Tourism in Romania
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Tourism in Romania is focused on the country's natural landscapes and its history, and forms a major component of the economy of Romania. The number of tourists increased from 4.8 million in 2002 to 8.9 million in 2008, while tourism related revenues grew from $400 million in 2002 to $607 million in 2004. As such tourism is becoming an increasingly important source for Romania's gross domestic product (GDP). Domestic and international tourism in Romania attracted €880 million overall investments in 2005 and generated[when?] about 4% of the country's GDP, supporting 0.8 million jobs - the second largest component in the services sector after commerce. Two-thirds of all major trade fairs in Central Europe are held in Romania, each year; attracting 2 to 3 million business travelers, about 20% of whom are foreigners. The four most important international trade fairs take place in Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Iaşi and Timişoara.
- 1 Activities
- 2 Unique places
- 3 Festivals
- 4 Statistics
- 5 Romania for disabled travellers
- 6 Industrial and creative tourism
- 7 Gallery
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
- Camping and hiking in the Carpathian Mountains
- Skiing in the mountain resorts on the Prahova Valley: Sinaia, Bușteni, Predeal, Poiana Brașov, Azuga, Arieșeni
- Black Sea resorts: Mamaia, Costinești, Eforie, Vama Veche
- Medieval churches and monasteries of Moldavia and Bukovina
- Danube Delta, the best preserved delta of Europe
- Sighișoara town and medieval festival
- Medieval castles and fortified churches of Transylvania
- Folklore and traditions of Maramureș
- Rural tourism
- Spas and health resorts: Băile Herculane, Băile Felix, Sovata
- Cultural cities of Sibiu, Brașov, Iași, Târgu Mureș, Timișoara, Cluj-Napoca, Bucharest and Alba Iulia
- Iron Gates (Danube Gorge)
- Hațeg Island
- Mocăniţe: scenic narrow-gauge railways of Romania
- Berca Mud Volcanoes, in Buzău County
- Scărișoara Cave, in Apuseni Mountains
- The Fortress of Ponor Karst Complex, also in Apuseni Mountains
- The Bears cave,
- The Vârtop Cave,
- The Tăuz Karst Spring,
- The Living Fire ice cave,
- The Sighiștel Valley,
- Băița-Bihor Karst area,
- Merry Cemetery, in Săpânța, Maramureș County
- Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest
- Transfăgărășan road
- Turda Gorge (Cheile Turzii)
- Turda Salt Mine
- George Enescu Festival
- PLAI Festival, in Timisoara
- Garana Jazz Festival, in Poiana Lupului, Caras-Severin
- Freedom Jazz Festival, in Vama Veche
- Transilvania International Film Festival
- BalKaniK Festival, in Bucharest
- Peninsula / Félsziget Festival in Târgu Mureş - Romania's biggest music festival
- Sibiu Jazz Festival, in Sibiu
- Golden Stag Festival, in Brașov
- Stufstock rock music festival, in Vama Veche
- Callatis Festival, in Mangalia
Foreign visitor arrivals in 2010
Note: figures refer to arrivals at frontiers of visitors from abroad and include same day visitors (excursionists).
- Overall Total: 7,498,000
- Total Europe: 7,098,000
- Total European Union: 4,456,000
- Hungary: 1,735,000
- Bulgaria: 786,000
- Germany: 395,000
- Italy: 331,000
- Poland: 238,000
- Austria: 177,000
- France: 131,000
- Slovakia: 98,000
- United Kingdom: 92,000
- Czech Republic: 80,000
- Greece: 71,000
- Netherlands: 66,000
- Spain: 63,000
- Portugal: 47,000
- Belgium: 42,000
- Sweden: 24,000
- Slovenia: 23,000
- other E.U. countries: 57,000
Other European countries
- Total: 2,642,000
Other continents and countries
- Total Africa : 21,000
- Total Asia : 195,000
- Israel: 81,000
In 2006 it was reported that this industry added gross value of $8,074 million to the Romanian economy in 2005.
Romania for disabled travellers
Facilities for disabled travellers in Romania range from patchy to nonexistent. Anyone with mobility problems should go prepared and ideally have local contacts. Although it has made some slow strides towards disabled access since then, and new buildings need to be wheelchair-accessible, implementation has been very poor. In practice Romania remains by and large off-limits to disabled travellers.
Industrial and creative tourism
||This section is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states the Wikipedia editor's particular feelings about a topic, rather than the opinions of experts. (November 2014)|
Industrial tourism, as a niche of tourism in Romania and as a solution to the restructuring and disappearance of former large industrial sites (mining, metallurgy, heavy industry), takes on interest in the country still slowly, despite the country's join to the European Union in 2007. Even if presently the country is confronted with a long and difficult economic transition, it has a rich industrial and scientific history with many of the world's priorities and still has surviving authentic traditional crafts and rural communities. Limited to some geographic areas and not yet on a large scale, by the means of European funds and projects, a sustainable revival of the traditional sector is supported, which also implies creative tourism participatory activities.
Against this big potential, there are relatively few entities, the majority being state owned, that are organizing, providing or permitting public visits, a main cause of this still being the weak implication and support of many public authorities. Meanwhile, the tourism stakeholders pay a relatively weak attention to the hard core of this niche (industrial heritage, technique, science and living industry), and practically there aren't many package offers of this kind on the market, with some notable exceptions: ethnographic and wine tourism, also some rehabilitated industrial and forest narrow railways and steam engines still operating.
According, an industrial and creative tourism attractions web directory for Romania and some neighbouring countries, providing photos and short English descriptions of each objective, the main attractions open to the public are:
- the national and regional technical and ethnographic museums: the Dimitrie Leonida National Technical Museum and the Aviation Museum in Bucharest, the mining museums in Brad, Petrosani, Rosia Montana, a technical museum in Iasi, the tram museum in Timisoara, the Oil Museum in Ploiesti, the astronomic observatories in Bucharest and Bacau, the village museums from Bucharest, Pitesti, Sibiu, Cluj, Timisoara, Valcea, Suceava;
- the railway tourism on the recently rehabilitated narrow gauges from Brad, Abrud, Covasna, Moldovita, Agnita, Vaser, the Oravita - Anina mountain railway opened in 1864;
- the power plant museums from Cernavoda (nuclear), Iron Gates (hydro, on the Danube, 2200 MW, the biggest in European Union), Sadu (hydro, built in 1896), Sinaia (hydro, built in 1899), Grebla - Resita (hydro, built in 1904);
- factory tours: exception making some food (chocolate, soft drinks, yoghurt) factories which provide visits for school children, there are no important companies (car, manufacturing, porcelain, textile, high technology, etc.) to promote such tourist visits. However, some reference enterprises may accept visits at special requests (the Resita Works, metallurgy, heavy machinery, founded in 1771, having a very interesting museum too, The Ruschita Marble Exploitation). A remarkable visit program, started in October 2013, offers the Timisoreana brewery, a factory founded in 1718, with very valuable heritage;
- industrial heritage: even if valuable, a large majority of the monuments are still abandoned by their owners. However, a few exceptions could be mentioned;
- motorsports: despite the missing of an international standard infrastructure like raceways, there are national federations organizing events for many categories and racing schools offering participatory courses;
- the salt mines from: Turda, Praid, Cacica, Slanic Prahova, Ocnele Mari, Ocna Sibiului (salt lakes) are equally famous for their tourism interest (museums, underground entertainment parks) as well as therapeutic exploitation (respiratory diseases)
- traditional crafts: wood carving, weaving, pottery, glass, embroidery. Many craftsmen preserved the traditions in some village areas from Moldavia, Transylvania and Oltenia. The majority are only selling their products on local markets, but they begin to organize and a few open their workshops to the tourists too;
- wineries: some vineyards have incredible landscapes and the wines produced here have a well established and long tradition. Wine tourism provides presentations of the technologies and the storage caves, and is well developed in Romania. Famous big wineries: Murfatlar, Dragasani, Recas, Prahova Valley, Odobesti, Husi, Recas, Cricova (near Chisinau, in the Republic of Moldova, is huge, with about 80 kilometres of tunnels and caves)
Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iași
Roman Catholic Church, Cluj-Napoca
Brașov Old Council Building at night
Medieval Town Sighișoara
- UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Romania
- Castles in Romania
- Protected areas of Romania
- Transportation in Romania
- Aviation in Romania
- The Europa World Year Book 2007, 48th edition, volume II, published by Routledge, London 2007, page 3746
- Turismul,[dead link] Gandul.info
- INSSE Romania official figures (Romanian)
- "Romania for disabled travellers". enchantingromania.com. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- Gavrila, I.; Muntean, A. (2012). "Industrial Tourism for the Development Of Rosia Montana Area". International Journal of Energy and Environment, volume 6.
- Merciu, C. (May 2010). "Tourist Capitalization of Industrial Heritage in Petrosani". Geo Journal.
- Imbrescu, I. (2013). "Reviving Rural Industrial Heritage in Romania". Conference Spain.
- Hegedus, Marius (November 2014). "Industrial and Creative Tourism Attractions in Romania". VisitFactories.
- Tourism in the New Europe: The Challenges and Opportunities of EU Enlargement. pp. 256–265.
- "Dracula tourism in Romania Cultural identity and the state". Annals of Tourism Research. pp. 746–765.
- "Rural tourism and livelihood strategies in Romania". Journal of Rural Studies. pp. 152–162.
- OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2012. pp. 397–402
- The Report: Romania 2008. pp. 98–100.
- Geography of Travel and Tourism. pp. 286–287.
- Yahoo News article
- The Financial Times article
- International Medical Travel Journal article
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