|Type||Observation tower, Radio tower|
|Location||Blackpool, Lancashire, England, UK|
|Roof||158 m (518 ft)|
|Design and construction|
|Management||Blackpool Council, Merlin Entertainment Group|
|Architect||Maxwell and Tuke|
|Structural engineer||Heenan & Froude|
Blackpool Tower is a tourist attraction in Blackpool, Lancashire in England which was opened to the public on 14 May 1894. (grid reference SD 306 360). Inspired by the Eiffel Tower in Paris, it rises to 518 feet 9 inches (158.12 metres). The tower is a Grade I listed building.
The Blackpool Tower Company was founded by London based Standard Contract & Debenture Corporation in 1890, when it bought an Aquarium block on Central Promenade with the intention of building a replica Eiffel Tower on the site. John Bickerstaffe, a former Mayor of Blackpool, was asked to become Chairman of the new company and its shares went on sale in July 1891. The Standard Corporation kept 30,000 £1 shares for itself and offered £150,000 worth of shares to the public, although initially only two-thirds of these shares were taken up. This lack of interest forced the Tower Company to ask for further cash contributions from its existing shareholders, but the poor financial situation of the Standard Corporation, worsened by the falling share price, rendered it unable to pay. Bickerstaffe’s remedy for the potential collapse of the venture was to buy any shares available, until his original holding of £500 amounted to £20,000. He also released the Standard Corporation from their share commitments. When the Tower opened in 1894 its success justified the overall investment of nearly £300,000, and the Company made a £30,000 profit in 1896. 
Two Lancashire architects, James Maxwell and Charles Tuke, designed the Tower and oversaw the laying of its foundation stone, on 29 September 1891 with a time capsule buried beneath it. By the time the Tower finally opened on 14 May 1894, both men had died. Heenan & Froude of Worcester were appointed structural engineers, supplying and constructing both the main tower, the electric lighting and the steel front pieces for the aquariums. A new system of hydraulic riveting was used, based on the technology of Fielding & Platt of Gloucester.
The total cost for the design and construction of the tower and buildings was about £290,000. Five million bricks, 2,500 tonnes of iron and 93 tonnes of cast steel were used to construct the tower. Unlike the Eiffel Tower, Blackpool Tower is not free-standing. Its base is hidden by the building which houses Blackpool Tower Circus. The building occupies a total of 5,050 square metres (54,400 sq ft). At the summit of the tower there is a flagpole.
When the tower opened, 3,000 customers took the first rides to the top. Tourists paid sixpence for admission, sixpence more for a ride in the lifts to the top, and a further sixpence for the circus. The first members of the public to ascend the tower had been local journalists in September 1893 using constructors' ladders. In 1897 the top of the tower caught fire, and the platform was seen on fire from up to fifty miles away.
The tower was not painted properly during the first thirty years and became corroded, leading to discussions about demolishing it. However, it was decided to rebuild it instead, and between 1921 and 1924 all the steelwork in the structure was replaced and renewed.
On 22 December 1894 Norwegian ship Abana was sailing from Liverpool to Florida but was caught up in a storm, and mistook the recently-built Blackpool Tower for a lighthouse. Abana was first seen off North Pier, and later drifted to Little Bispham where she was wrecked, and can still be seen at low tide. The ship's bell still hangs in St Andrews Church in Cleveleys.
The top of the tower was painted silver in 1977 as part of Queen Elizabeth's Silver Jubilee celebrations. A giant model of King Kong was placed on the side of the tower in 1984. In 1985 escapologist Karl Bartoni and his bride were married suspended in a cage from the tower.
The lifts and winding gear were again replaced in 1992. The same year the tower complex was renamed Tower World and was opened by Diana, Princess of Wales. The tower is usually painted in dark red, except for its centenary year in 1994 when it was painted gold by abseiling painters. In 1998 a "Walk of Faith" glass floor panel was opened at the top of the tower. Made up of two sheets of laminated glass, it weighs half a tonne and is two inches thick. In October 2007 a laser beam installed on the tower for the duration of the annual Illuminations was criticised by astronomer Sir Patrick Moore, presenter of The Sky at Night television programme, who said, "Light pollution is a huge problem. I am not saying we should turn all the lights out, that is not practical, but there are some things which are very unnecessary. The Blackpool Tower light is certainly something I do not think we should be doing. I very much oppose it." The beam could be seen 30 miles (48 km) away; Moore called for it to be stopped. The Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Central Lancashire in Preston said the laser has added to a spiralling problem affecting astronomy.
The tower continued to be owned by the Bickerstaffe family until 1964, when the Blackpool Tower Company was sold to EMI. Since then it has been owned by Trust House Forte, First Leisure and Leisure Parcs Ltd, owned by Trevor Hemmings. In March 2010 it was announced that Blackpool Council had bought Blackpool Tower and the Merlin Entertainment Group would manage it and add various attractions including a new Dungeon attraction and a new observation deck called Blackpool Tower Eye will operate at the top of the tower. The company will also manage the Blackpool Louis Tussauds waxwork museum to be rebranded as Madame Tussauds.
Blackpool Tower in popular culture
- Blackpool Tower is referred to several times in the humorous monologues written by Marriott Edgar, as performed by Stanley Holloway and others: 
- In Three Ha'pence a Foot (1932), Sam Oglethwaite escapes the consequences of declining a bargain with Noah by standing on the top of Blackpool Tower, up to his neck in floodwater, finally exclaiming "The sky's took a turn since this morning: I think it'll brighten up yet."
- In The Lion and Albert (1932) and The Return of Albert (1934), Albert Ramsbottom is swallowed whole, then eventually disgorged, by a lion called "Wallace". The incident takes place in the Blackpool Tower Menagerie, which did inded have lions.
- Artists who have performed at the tower include Arthur Askey, Duke Ellington, Paderewski, Dame Clara Butt, Cleo Laine, Peter Dawson and the band Busted.
- Comedian Peter Kay performed his show on 10 and 11 April 2000 in the Circus Arena, later released as Live at the Top of the Tower on DVD.
- The film Forbidden (1949) features the tower in a climactic scene.
- The song "Up the 'pool" from Jethro Tull's 1972 album Living in the Past briefly mentions the tower. ("The iron tower smiles down upon the silver sea...")
- The film Funny Bones (1995) features the tower in several key scenes.
- In his imaginary wife's log, 'Mrs Fry's Diary', Stephen Fry is depicted convincing the naive Edna Fry that he has taken her on holiday to Paris, while they have actually travelled to Blackpool.
Blackpool is a popular seaside resort, and the beach-front tower is still a major attraction. It is lit during the annual Illuminations, when the town and seafront are decorated with colourful illuminated displays for six miles (10 km) along the promenade.
The Blackpool Tower Eye
The top of the tower is known as The Blackpool Tower Eye. It was previously known simply as the "Tower Top", until it reopened on 1 September 2011, having closed down the previous year for refurbishment, as part of the renovation of the entire Blackpool Tower complex, during which it was acquired by Merlin Entertainment.
Before the elevator, guests watch a 4-D film about Blackpool and the local area, they then go into the refurbished waiting area, where memorabilia and newspaper pages about the Blackpool Tower are on display, before being taken to the Eye itself.
There are four levels in the Blackpool Tower Eye:
- The enclosed area includes the main "Eye" attraction, which consists of a glass floor and wall along the west side of the Tower, providing panoramic views of Blackpool seafront.
- The second & third levels are outdoors, and the third level is the highest level accessible to the general public.
- The crow's nest is only accessible to employees.
The original ballroom, the Tower Pavilion opened in August 1894. It was smaller than the present ballroom and occupied the front of the tower complex. The Tower Ballroom was built between 1897 and 1898 to the designs of Frank Matcham who also designed Blackpool Grand Theatre and it opened in 1899. It was commissioned by the Tower company in response to the opening of the Empress Ballroom in the Winter Gardens. The ballroom floor is 120 ft (37 m) x 120 ft and is made up of 30,602 blocks of mahogany, oak and walnut. Above the stage is the inscription, "Bid me discourse, I will enchant thine ear" from the poem Venus and Adonis by William Shakespeare. Each crystal chandelier in the ballroom can be lowered to the floor to be cleaned which takes over a week.
From 1930 until his retirement in 1970 the resident organist was Reginald Dixon, known affectionately as "Mr. Blackpool". The first Wurlitzer organ was installed in 1929, but it was replaced in 1935 by one designed by Reginald Dixon. Ernest Broadbent took over as resident organist in 1970 until he retired due to ill health in 1977. The current resident organist is Phil Kelsall who has been playing the organ at the Tower since 1975 when he started in the circus. Kelsall became resident in the ballroom in 1977.
The ballroom was damaged by fire in December 1956, and the dance floor was destroyed along with the restaurant underneath the ballroom. Restoration took two years and cost £500,000, with many of the former designers and builders coming out of retirement to assist, the restaurant then became the Tower Lounge.
The BBC series Come Dancing was televised from the Tower Ballroom for many years and it has also hosted shows from Strictly Come Dancing, including the grand finals of the second and ninth series, on 11 December 2004, and 17 December 2011 respectively.
Dancing was not originally allowed on Sundays; instead, sacred music was played. The ballroom also originally had very strict rules including:
- "Gentlemen may not dance unless with a Lady" and
- "Disorderly conduct means immediate expulsion".
The ballroom has had a number of resident dance bands including Bertini and his band, and Charlie Barlow. Other smaller dance bands have also appeared as residents including the Eric Delaney Band and the Mike James Band.
Under the management of Leisure Parcs, and the direction of bandleader Greg Francis, the Blackpool Tower Big Band was reformed in 2001 after an absence of 25 years. The New Squadronaires, The Memphis Belle Swing Orchestra and The Glenn Miller Tribute Orchestra also performed. Themed nights were also introduced along with the sixteen piece orchestra, with resident singers, including Robert Young (born Robert Parkes Stockport 1953), Tony Benedict, Lynn Kennedy, and Mark Porter. In 2005 the Empress Orchestra became resident in the ballroom alongside the specially created and smaller Empress Dance Band.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2011)|
The Tower Circus is positioned at the base of the tower, between its four legs. The circus first opened to the public on 14 May 1894 and has not missed a season since.
The present interior was designed by Frank Matcham and was completed in 1900.
The circus ring can be lowered into a pool of water and holds 42,000 US gallons (160,000 l; 35,000 imp gal) at a depth of up to 4 ft 6 inches, which allows for Grand Finales with Dancing Fountains. The Tower Circus is one of four left in the world that can do this.
During more than a century of entertainment, the world's greatest circus stars have paraded across its ring. The clown Charlie Cairoli appeared at the tower for 39 years. Britain's best-known ringmaster Norman Barrett worked the ring for 25 years.
Animals appeared in the circus until 1990.
It was planned to close the famous circus at the end of the 1990 season and replace it with an animatronic attraction. Public opinion and the fact the animatronics were not ready meant that the circus continued.
Today, the circus is produced and directed by Hungarian Laci Endresz. A live band (sometimes accompanied by Mooky the Clown) provides all the music for the show, often dynamically syncing with the performers' movements. The circus band play a variety of different songs, usually Latin for the acts. In the winter the circus stages a pantomime instead of the regular show.
Menagerie and Aquarium
Dr. Cocker's Aquarium, Aviary and Menagerie had existed on the site since 1873. It was kept open to earn revenue while the tower building went up around it, and then became one of the tower's major attractions. The aquarium was modelled on the limestone caverns in Derbyshire. It housed 57 different species of fresh water and salt water fish and the largest tank held 32,000 litres (7,000 imp gal; 8,500 US gal) of salt water. The menagerie and aviary were regarded as one of the finest collections in the country and included lions, tigers, and polar bears.
The menagerie continued until 1973, when it was closed following the opening of Blackpool Zoo near Stanley Park. The aquarium closed in 2010 and was remodelled to make way for a new "Dungeons" attraction. This was done by the Merlin Group, which took over the operation of the Tower at the end of the 2010 season on behalf of new owners Blackpool Council.
Other attractions within the tower complex include
The Hornpipe Galley was removed at the end of 2007 and reopened as Restaurant 1894, but has since closed to make way for the new Blackpool Eye 4D Cinema Experience (due September 2011).
Jungle Jim's Towering Adventureland
Jungle Jims is a large indoor children's adventure playground situated within the tower. On 9 October 2007 it was revealed that Leisure Parcs had submitted plans for a new play area, stage and food court to replace Jungle Jims.
The new £3M play area, is called Jungle Jim's Towering Adventureland and is now open. It is an interactive play scheme covering over 2,500 square metres (27,000 sq ft). Based on a lost city, children can tackle a series of adventures in search of hidden treasure.
Charlie Cairoli Exhibition
An exhibition looking back at the life of the famous clown Charlie Cairoli, and his legacy. closed as of 2011 when Merlin took over
Tower Heritage Trail
A trail that takes visitors on a journey looking at the Tower's unique past. Closed as of Sept 2011 when Merlin took over.
Tower Lounge Bar
The Tower Lounge Bar is a large pub with a capacity of 1,700, but staff usually limit occupancy to 1,400 for a more relaxed atmosphere.
Painting the tower structure takes seven years to complete, and the workers who maintain the structure are known as "Stick Men". There are 563 steps from the roof of the tower building to the top of the tower which the maintenance teams use for the structure's upkeep. If the wind speed exceeds 72 kilometres per hour (45 mph; 39 kn) the top of the tower is closed as a safety precaution. There are 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) of cables to feed the 10,000 light bulbs which are used to illuminate the tower. In April 2002 the Tower maintenance team was featured in the BBC One programme, Britain’s Toughest Jobs.
- List of towers
- Reginald Dixon
- Horace Finch
- Theatre organ
- Wade Dooley, local rugby union player capped 55 times for England and nicknamed "Blackpool Tower"
- Wurlitzers in the United Kingdom
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Blackpool Tower|
- Blackpool Tower and Circus official website
- Tower Lounge website
- Computer-generated virtual panorama from the top of the Tower
- The Merlin Entertainments Group
- History of Blackpool Tower at pastscape.org
- Blackpool Tower at Structurae