domestic Product is expected by WTTC to rise from 6.4% (US$12.0 billion) in 2010 to 7.2% ($22.1 billion) by 2020.[49] The contribution of the industry to employment is 223,000 jobs in 2010, 7.9% of total employment.[49] Export earnings from international visitors and tourism goods are expected to generate 6.5% of total exports (US $4.8 billion) in 2010.[49] Investment in tourism is estimated at US $2.3 billion or 7.6% of total investment in 2010.[49] The Israel Travel & Tourism economy is ranked number 51 in absolute size worldwide, of the 181 countries estimated by the WTTC.[49]

International recognition and awards[edit]

Nahal Arugot waterfall in Ein Gedi

In 2005, Ernst & Young conducted a comprehensive research study on Israeli tourism. The report, entitled "A New Market Strategy for Israeli Tourism" was published in November 2006. The researchers felt that increasing the number of international tourists by 2011 from 1.9 million to 4–5 million was a feasible goal. The report stated that Israel's most attractive feature for international markets was its religious culture and history and the great diversity it offers within a very small country.[50] According to the researchers, Israel's different cultures and religions, its diverse landscapes, the contrasts between cities (Jerusalem, Tel Aviv), and combination of European, North African and Middle Eastern culture produced a "very high density of experience." The report recommended that Israel adopt appropriate marketing strategies to counter any perceived negative imagery associated with political developments.

In 2010, Israel won the title of "most outstanding stand" in all categories at the world's largest tourism fair, ITB, held in Berlin. The Israeli stand won the title of "best presenter" in the Near East and Middle East for the third time in a row.[51]

Most visited sites[edit]

Syrian brown bears in Jerusalem Biblical Zoo

In 2009, the two most visited sites in Israel were the Western Wall and the grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai.[4] The most popular paid tourist attraction is the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo.[52]

The top paid sites of 2012 were listed by Dun & Bradstreet Israel as opposed to the above sites which offer free entry.[52]

Listing Site 2008 Visitors[5] 2012 Visitors[52]
1 Jerusalem Biblical Zoo 687,647 752,000
2 Masada 721,915 724,000
3 Zoological Center of Tel Aviv-Ramat Gan 581,800 713,000
4 Caesarea 713,648 670,000
5 Banias 430,531 561,000
6 Ein Gedi 471,000
7 Hamat Gader 500,000 440,000
8 Yamit 2000 in Holon 412,533 431,000
9 Coral World Underwater Observatory in Eilat 458,000 423,000
10 Qumran 389,291 377,000

Foreign visitor arrivals in 2011[edit]

Top 21 (2011)[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Yifa Yaakov (10 January 2014). "2013 'record year' for tourism, government says". Times of Israel. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Ziv Reinstein (10 January 2014). "2013: Record year for incoming tourism". Ynetnews. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  3. ^ Interesting Facts about Israel
  4. ^ a b "For first time, religious sites to get state budget of NIS 6.3M". HaAretz. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  5. ^ a b "Masada tourists' favorite spot in Israel". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  6. ^ Bremner, Caroline (10 January 2011). "Euromonitor International's Top City Destination Ranking". Euromonitor International. Retrieved 10 January 2011. 
  7. ^ Sarah Barnea, "A history of the mapping of the Jewish Cemetery on the Mount of Olives", in Eyal Meron (editor), Researches into the City of David and Early Jerusalem (Vol 5, 2010) (in Hebrew)
  8. ^ The Necropolis from the Time of the Kingdom of Judah at Silwan, Jerusalem, David Ussishkin, The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 33, No. 2 (May, 1970), pp. 33-46,
  9. ^ "Ancient Jerusalem's Funerary Customs and Tombs: Part Two, L. Y. Rahmani, The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Autumn, 1981), pp. 229-235.
  10. ^ Westhead, Rick (16 December 2012). "Jerusalem’s Mount of Olives cemetery running out of room". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  11. ^ Ein Karem under threat
  12. ^ "MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities 2011". MasterCard. May 2011. Retrieved May 2011. 
  13. ^ National Geographic ranks Tel Aviv among World's Top Ten Beach Cities.
  14. ^ The Guide to Israel, Zev Vilnay, Tel Aviv, 1972, p.281
  15. ^ The Guide to Israel, Zev Vilnay, Tel Aviv, 1972, p.275
  16. ^ The Hula Valley- Bird Watching Site
  17. ^ "The Hula Valley- Bird Watching Site". Haaretz. [dead link]
  18. ^ "Israeli ornithologists confirm flight path of migrating cranes". Haaretz. 2011-03-04. 
  19. ^ "Science & Technology". Consulate General of Israel in Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2007-05-26. 
  20. ^ Hazan, Susan. "The Israel Museum and the Electronic Surrogate". Cultivate Interactive. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  21. ^ a b c Helstosky, Carol (2009). Food Culture in the Mediterranean. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 124–125. ISBN 0-313-34626-7. 
  22. ^ Restaurants in Israel: The Israeli Restaurant Guide Retrieved 2012–02–27
  23. ^ a b Gur, Jana (2008). The Book of New Israeli Food. New York: Schocken Books. pp. 12, 44, 68, 164, 217. ISBN 0-8052-1224-8. 
  24. ^ Campbell, Dawn (1995). The Tea book. Pelican Publishing Company. p. 142. ISBN 1-56554-074-3. 
  25. ^ Bellehsen, Nitsana (20 January 2010), Israeli coffee culture goes global, Israel 21c Innovation News Service, retrieved 2012-02-27 
  26. ^ Ansky, Sherry; Sheffer, Nelli (2000). The Food of Israel: Authentic Recipes from the Land of Milk and Honey. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions. p. 30. ISBN 962-593-268-2. 
  27. ^ "Israel seeks to become wine tourism destination". Globes. January 17, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Kaufman, David; Katz, Marisa S. (April 16, 2006). "In the West Bank, Politics and Tourism Remain Bound Together Inextricably". The New York Times. Retrieved July 4, 2010. 
  29. ^ a b Stein 2008, p. 647
  30. ^ http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1064.html
  31. ^ Enz, Cathy A. (2009). Hospitality Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases (2 ed.). John Wiley and Sons. p. 273. ISBN 0-470-08359-X. 
  32. ^ Mitnick, Joshua (26 December 2008). "Calm brings record tourism to Bethlehem". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2 July 2010. 
  33. ^ a b Thomas, Amelia; Kohn, Michael; Raphael, Miriam; Raz, Dan Savery (2010). Israel and the Palestinian Territories. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-456-0. 
  34. ^ Bethlehem visitor numbers soar in 2008 says Israel, ENI News
  35. ^ Qumran National Park
  36. ^ Korman, Sharon. The right of conquest: the acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg. 265. ISBN 0198280076. "The continued occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights is recognised by many states as valid and consistent with the provisions of the UN Charter, on a self-defence basis. ...But the notion that Israel is entitled to claim any status other than that of belligerent occupant in the territory which it occupies, or to act beyond the strict bounds laid down by the Fourth Geneva Convention, has been universally rejected by the international community."
  37. ^ UN Security Council Resolution 497
  38. ^ Jacobs Daniel; Eber, Shirley; Silvani, Francesca (1998). Israel and the Palestinian territories: The Rough Guide. Rough Guide. ISBN 978-1-85828-248-0. 
  39. ^ a b Kohn, Michael (2007). Israel and the Palestinian Territories. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-86450-277-0. 
  40. ^ a b Hazbun 2008, p. 94
  41. ^ Efrat 1988, p. 84
  42. ^ a b Fodor's Israel. Random House, Inc. 2009. ISBN 978-1-4000-0898-8. 
  43. ^ a b MFA, Gulf of Aqaba- Tourism, 30 Sep 1997
  44. ^ Artificial Reefs and Dive Tourism in Eilat, Israel Dan Wilhelmsson, Marcus C. Öhman , Henrik Ståhl and Yechiam Shlesinger Ambio, Vol. 27, No. 8, Building Capacity for Coastal Management (Dec., 1998), pp. 764-766 Published by: Allen Press on behalf of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences [1]
  45. ^ a b c Welcoming the world's ills, Haaretz, Feb 8, 2008
  46. ^ Health tourism in Israel: A developing industry Niv, Amiad (Adi) Tourism Review. Vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 30-32. 1989
  47. ^ Medical Tourism Israel
  48. ^ Christian pilgrims boost Israeli tourism Christian pilgrims boost Israeli tourism
  49. ^ a b c d e f World Travel and Tourism Council, KEY FACTS AT A GLANCE, Israel
  50. ^ International Markets and Growth Potential
  51. ^ Israel wins 1st place in Berlin tourism fair
  52. ^ a b c Sapir Peretz (21 March 2013). ""גן החיות התנכ"י: שיאן המבקרים בשנת 2012"" [Biblical Zoo: Top visited in 2012]. Globes (in Hebrew). pp. 10–11. 

^ Jerusalem is the capital under Israeli law. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset) are located there. The Palestinian Authority foresees East Jerusalem as the capital of its future state. The United Nations and most countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem is pending future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv and its suburbs or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as Mevaseret Zion (see CIA Factbook and Map of Israel PDF (319 KB)) See Positions on Jerusalem for more information.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]