Tourism in Israel
Tourism in Israel is one of Israel's major sources of income, with 3.5 million tourist arrivals in 2012. Israel offers a plethora of historical and religious sites, beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world. In 2009, the two most visited sites were the Western Wall and the grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai; the most popular paid tourist attraction is Masada. Most tourists visit from the United States, Russia, France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Poland, The Netherlands, India, South Korea, Australia, Argentina, and Brazil.
- 1 Most-visited cities
- 2 UNESCO World Heritage sites
- 3 National parks and nature reserves
- 4 Hiking trails
- 5 Kibbutzim
- 6 Museums
- 7 Restaurant culture
- 8 Wineries
- 9 Hot springs
- 10 West Bank tourism
- 11 Golan Heights tourism
- 12 Seas and lakes
- 13 Medical tourism
- 14 Tourist demographics and economic contribution
- 15 International recognition and awards
- 16 Most visited sites
- 17 Foreign visitor arrivals in 2011
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 External links
Jerusalem is the most-visited city with 3.5 million tourist arrivals annually. One of the oldest cities in the world, it is the proclaimed capital[i]and largest city of Israel, if the area and population of East Jerusalem are included. It is a holy city to the three major Abrahamic religions-Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and hosts a myriad of historical, archaeological, religious and sundry other attractions.
East Jerusalem was captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-day War and annexed in 1980 under the Jerusalem Law, although it is recognized by the international community as being under Israeli occupation. It is the location of:
- The Old City of Jerusalem, traditionally divided into four quarters: Armenian Quarter, Christian Quarter, Muslim Quarter and Jewish Quarter. Most importantly, the Temple Mount (known in Arabic as Haram ash-sharīf, the Noble Sanctuary), site of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem with only the Western Wall at its foot remaining, and now with the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
- The Mount of Olives and Kidron Valley: with its lookout point, Tomb of Absalom, and other Jewish tombs and burial grounds dating back 3000 years[discuss], and churches, Gethsemane, church of all nations, Dominus Flevit, and the Church of Maria Magdalene (Russian orthodox church). Various locations have been proposed as the Tomb of Jesus, traditionally identified as where the Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands. Nor has Golgotha, the nearby hill where he was crucified been located. Immediately south of the Jewish Quarter lies the City of David with archaeological digs including Hezekiah's Tunnel.
The newer western part of Jerusalem was built mainly after the creation of Israel in 1948. Selected tourist attractions within this area are:
- The German Colony, a Temple Society settlement, with a colorful mix of architectural styles.
- Mea Shearim, established in the nineteenth century and inhabited largely by ultra-Orthodox Haredi Jews, retains the flavor of an Eastern shtetl.
- Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum.
- Ein Karem, the traditional birthplace of John the Baptist, is one of the four most visited Christian pilgrimage sites in Israel.
- Mt. Zion, the traditional resting place of King David.
- Mt. Scopus, site of the Hebrew University and standing at 2710 feet above sea level, offers a panoramic view of the city. Both the Temple Mount and the Dead Sea are visible from this location.
- With 2.7 million tourist arrivals in 2011, Tel Aviv is Israel's second-largest city, and a cosmopolitan, cultural and financial global city. The city's greater area is the largest with 3 million inhabitants. Tel Aviv exhibits a UNESCO world heritage area of Bauhaus architecture. The nearby historical city of Jaffa is experiencing a touristic boom. In 2010, National Geographic ranked Tel Aviv as one of the world's ten best beach cities.
- Tel Aviv is called the "city that never sleeps" by the locals because of its vibrant nightlife scene. Tel Aviv was named "the gay capital of the Middle East" by the Out magazine.
- Safed is one of the four holy cities in Judaism, where much of the Jerusalem Talmud was written and kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) was developed. Famous for its artisans. The grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai is in nearby Meron.
- Knights Hall
- (Bahá'í) Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, resting place of Bahá'u'lláh as well as a Unesco world heritage historical town.
- (Bahá'í) Shrine of the Báb, its terraces, and the Bahá'í World Centre and the buildings (a Unesco world heritage).
- Nazareth is known as the 'Arab capital of Israel'.
- Jesus's hometown and the site of many of his reported acts and miracles.
- Many churches, including The Church of the Annunciation, the largest Christian church building in the Middle East. In Roman Catholic tradition, it marks the site where the Archangel Gabriel announced the future birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary (Luke 1:26-31).
- Starting point for the Jesus Trail, a network of hiking routes connecting many sites from Jesus's life and ministry.
- Settlement of Beersheba attributed to the patriarch Abraham. Regional capital of the Negev desert. It serves as a starting point for exploring such sites as the Ramon Crater or the Unesco world heritage Nabathean Incense Route (Shivta, Avdat, Mamshit).
- Eilat, Israel's southernmost city, located on the Red Sea coast, is a hot, sunny year-round travel destination. Popular destination for skin and scuba diving, with equipment for hire on or near all major beaches.
- Caesarea's old city includes Roman and Crusader ruins, such as the amphitheater, where live concerts of classical and popular music are frequently held, as well as the harbor from which St. Paul was taken as a prisoner to Rome.
- Grassy golf course and upscale private homes.
UNESCO World Heritage sites
Old City of Jerusalem - The holiest city for Christianity and Judaism and the third holiest city in Islam, the main sites are: Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the site that Jesus has crucified and returned from death - Western Wall is the active holiest site in Judaism, the Western wall is the only part of the Jerusalem's Temple that remained until these days. Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque are the third holiest sites in Islam, there are another holy sites for those three religions inside and outside the Walls of the city such as Mount of Olives, Mount Zion and the Garden Tomb, there are also some important archaeological sites such as Pool of Bethesda, Western Wall Tunnel, City of David, Jewish quarter's Cardo and the Southern Wall archaeological site. the for quarters of the city are: Christian Quarter, Muslim Quarter, Jewish Quarter, Armenian Quarter. there are many stores around the Old City and Markets and the Muslim, Christian and Jewish Quarters.
Masada - Masada was a mountain palace of King Herod and also a fortress. known for being the last fortress that survived in the Great Jewish revolt and include one of world's ancient synagogues. the legend says that all the Jews killed themselves because they were prefer to die more than living the Roman captivity, Masada also have remains of Chalcolithic period and ruins of a Byzantine Monastery from 5th century AD, the site discovered by Israeli general and archaeologist Yigael Yadin and known for its importence in Zionism and in 2013 was Israel's most popular per-paid site.
Old City of Acre - The Old city of Acre is sitting on strategic area and known especially for its Crusader and Ottoman periods, today, Acre has many religious sites like Churches, Mosques and even one synagogue built in the 18th. Acre also have the remains of the Crusader Knight's hall and Templar tunnels and also few remains from its ancient pre-crusader period. there are many Jewish and Arab merchants and restaurants in the Old City.
Bahá’i Holy Places in Haifa and Western Galilee - Most of the Baha'i holiest sites are in Israel including Shrine of the Báb and Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. having religious importance for five million Baha'i faith believers.
Incense Route – Desert Cities in the Negev - The Negev incense route located between Jordan's Petra and Palestine's Gaza, the Nabataeans have built many fortresses, caravanserai but especially known for their four important cities of Avdat, Mamshit, Shivta, and Haluza that located on this important trade route
Biblical Tells - there are around 200 biblical Tells in Israel. Tel is an archaeological site that not created by nature but by ruined human settlements. the biblical tells are from the bronze age and located on ancient cities that mentioned in old testament. the chosen cities are Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo and Tel Be'er Sheva. this tels also have some of the most ancient water systems in the world. the is also of non-world heritage site biblical tells around Israel such as Jerusalem, Tel Arad, Tel Gezer and Tel Lachish
Sites of Human Evolution at Mount Carmel - Nahal Me’arot Nature Reserve is a site of human evolution at Mount Carmel in Haifa, Northern Israel. It has four caves such as Me’arat HaTanur (the Oven Cave; also known as Tabun Cave), Me’arat HaGamal (the Camel Cave), Me’arat HaNahal (the Stream Cave) and Me’arat HaGedi (the Young Goat Cave). The site was proclaimed as universal value by UNESCO in 2012.The site indicates the prehistoric man’s settlements and unique evidence of a first burial.
White City of Tel Aviv - The White City of Tel Aviv refers to a collection of over 4,000 Bauhaus or International style buildings built in Tel Aviv from the 1930s by German Jewish architects who immigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine after the rise of the Nazis. Tel Aviv has the largest number of buildings in this style of any city in the world. Preservation, documentation, and exhibitions have brought attention to Tel Aviv's collection of 1930s architecture. In 2003, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) proclaimed Tel Aviv's White City a World Cultural Heritage site, as "an outstanding example of new town planning and architecture in the early 20th century." The citation recognized the unique adaptation of modern international architectural trends to the cultural, climatic, and local traditions of the city. The Bauhaus Center in Tel Aviv organises regular architectural tours of the city. One of the building was where the Israeli Declaration of Independence happened.
National parks and nature reserves
Israel has 67 national parks and 190 nature reserves. Some of them are located at archaeological sites. Beit Guvrin-Maresha is a large archaeological complex in the Judean Mountains. Tzippori is an ancient Roman town with elaborate mosaics and a historic synagogue. Ein Gedi, a desert spring, is a starting point for tours to Masada and the Dead Sea.
- Israel National Trail - a hiking path that crosses the entire country of Israel. Its northern end is at Dan, near the international Syrian and Lebanese borders in the far north of the country, and it extends to Eilat at the southernmost tip of Israel on the Red Sea, a length of approximately 940 km (580 mi). The trail takes about 30–70 days to finish if hiked continuously.
- Jerusalem Trail - 40 kilometres (25 mi) trail, connects the Israel National Trail with Jerusalem and the area of the Old City.
- Jesus Trail - a 65 kilometres (40 mi) hiking and pilgrimage route in the Galilee region of Israel that traces routes Jesus may have walked, connecting many sites from his life and ministry. The trail begins in Nazareth, and passes through Sepphoris, Cana (Kafr Kanna), the Horns of Hattin, Mount Arbel Cliffs, the Sea of Galilee, Capernaum, Tabgha, the Mount of Beatitudes, Tiberias, the Jordan River, Mount Tabor, and Mount Precipice.
- Golan Trail - a 125 kilometres (78 mi) route from the slopes of Mt. Hermon to the southern Golan Heights. It passes many towns and settlements including Majdal Shams, Nimrod, Masade, Buq'ata, Odem, Merom Golan, and Ein Zivan.
- Valley of Springs Trail - a 120 kilometres (75 mi) route in and around the Jordan Valley, terminating in Beit She'an and on Mount Gilboa near Kibbutz Meirav. The trail connects numerous springs (for which the area is famous) and other historical and natural attractions.
- Sea to sea trail - an 89 kilometres (55 mi) hiking trail in Northern Israel that goes from the Mediterranean Sea to the Sea of Galilee.
A network of kibbutzim dot the countryside, some offering guesthouses and country lodging. They are undergoing a process of modernization and re-organization. Well known in Israel for great contributions to Israeli history, politics, the army, and Zionism. Long-term visitors, both Jewish and non-Jewish, can volunteer on Kibbutzim in exchange for food and lodging.
With over 200 museums, Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world, with millions of visitors annually.
- Israel Museum in Jerusalem, Israel's national museum, attracts 800,000 visitors a year.
- Tower of David Museum of the History of Jerusalem
- Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial
- Tel Aviv Museum of Art
- Diaspora Museum
- Haifa Museum of Science and Technology
As part of its hospitality industry, including hotels, restaurants and wineries, one of the most vibrant restaurant cultures in the Mediterranean region has developed in Israel since the 1990s, catering to both tourists and citizens. Professional training for Israeli chefs, hotel owners, sommeliers and vintners is of a high standard, and top hotel chefs have international education and experience.
There are thousands of restaurants, casual eateries, cafés and bars in Israel, offering a wide range of choices in food and culinary styles. In addition to Middle Eastern specialties, there are restaurants offering a wide selection of ethnic food, including Italian, French, Greek, Russian, Ethiopian, Balkan, Thai, Chinese, American and fusion cuisine.
Places to eat out that are typically Israeli include falafel stands or kiosks, which also offer extras like French fries, fried eggplant, salads and pickles with the falafel, and the hummusia, which specializes in hummus, and offers only a limited selection of extras. The Misada Mizrahit (literally, "Eastern restaurant") is an inexpensively priced restaurant that serves a basic selection of meze salads followed by grilled meat with French fries and simple desserts, while Steakiyot are restaurants which serve a meze of salads, followed by skewered grilled meats, particularly shashlik and kebabs.
Cafés are common in urban areas and function as meeting places both for socializing and conducting business. They commonly serve coffee, tea, fruit juice and soft drinks and almost all serve baked goods and sandwiches; many also serve light meals. Most have outdoor seating to take advantage of Israel's temperate weather, and Tel Aviv is particularly well known for its café culture. Tea is also served in cafés, from plain brewed Russian-style with sugar, to tea with lemon or milk, and Middle Eastern-style with mint (nana). There is also a strong coffee drinking culture in Israel and coffee is prepared in many ways, such as instant (nes), iced, latte (hafuḥ), Italian-style espresso, or Turkish coffee.
Enotourism is a growing part of the tourism sector in Israel. In early 2008, it was announced that a 150-acre (0.61 km2) wine park would be created on the slopes between Zichron Ya'akov and Binyamina in order to promote tourism in the area and enotourism in Israel in general.
West Bank tourism
West Bank tourism has been administered by Israel since the beginning of its occupation in 1967. Territory that had been off-limits to Israeli citizens was now made available for tourism, and Israel established numerous amenities in these territories and East Jerusalem to make it more appealing to Israeli and foreign tourists. Despite that, Israeli citizens are generally restricted from traveling to parts of the West Bank under Palestinian Authority control. Today, The Palestinian Authority and Israeli tourism ministries work together on tourism in the Palestinian territories in a Joint Committee on Tourism.
- Bethlehem - Burial place of the matriarch Rachel and birthplace of King David and of Jesus. Around 1.3 million tourists visited the city in 2008. Popular sites in the city and around include: The Church of the Nativity, a church built over the cave that tradition marks as the birthplace of Jesus of Nazareth; The Manger Square; Shepherd's Field in Beit Sahour; Solomon's Pools; and the Salesian Cremisan Monastery.
- Herodium - A fortress built by Herod the Great. It is administered by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.
- Hebron - The second-holiest city in Judaism and the place where the Tomb of the Patriarchs and Matriarchs is located, according to Jewish and Islamic tradition. It was also the capital of the Kingdom of Judah before David moved it to Jerusalem.
- Jericho - Tourism increased by nearly 42.3% in the first three quarters of 2008 as crossing between areas under PA control and Israel became less restricted.
- Qumran - An ancient Jewish site where the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered. It is administered by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.
Golan Heights tourism
The Golan Heights were captured by Israel from Syria in the 1967 Six-Day War and are recognized by the international community as Syrian territory held by Israel under military occupation. In an act ruled null and void by the United Nations Security Council, Israel applied civilian law to the territory in 1981.
For ease of touring, the Golan can be divided into the north with most of its popular destinations and the south where the administrative capital is located. Travel guides recommend renting a car or joining an organized tour. Although it is slower, some travelers chose to hitchhike throughout the region. Accommodations are typically through bed and breakfasts or cabins called zimmers.
The first Israeli ski resort was established in the Golan. Nature trails and other attractions were established by Israel in order to further entrench its presence in the territory and to attract tourists. As much of the Golan's land is not arable, many of the Israeli settlements established focused on tourism as a way of generating income.
- The Golan has national parks which provide extensive hiking options. Most of these are maintained by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority. Land mines from previous wars pose a risk when clearly marked and fenced off areas are disregarded.
- The Mount Hermon ski resort is popular during the winter months. This is the first Israeli ski resort in the Golan.
- The area produces wine and the Golan Heights Winery is a large producer. The winery has a visitor's center and tours.
- Archaeology in Katzrin, Gamla, Nimrod Fortress, Rujm el-Hiri, Umm el Kanatir
Seas and lakes
- Mediterranean coastal strip
- Sunny beaches and hotel resorts
- The lowest point on the Earth's surface and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world, famous for its buoyancy and medicinal qualities
- Sunny beaches and hotel resorts, popular destination for SCUBA diving and water sports
- Sunny beaches and hotel resorts
- Important Christian holy sites, including Mount of Beatitudes, Bethsaida, Kursi and Tel Hadar, site of the miracle of the feeding of the Gentiles.
Eilat is located in the Gulf of Aqaba, one of the most popular diving destinations in the world. The coral reefs along Eilat's coast remain relatively pristine and the area is recognized as one of the prime diving locations in the world. About 250,000 dives are performed annually off Eilat's 11 km coastline, and diving represents 10% of the tourism income of this area. In addition, given the proximity of many of these reefs to the shore, non-divers can encounter the Red Sea's reefs with relative ease. Water conditions for SCUBA divers are good all year round, with water temperatures around 21-25 C°, little or no currents and clear waters with an average of 20–30 meters visibility.
Israel is emerging as a popular destination for medical tourists. In 2006, 15,000 foreigners travelled to the country for medical procedures, bringing in $40 million of revenue. The advantages of Israel for health tourism include good natural resources; stable, comfortable climate all year round; a progressive medical systems, and scenic locations which have a calming effect on patients. Medical tourists choose Israel for several reasons. Some come from European nations such as Romania where certain procedures are not available. Others come to Israel, most commonly from the United States, because they can receive quality health care at a fraction of the cost it would be at home, for both surgeries and in-vitro fertilization treatments. Other medical tourists come to Israel to visit the Dead Sea, a world-famous therapeutic resort. The Israel Ministry of Tourism and several professional medical services providers have set out to generate awareness of Israel's medical capabilities.
Tourist demographics and economic contribution
According to the Israeli Ministry of Tourism, in 2009 54% of the 2.7 million visitors to Israel were Christian. Jewish tourists accounted for 39%. Revenue from tourism in 2009 totalled $ 3.3 billion. In 2010, tourism constituted 6.4% of the country's GDP. The World Travel and Tourism Council estimates that real GDP growth for tourism in Israel is expected to average 5.0% per annum over the years 2010-2020. The contribution of tourism to Gross Domestic Product is expected by WTTC to rise from 6.4% (US$12.0 billion) in 2010 to 7.2% ($22.1 billion) by 2020. The contribution of the industry to employment is 223,000 jobs in 2010, 7.9% of total employment. Export earnings from international visitors and tourism goods are expected to generate 6.5% of total exports (US $4.8 billion) in 2010. Investment in tourism is estimated at US $2.3 billion or 7.6% of total investment in 2010. The Israel Travel & Tourism economy is ranked number 51 in absolute size worldwide, of the 181 countries estimated by the WTTC.
International recognition and awards
In 2005, Ernst & Young conducted a comprehensive research study on Israeli tourism. The report, entitled "A New Market Strategy for Israeli Tourism" was published in November 2006. The researchers felt that increasing the number of international tourists by 2011 from 1.9 million to 4–5 million was a feasible goal. The report stated that Israel's most attractive feature for international markets was its religious culture and history and the great diversity it offers within a very small country. According to the researchers, Israel's different cultures and religions, its diverse landscapes, the contrasts between cities (Jerusalem, Tel Aviv), and combination of European, North African and Middle Eastern culture produced a "very high density of experience." The report recommended that Israel adopt appropriate marketing strategies to counter any perceived negative imagery associated with political developments.
In 2010, Israel won the title of "most outstanding stand" in all categories at the world's largest tourism fair, ITB, held in Berlin. The Israeli stand won the title of "best presenter" in the Near East and Middle East for the third time in a row.
Most visited sites
The top paid sites of 2012 were listed by Dun & Bradstreet Israel as opposed to the above sites which offer free entry.
|Listing||Site||2008 Visitors||2012 Visitors|
|1||Jerusalem Biblical Zoo||687,647||752,000|
|3||Zoological Center of Tel Aviv-Ramat Gan||581,800||713,000|
|8||Yamit 2000 in Holon||412,533||431,000|
|9||Coral World Underwater Observatory in Eilat||458,000||423,000|
Foreign visitor arrivals in 2011
Top 21 (2011)
- United States: 633,868
- Russia: 491,469
- France: 300,566
- United Kingdom: 221,095
- Germany: 220,692
- Italy: 151,252
- Ukraine: 137,342
- Poland: 95,958
- Canada: 76,636
- Netherlands: 63,053
- Brazil: 56,889
- Spain: 56,204
- Nigeria: 45,095
- Switzerland: 40,912
- Romania: 40,255
- India: 38,870
- Belgium: 37,039
- Austria: 35,166
- Australia: 34,203
- Argentina: 33,538
- South Korea: 32,718
- "Ministry: Record number of tourists visited Israel in 2012 ." Jerusalem Post. December 23, 2012. Retrieved on December 23, 2012.
- Interesting Facts about Israel
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- Tourism statistics
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- Globes, Israel Business Arena - News
- Bremner, Caroline (10 January 2011). "Euromonitor International's Top City Destination Ranking". Euromonitor International. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- Sarah Barnea, "A history of the mapping of the Jewish Cemetery on the Mount of Olives", in Eyal Meron (editor), Researches into the City of David and Early Jerusalem (Vol 5, 2010) (in Hebrew)
- The Necropolis from the Time of the Kingdom of Judah at Silwan, Jerusalem, David Ussishkin, The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 33, No. 2 (May, 1970), pp. 33-46,
- "Ancient Jerusalem's Funerary Customs and Tombs: Part Two, L. Y. Rahmani, The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Autumn, 1981), pp. 229-235.
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- Ein Karem under threat
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- National Geographic ranks Tel Aviv among World's Top Ten Beach Cities.
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- Bethlehem visitor numbers soar in 2008 says Israel, ENI News
- Qumran National Park
- Korman, Sharon. The right of conquest: the acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg. 265. ISBN 0198280076. "The continued occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights is recognised by many states as valid and consistent with the provisions of the UN Charter, on a self-defence basis. ...But the notion that Israel is entitled to claim any status other than that of belligerent occupant in the territory which it occupies, or to act beyond the strict bounds laid down by the Fourth Geneva Convention, has been universally rejected by the international community."
- UN Security Council Resolution 497
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- Welcoming the world's ills, Haaretz, Feb 8, 2008
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- Medical Tourism Israel
- Christian pilgrims boost Israeli tourism Christian pilgrims boost Israeli tourism
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- International Markets and Growth Potential
- Israel wins 1st place in Berlin tourism fair
- Sapir Peretz (21 March 2013). ""גן החיות התנכ"י: שיאן המבקרים בשנת 2012"" [Biblical Zoo: Top visited in 2012"]. Globes (in Hebrew). pp. 10–11.
^ Jerusalem is the capital under Israeli law. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset) are located there. The Palestinian Authority foresees East Jerusalem as the capital of its future state. The United Nations and most countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem is pending future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv and its suburbs or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as Mevaseret Zion (see CIA Factbook and PDF (319 KB)) See Positions on Jerusalem for more information.
- Stein, Rebecca L (2008). "SOUVENIRS OF CONQUEST: ISRAELI OCCUPATIONS AS TOURIST EVENTS". International Journal of Middle East Studies (Cambridge University Press) 40 (04): 647–669. doi:10.1017/S0020743808081531
- Hazbun, Waleed (2008). Beaches, ruins, resorts: the politics of tourism in the Arab world. U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5492-5
- Timothy, Dallen J (2001). Tourism and political boundaries. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-19696-3
- Efrat, Elisha (1988). Geography and Politics in Israel Since 1967 (1 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-3303-9
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